2 The Marvelous Nuclear Power Instalasi tenaga nuklir adalah instalasi yang dijalankan berdasarkan konsep reaksi fisi :Yaitu proses pemecahan suatu inti menjadi inti yang lebih kecil, yang biasanya dilakukan dengan cara penembakan terhadap target inti dengan neutron .Produk yang dihasilkan dari reaksi inti adalah inti dengan massa yang lebih rendah.
3 Reaksi fisi antara inti uranium (235 U ) dengan neutron
4 Hukum Kekekalan massa dan energi REAKSI FISIJika jumlah massa sebelum reaksi sama dengan massa sesudah reaksi, dari mana asal energi ?Hukum Kekekalan massa dan energi
5 REAKSI FISI Massa atom U-235 adalah 235.043924 amu. Massa neutron amuTotal reaktan massanya adalah amuMassa atom Kr-92 adalah amu.Massa atom Ba-141 adalah amu.Massa 3 inti neutron adalah amuTotal produk adalah amuMassa yang hilang adalah amu yang dirubah menjadi energi
7 Massa dapat dirubah menjadi energi berdasarkan persamaan Einstein : E = mc2E = Energi Joule = 1 kg m2/s2m = massac = kecepatan cahayac2 = (3.0 x 108 m/s)2 = 9.0 x 1016 m2/s2m = 1 g E = (10-3)(9.0 x 1016) kg m2/s2E = 9.0 x 1013 kg m2/s2 = 9.0 x 1013 JouleSmall changes in mass make for HUGE changes in energy.
8 Energi yang dihasilkan oleh massa 1 gram uranium E = 9.0 x 1013 kg m2/s2 = 9.0 x 1010 kJouleEnergi ini setara dengan energi yang dilepaskan oleh 22 metrik kilo ton dari bom TNTJenis Bahan BakarKapasitas Panas ( kJ /g)Antracite (coal)30.5Bituminous (coal)30.7Sub-bituminous (coal)24.0Lignite (brown coal)16,2Kayu14.1Hitung berapa jumlah bahan bakar coal atau kayu yang dibutukan untukMenghasilkan sejumlah energi yang setara dengan energi yang dihasilkanoleh 1 gram uranium ?
9 PUSAT LISTRIK TENAGA NUKLIR (PLTN) A typical Light-Water-Moderated and -Cooled Nuclear Power Plant with Water Reactor.
10 SISTIM DALAM PUSAT LISTRIK TENAGA NUKLIR Sistim ReaktorSistim Turbine dan Generator ListrikSistim Pendingin AirProses Pembangkit Listrik dlm Reaktor NuklirSuperheated water turns into steamSteam passed through turbinePhysical motion of the turbine is converted intoelectrical energy
11 Sistim Reaktor dlm Pusat Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (ii)Ada 2 sistim : (i) sistim reaksi fisi atau reaksi nuklir(ii) sistim pembentukan superheat steam(iii) sistim control reaktor
12 Sistim Turbin dan Pendingin di Pusat Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (ii)(i) sistim turbin dan (ii) sistim pendingin
13 Sistim Pendingin di Pusat Listrik Tenaga Nuklir Superheated water setelah dari turbin masuk ke pendingin(condenser) .Pendinginan dengan menggunakan pendingin air( Pipes with the hot water are circulated through acontainer filled with cold water , heat is exchanged.Hot water is either discharged into river, ocean… orvented into the atmosphere as steam )
14 Sistim Reaktor di Pusat Listrik Tenaga Nuklir Ada 3 komponen : (i) bahan bakar nuklir,(ii) sumber neutron(iii) sistim pengontrol reaksi nulear
15 Bahan bakar Nuklir(left) Nuclear fuel pellets that are ready for fuel assembly completion.(right) A typical nuclear fuel pellet.
16 Bahan bakar NuklirMade from uranium coreEnriched to 3% of radioactive isotope U-235.Made into pellets, size of pencil, energyequivalent to 1 ton of coal.Pellets are packed into large pipes-fuel rods.Rods are grouped together into fuelassemblies, these assemblies are placed intoreactor core
17 Kontrol Reaksi Nuklir Control rods placed between rods. Control rods moved in and out of the assemblies,absorbing neutrons which trigger the chain reaction.Water circulates through the assemblies, removingthe heat, keeping the rods from melting.
