Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

DISKRIMINASI PASAR TENAGA KERJA Labor Economics Series.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "DISKRIMINASI PASAR TENAGA KERJA Labor Economics Series."— Transcript presentasi:

1 DISKRIMINASI PASAR TENAGA KERJA Labor Economics Series

2 Tokoh Pejuang Wanita Indonesia 2 Raden Adjeng Kartini 21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904

3 Pemikiran Raden Adjeng Kartini  Dunia wanita hanya sebatas tembok rumah.  Tidak bebas mendapatkan akses pendidikan.  Dipingit dan dinikahkan dengan pria yang tidak dikenal. 3 Adanya keinginan untuk memperbaiki kondisi kaum wanita yang disebabkan kungkungan adat, antara lain :

4 Fakta di Indonesia 4

5 Penduduk yang Bekerja (Februari 2012) 5 Sumber :

6 Penduduk yang Bekerja (Februari 2012) Jenis Pekerjaan Utama JENIS KELAMIN Jumlah PriaWanita Tenaga Profesional Kepemimpinan Tata Usaha TU Penjualan TU Jasa TU Pertanian Produksi Lainnya Jumlah Sumber :

7 Rata-rata Upah (2006) 7

8 SEKTOR LAPANGAN PEKERJAANPRIAWANITA 1 Pertanian, Kehutanan, Perburuan, Perikanan (Agriculture,Forestry,Hunting,Fishery) Pertambangan, Penggalian (Mining and Quarrying) Industri Pengolahan (Manufacturing Industries) Listrik, gas dan air (Electricity, Gaz and Water) Bangunan (Construction) Perdagangan Besar, Rumah Makan & Hotel (Wholesale Trade,Restaurant & Hotel) Angkutan, Pergudangan dan Komunikasi (Transportation,Storage & Communication) Keuangan, Asuransi,Jasa Perusahaan (Financing,Insurance,Business Services) Jasa Kemasyarakatan (Public Services) Rata-rata

9 Penduduk yang Bekerja Berdasarkan Jam Kerja (Februari 2012) 9

10 Konsep Diskriminasi 10

11 Konsep Diskriminasi 11 Differences in EARNINGS and EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES among equally skilled workers employed in the same job simply because of the worker’s race, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, or other seemingly irrelevant characteristics. George Borjas :

12 Konsep Diskriminasi 12 Discrimination means treating people differently and less favourably because of characteristics that are not related to their merit or the requirements of the job. These include race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction and social origin.

13 The Discrimination Coefficient 13

14 The Discrimination Coefficient 14 The Economics of Discrimination (1957) Lauched for the first time by Gary S. Becker

15 The Discrimination Coefficient  Basic Concept : Taste Discrimination  Assumption  Two types of workers :  White workers : wage  wWwW  Black workers : wage  wBwB 15

16 The Discrimination Coefficient  If the employer is prejudiced againts black, employer gets disutility from hiring black workers.  Disutility : employer will act as if costs for black worker wB wB (1 + d), where d is positive number and is called : 16 The Discrimination Coefficient

17 The Discrimination Coefficient  Suppose that wB wB = $10, and that d =0,5 ; the employer will then act as if hiring a black worker costs $ 15  The greater the prejudiced, the greater is the disutility from hiring black workers, and the greater is the discrimination coefficient d.d. 17

18 The Discrimination Coefficient  If these black employers prefer to hire black workers, they will act as if hiring a black worker is cheaper than it actually is. 18 Nepotism Coefficient  w B (1 – n )

19 Labor Market Discrimination Analysis 19

20 1. Employer Discrimination 20

21 Skill and Labor Market Outcomes (2001) WHITEBLACKHISPANIC MaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale Highschool Graduate or more (Percent) Bachelor’s degree or more (Percent) Labor Force Participation Rate (Percent) Unemployment Rate (Percent) Annual Earnings (in $1,000) Annual Earnings (Full Time)

22 Fact : White Wage > Black Wage 22

23 1. Employer Discrimination  Assumption : White Workers and Black Workers are Perfect Subtitutes in Production.  Firms’s output depends on the total number of workers hired, regardless of their race  have the same Marginal Product of Labor ( MP E ) 23

24 Employer Discrimination 24 Production function: q = f ( EW EW + EB EB ) q  firm’s output EWEW  number of white workers hired EBEB  number of black workers hired

25 Employment in a non Discriminatory Firm 25

26 Employment in a non Discriminatory Firm  Both groups of workers have the same Value of Marginal Product, a non discriminatory firms will hire whichever group is Cheaper  Suppose that w W > w B, a firms that doesn’t discriminate will hire black workers up to the point where wB wB = VMP E  26

27 The Employment Decision of a Firm That Does Not Discriminate 27 Dollar Employment Black workers wage is less than white wage How many worker will be hired..?? ? VMP E w B = VMP E

