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1 Beberapa Alasan Investasi TI Adanya kebutuhan untuk mempertahankan dan meningkatkan posisi kompetitif karena siklus hidup produk yang semakin singkat.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Beberapa Alasan Investasi TI Adanya kebutuhan untuk mempertahankan dan meningkatkan posisi kompetitif karena siklus hidup produk yang semakin singkat."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 1 Beberapa Alasan Investasi TI Adanya kebutuhan untuk mempertahankan dan meningkatkan posisi kompetitif karena siklus hidup produk yang semakin singkat sehingga memerlukan sistem Inf. yg lbh baru Adanya kebutuhan untuk mempertahankan dan meningkatkan posisi kompetitif karena siklus hidup produk yang semakin singkat sehingga memerlukan sistem Inf. yg lbh baru Mengurangi biaya Mengurangi biaya Meningkatkan fleksibilitas dan tanggapan. Meningkatkan fleksibilitas dan tanggapan. Pertumbuhan produktivitas. Pertumbuhan produktivitas. Berkembang luasnya teknologi internet dan penggunaannya di dunia bisnis dan masyarakat. Berkembang luasnya teknologi internet dan penggunaannya di dunia bisnis dan masyarakat. Konsumen yang semakin menjadi pengendali pertumbuhan ekonomi. Konsumen yang semakin menjadi pengendali pertumbuhan ekonomi. Contoh Bank yang berlomba-lomba untuk memperluas jaringan ATM untuk meningkatkan layanan kepada nasabah mengingat persaingan antarbank yang sangat ketat. Pengampu: Taufik Hidayat,S.Kom,MMSI, Lektor Kepala

3 2 Departemen IT menyediakan dukungan teknikal, yang terdiri dari 6 fungsi utama: Departemen IT menyediakan dukungan teknikal, yang terdiri dari 6 fungsi utama: Struktur Departemen TI (cont)

4 3 Pembangunan Aplikasi Pembangunan Aplikasi – Menangani desain, pembangunan dan implementasi sistem, Dukungan Sistem Dukungan Sistem – Sediakan dukungan hardware & software untuk sistem komputer perusahaan, sistem pemrosesan transaksi dan infrastruktur TI lainnya. Dukungan Pengguna Dukungan Pengguna – Sediakan pengguna dengan informasi teknikal, pelatihan, dan dukungan produktiviti Struktur Departemen TI (cont)

5 4 Administrasi Database Administrasi Database – Meliputi desain, manajemen, keamanan, backup dan akses data terhadap database Administrasi Jaringan Administrasi Jaringan – Termasuk pemeliharaan, dukungan dan keamanan hardware dan software jaringan. Dukungan Web Dukungan Web – Meliputi desain & pembuatan halaman web, mengurus hardware dan software dan menghubungkan aplikasi berasaskan web kepada sistem informasi perusahaan yang sudah ada. Struktur Departemen TI (cont)

6 5 Struktur Organisasi Departemen TI CEO (Chief Executive Officer) bertanggung jawab terhadap kinerja perusahaannya, termasuk dalam hal implementasi teknologi informasi. bertanggung jawab terhadap kinerja perusahaannya, termasuk dalam hal implementasi teknologi informasi.

7 6 Struktur Organisasi Dep TI (cont) CIO (Chief Information Officer) bertanggung jawab terhadap proses perencanaan dan pengembangan sistem dan teknologi informasi di perusahaan bertanggung jawab terhadap proses perencanaan dan pengembangan sistem dan teknologi informasi di perusahaan Tugas utama yang bersangkutan ini adalah untuk menjamin lancarnya implementasi teknologi informasi (TI), sehingga dapat memberikan kontribusi signifikan bagi operasional dan perkembangan bisnis sehari-hari. Tugas utama yang bersangkutan ini adalah untuk menjamin lancarnya implementasi teknologi informasi (TI), sehingga dapat memberikan kontribusi signifikan bagi operasional dan perkembangan bisnis sehari-hari.

8 7 THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE The system development life cycle (SDLC) is an application of the systems approach methodology to the development of an information system The system development life cycle (SDLC) is an application of the systems approach methodology to the development of an information system

9 THE SYSTEMS APPROACH John Dewey identified three series of judgments involved in adequately resolving a controversy 1. Recognize the controversy 2. Weigh alternative claims 3. Form a judgment During the late 1960s/early 1970s, interest in systematic problem solving strengthened Management scientists and information specialists produced a recommended framework that became known as the systems approach — a series of problem- solving steps that ensure the problem is first understood, alternative solutions are considered, and the selected solution works (Figure 7.1)

10 Phase I: Preparation Effort Step 1.View the firm as a system Step 2.Recognize the environmental system Step 3.Identify the firm’s subsystems Phase II: Definition Effort Step 4.Proceed from a system to a subsystem level Step 5.Analyze system parts in a certain sequence Phase III: Solution Effort Step 6.Identify the alternative solutions Step 7.Evaluate the alternative solutions Step 8. Select the best solution Step 9.Implement the solution Step 10. Follow up to ensure that the solution is effective Phases and Steps of the Systems Approach Decisions are made at each step of the definition and solution phases 6-9

11 The Systems Approach Requires Decision Making DefinitionEffort SolutionEffort PHASESTEPDECISION 4. Proceed from a system to a subsystem level. 5. Analyze system parts in a certain sequence. 6. Identify alternative solutions. 7. Evaluate the alternative solutions. 8. Select the best solution. 9. Implement the solution. 10. Follow up to ensure that the solution is effective. Where is the problem? Do new data need to be gathered, or do data already exist? How will data be gathered? What is causing the problem? How many alternatives should be identified? Are these alternatives feasible? Which criteria should be used? How does each alternative measure up to each criterion? Do all criterion have equal weight? Is there enough information to make a selection? Which alternative measures up best to the criteria? When should this solution be implemented? How should the solution be implemented? Who should perform the evaluation? How well is the solution meeting the objectives? 6-10