18 Light water reactors 85% of world’s nuclear generated electricity (100% in US).High inefficient in terms of energy conversion(up to 83% lost as waste heat).There are three varieties of light water reactors :The pressurized water reactor (PWR),The boiling water reactor (BWR), andThe supercritical water reactor (SCWR).
19 Spent Fuel rods After about 3-4 years of use, the Fuel rods become spent-level of fission drops beneath a certain level.Rods are taken out of reactor stored nearby in water filledpools or dry casks.Stored until they cool down enough to be shipped forpermanent storage or to be recycled.These storage facilities are next to the reactor plants,vulnerable to terrorist attack or accidents
20 After 3 or 4 Years in a Reactor, Spent Fuel Rods Are Removed and Stored in Water
21 Spent Fuel Reprocessing The spent fuel rods are sent to a facility which separates plutonium from spent fuel for further use as a new generation of fuel or as material used to make atomic weapons.First the fuel is chopped up, by remote control, behind heavy lead shielding.These chopped-up pieces are then dissolved in boiling nitric acid, releasing radioactive gases in the process.The plutonium is separated from the acid solution by chemical means, leaving large quantities of high-level radioactive liquid waste and sludge behind.After it has cooled down for several years, this liquid waste will have to be solidified for ultimate disposal, while the separated plutonium is fabricated into nuclear fuel or nuclear weapons.
22 Nuclear Fuel Cycle Decommissioning of reactor Fuel assemblies Reactor Enrichment of UF6ReactorFuel fabrication(conversion of enriched UF6 to UO to UO2 and fabrication of fuel assemblies)Temporary storage of spent fuel assemblies underwater or in dry casksConversion of U3O8to UF6Spent fuel reprocessingLow-level radiation with long half-lifeGeologic disposal of moderate- and high-level radioactive wastesOpen fuel cycle todayRecycling of nuclear fuel
23 Worst Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Accident in the U.S. Three Mile IslandMarch 29, 1979.Near Harrisburg, PA, U.S.Nuclear reactor lost its coolant.Led to a partial uncovering and melting of theradioactive core.Unknown amounts of radioactivity escaped.People fled the area.Increased public concerns for safetLed to improved safety regulations in the U.S.
24 Worst Nuclear Power Plant Accident in the World ChernobylApril 26, 1986.In Chernobyl, Ukraine.Series of explosions caused the roof of a reactor building to blow off.Partial meltdown and fire for 10 days.Huge radioactive cloud spread over many countries andeventually the world.350,000 people left their homes.Effects on human health, water supply, and agriculture.
25 Remains of a Nuclear Reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.
26 Aerial view of the damaged core on May 3, 1986 Aerial view of the damaged core on May 3, Roof of the turbine hall is damaged (image center). Roof of the adjacent reactor 3 (image lower left) shows minor fire damage.
27 The nuclear reactor after the disaster. Reactor 4 (center) The nuclear reactor after the disaster. Reactor 4 (center). Turbine building (lower left). Reactor 3 (center right).
28 The abandoned city of Pripyat with Chernobyl plant in the distance
29 HUMAN CASUALTIES56 people lost their lives as direct result of radiation poisoning or fireThyroid cancer From drinking Milk thousand
30 Recent Nuclear Power Plant Accident in The World FukushimaMarch 11, 2011.In Fukushima, Japan.A series of ongoing equipment failures and releases ofradioactive materials at the Fukushima I Nuclear PowerPlant, following the 9.0 magnitude Tohoku earthquakeand tsunami on 11 March Partial meltdown andfire for 10 days.Experts consider it to be the second largest nuclearaccident after the Chernobyl disaster, but more complexas multiple reactors are involved.
31 Recent Nuclear Power Plant Accident in The World Unit 1 of Fukushima Reactors before the explosion. The join can be seen between the lower concrete building and upper lighter cladding which was blown away in the explosion. The trees and lamp posts indicate its size.