28 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm 28

29 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm  The employer act as if black wage is not wB wB, but instead equal to wB wB (1 + d). Where d is discrimination coefficient.  The employer’s hiring decision based on a comparison w W and wB wB (1 + d)  Hire only blacks if wB wB (1 + d) < wWwW  Hire only white if wB wB (1 + d) > wWwW 29

30 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm  As long as black and white workers are perfect subtitutes, firms have a segregated workforce.  Employer’s who have little prejudice and hence have small discrimination coefficient, will hire only BLACKS (called “Black Firm”).  Employer’s who are very prejudice and have very large discrimination coefficient, will hire only WHITES (called “White Firm”). 30

31 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm  The white firm hires workers up to the point where : wW wW = VMP E  Assumption : w W > WBWB  The white firm is paying an excessively high price for its workers and hires relatively few workers ( ) 31 WHITE FIRM

32 The Employment Decision of a Prejudiced Firm 32 Dollar Employment VMP E White Firm

33 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm  Non discriminatory firms : w B = VMP E   If discrimination coefficient d 0 :  Price of Black Labor  w B ( 1 + d 0 )  Amount of Labor hired : w B ( 1 + d 0 ) = VMP E 33 BLACK FIRM

34 Employment in a Discriminatory Firm 34 BLACK FIRM The number of black workers hired, therefore, is smaller for firms that have larger discrimination coefficient.

35 The Employment Decision of a Prejudiced Firm 35 Dollar Employment VMP E Black Firm Discrimination Coefficient

36 Discrimination and Profits 36

37 Discrimination and Profits Firms that discriminate lose on two counts :  The prejudiced employer could have hired the same number of black worker at lower wage. Because black and white workers are perfect subtitutes.  Discriminatory black firms are hiring too few workers ( or )  they are giving up profits in order to minimize contact with black workers. 37

38 Profit and Discrimination Coefficient 38 Dollar Discrimination Coefficient Black Firm  max ww dwdw 0 White Firm Max Profit

39 Discrimination and Profits The Most Profitable Firm  Zero Discrimination 39

40 2. Employee Discrimination 40

41 Employee Discrimination  Diskriminasi dilakukan oleh “Fellow Worker”  Misal : White worker yang bekerja pada Black Firm dengan upah w W akan merasa mendapat upah w W (1- d).  Tidak berpengaruh terhadap “Profitability of Firms” karena white worker dan black worker adalah perfect subtitutes sehingga firm membayar jumlah upah yang sama. 41

42 3. Customer Discrimination 42

43 Customer Discrimination  Dikemukakan oleh Harry J. Holzer dan Keith R. Ihlanfeldt (1998)  research di Atlanta, Boston, Detroit dan Los Angeles.  Keputusan membeli tidak ditentukan oleh Actual Price ( p ) tapi oleh The Utility-Adjusted Price  p (1 + d).  Employer dapat mengatur tenaga penjualan sesuai kondisi. 43

44 Customer Discrimination TYPE FIRM More than 50 % Of the firm’s customers are Black More than 75 % Of the firm’s customers are White PERBEDAAN Customer & worker bertemu 58,0 %9,0 %49,0 % Customer & worker tidak bertemu 46,6 %12,2 %34,4 % Perbedaan --14,6 % 44 Relation between customer discrimination and percent of newly hired worked who are Black

45 Customer Discrimination and NBA 45 Lawrence Kahn and Peter Sherer 1998) : A study of attenance records indicates that replacing a black player with an eqqually talented white player bring in about 9,000 additional fans per year. At $50 a head (a very conservative estimate of ticket prices and concession revenues), the racial switch would increase annual team revenues by roughly $450,000

46 Measuring Discrimination 46

47 Measuring Discrimination 47 Diskriminasi : selisih average wage, yaitu : Asumsi : Tenaga kerja terdiri dari Male, dengan average wage Female, dengan average wage

48 Measuring Discrimination 48 Pengembangan model : Schooling mempengaruhi pendapatan Earning Function : Male: Female: menyatakan pendapatan pria meningkat bila mendapatkan tambahan 1 tahun pendidikan.

49 Measuring Discrimination 49 Model Regresi :

50 Measuring The Impact of Discrimination on the Wage 50 Dollars Schooling Women’s Earning Function Men’s Earning Function Women’s Schooling Women’s Earning Men’s Schooling Men’s Earning Measure Discrimination : Woman’s Earning Men’s Earning

51 Global Gender Gap

52 Global Gender Gap 2012 : Indonesia - Rank 52

53 Global Gender Gap 2012 : Indonesia - Score 53

54 Global Gender Gap Index 2012

55 Global Gender Gap

56 Global Gender Gap

57 Global Gender Gap 2012 : Indonesia 57

58 Terima kasih… 58


Download ppt "DISKRIMINASI PASAR TENAGA KERJA Labor Economics Series."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google