12 Steps towards a Solution 1. Identify Alternative Solutions 2. Evaluate the Alternative Solutions 3. Selecting the Best Solution Involves: Analysis Judgment Bargaining 4. Implement the Solution 5. Follow Up to Ensure That the Solution Is Effective

13 An Integrative Model of the Systems Approach Solution Effort 6. Identify alternative solutions 7. Evaluate the alternative solutions 8. Select the best solution 9. Implement the solution 10. Follow-up to ensure solution is effective Definition Effort 4. Proceed from a system to a subsystem level 5. Analyze system parts in a certain sequence 6-12

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15 Define the problem Consult Prepare a system study proposal Establish a control mechanism Approve or disapprove the study project Recognize the problem Set system objectives Identify system constraints The Planning Phase MIS Steering Comm Manager Systems Analyst Conduct a feasibility study 7-14

16 Announce the system study Organize the project team Define information needs Define system performance criteria Prepare design proposal Approve or disapprove the design project The Analysis Phase MIS Steering Committee Manager Systems Analyst 7-15

17 Approve or disapprove the system implementation Prepare the detailed design system Identify alternate system configurations Evaluate system configurations Select the best configuration Prepare the implementation proposal MIS Steering Committee Manager Systems Analyst The Design Phase 7-16

18 Plan the implementation Announce the implementation Control Cutover the new system Obtain the hardware resources Obtain the software resources Prepare the database Educate the participants and users Prepare the physical facilities Control The Implementation Phase MIS Steering Committee Manager Information Specialists 7-17

19 Cutover Approaches Old System Old System New System Immediate cutover Phased cutover Parallel cutover Pilot System Immediate Old System New System Phased New system Old System Parallel Time Pilot 7-18

20 The Use Phase Control Use the system Audit the system Maintain the system Prepare re- engineering proposal Approve or disapprove the reengineering proposal MIS Steering CommitteeManagerInformation Specialists

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22 21 PROJECT MANAGEMENT Today, it is possible for life cycle management to span several organizational levels and involve managers outside of IT Today, it is possible for life cycle management to span several organizational levels and involve managers outside of IT Figure 7.16 shows the hierarchical nature of project management Figure 7.16 shows the hierarchical nature of project management In this example, there are five development projects going at the same time, all managed by the MIS steering committee In this example, there are five development projects going at the same time, all managed by the MIS steering committee

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24 Systems Development lifecycle (SDLC) Traditional methodology for developing information systemTraditional methodology for developing information system Partitions systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentiallyPartitions systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM-BUILDING APPROACHES Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Redesigning the Organization With information Systems Traditional Systems Lifecycle

25 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul N EWER A PPROACHES Rapid Application Development (RAD) Figure RAD Advantages and Disadvantages

26 STEPS IN RAD 1. Requirement Planning (Dominant users’ involvement) 2. User Design (Dominant users’ involvement) 3. Construction (Information Systems Dept’s dominant involvement) 4. Cutover (Dominant users’ involvement)

27 Prototyping Process of building experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluationProcess of building experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluationPrototype Preliminary working version of information system for demonstration and evaluationPreliminary working version of information system for demonstration and evaluation ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM-BUILDING APPROACHES Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Redesigning the Organization With information Systems Prototyping

28 Iterative A process of repeating over and over again the steps to build systemA process of repeating over and over again the steps to build system ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM-BUILDING APPROACHES Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Redesigning the Organization With information Systems Prototyping

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30 Advantage Useful in designing information system’s end-user interfaceUseful in designing information system’s end-user interfaceDisadvantage Rapid prototyping can gloss over essential steps in systems developmentRapid prototyping can gloss over essential steps in systems development ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM-BUILDING APPROACHES Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Redesigning the Organization With information Systems Advantages and Disadvantages of Prototyping

31 ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM-BUILDING APPROACHES Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Redesigning the Organization With information Systems End-User Versus System Development Lifecycle Figure 12-9

32 Acquiring IT Applications Option 1 - Buy Acquiring IT Applications Option 1 - Buy

33 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Acquiring IT Applications Option 2- Lease Acquiring IT Applications Option 2- Lease TYPES OF LEASING VENDORS Leasing can be done in one of two ways. TYPES OF LEASING VENDORS Leasing can be done in one of two ways. – The first way is to lease the application from an outsourcer and install it on the company’s premises. The vendor can help with the installation and frequently will offer to also contract for the operation and maintenance of the system. Many conventional applications are leased this way. – The second way, using an application system provider (ASP), is becoming more popular.

34 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Acquiring IT Applications More Options.. Leasing Acquiring IT Applications More Options.. Leasing

35 Acquiring IT Applications More Options BUILDING IN-HOUSE DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES. There are two major approaches to in- house development: building from scratch or building from components. IN-HOUSE DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES. There are two major approaches to in- house development: building from scratch or building from components. – Build from scratch. This option should be considered only for specialized applications for which components are not available. It is an expensive and slow process, but it will provide the best fit. – Build from components. Companies with experienced IT staff can use standard components (e.g., a secure Web server), some software languages (e.g., Java, Visual Basic), and third-party subroutines to create and maintain applications on their own. (Or, companies can outsource the entire development process to an integrator that assembles the components.) From a software standpoint, using components offers the greatest flexibility and can be the least expensive option in the long run. However, it can also result in a number of false starts and wasted experimentations. For this reason, even those companies with experienced staff are frequently better off modifying and customizing one of the packaged solutions as part of the “buy” option.

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