32 Satellite image on 16 March of the four damaged reactor buildings.
33 Reactor unit 3 (right) and unit 4 (left) on 16 March
35 Fukushima I Power Plant; Series of destruction.
36 Keuntungan dan Kerugian Energi Nuklir Dampak lingkungannya rendahResiko atas terjadinya kecelakaan relatif rendahKERUGIANBiaya tinggiEffisiensi biaya bersihnya adalah rendahAdanya limbah radioaktif dengan umur yang lamaMudah untuk disabotase dan resikonya tinggiSumber yang potensial untuk penyebaran senjatanuklir
37 Conventional Nuclear Fuel Cycle DisadvantagesAmple supply of uraniumLow net energy yieldLow air pollutionLow CO2 emissionsMuch lower land disruption from surface miningModerate land useHigh cost (even with huge subsidies)Large fuel supplyAdvantagesLow environmental impact (without accidents)Emits 1/6 as much CO2 as coalModerate land disruption and water pollution (without accidents)Moderate land useLow risk of accidents because of multiple safety systems (except for Chernobyl-type reactors)
38 Coal Energy vs Nuclear Energy High land useCoalAmple supplyHigh net energy yieldVery high air pollutionHigh CO2 emissionsHigh land disruption from surface miningLow cost(with huge subsidies)NuclearAmple supply of uraniumLow net energy yieldLow air pollutionLow CO2 emissionsMuch lower land disruption from surface miningModerate land useHigh cost(even with huge subsidies)
39 Nuclear Power Plants Are Vulnerable to Terrorists Acts Explosions or meltdowns possible at the powerplants.Storage pools and casks are more vulnerable toattack.60 countries have or have the ability to buildnuclear weapons.
40 Dealing with Radioactive Wastes Produced by Nuclear Power Is a Difficult Problem High-level radioactive wastesMust be stored safely for 10,000–240,000 years.Where to store it?Deep burial: safest and cheapest option.Transportation concerns.Would any method of burial last long enough?There is still no facility: NIMBY scenario.Can the harmful isotopes be changed into harmless isotopes? (working on it, $$$).
41 Nuclear power advocates. 2003 : study by MIT researchers. Can Nuclear Power Lessen Dependence on Imported Oil, Reduce Global Warming?Nuclear power plants: no CO2 emission.Nuclear fuel cycle: emits CO2.Opposing views on nuclear power and global warming:Nuclear power advocates.2003 : study by MIT researchers.2007: Oxford Research Group.
42 Experts Disagree about the Future of Nuclear Power Proponents of nuclear power:Fund more research and development.Pilot-plant testing of potentially cheaper and safer reactors.Test breeder fission and nuclear fusion.Opponents of nuclear power:Fund rapid development of energy efficient and renewable energy resources.
43 Will Nuclear FUSION Save Us? “ Is the power of the future and always will be”.Still in the laboratory phase after 50 years of research and $34 billion dollars.2006 : U.S., China, Russia, Japan, South Korea, and European Union;Will build a large-scale experimental nuclear fusion reactor by 2040.
44 What Do We Do with Worn-Out Nuclear Power Plants?Decommission or retire the power plant.Some options:Dismantle the plant and safely store the radioactivematerials.Enclose the plant behind a physical barrier with full-timesecurity until a storage facility has been built.Enclose the plant in a tomb and monitor this for thousandsof years.
45 What is going on to The Nuclear Power Plant Slowest-growing energy source and expected to decline more. Why?Economics.Poor management.Low net yield of energy of the nuclear fuel cycle.Safety concerns.Need for greater government subsidies.Concerns of transporting uranium.
46 SUMBER ENERGI MASA DEPAN APAKAH PUSAT LISTRIKTENAGA NUKLIRADALAHSUMBER ENERGI MASA DEPANATAUSUMBER ENERGIDUNIA YANG LESTARI ?
50 Questions to be answered today What are the steps to using nuclear fission to generate electricity ?Advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear fission as a power source?Why are Japan’s reactors in trouble?Compare Chernobyl to Japan’s current situation!