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Akuntansi Manajemen Dr. Suyatmini, SE., M.Si Magister Manajemen Program Pascasarjana Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Akuntansi Manajemen Dr. Suyatmini, SE., M.Si Magister Manajemen Program Pascasarjana Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Akuntansi Manajemen Dr. Suyatmini, SE., M.Si Magister Manajemen Program Pascasarjana Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

2 REFERENSI Management Accounting- Don Hansen and Maryanne Mowen. Managerial Accounting – Ray H. Garrison, Eric W. Noreen and Peter C. Brewer. Management Accounting – A.A. Atkinson Management Accounting – Ronald W. Hilton.

3 Budgeting for planning and control The Basic Franework of Budgeting Budget adalah rencana terperinci tentang pemerolehan dan penggunaan sumber daya keuangan dan sumber daya lainnya selama suatu periode waktu tertentu 1.Tindakan penyusunan anggaran disebut budgeting. 2.Penggunaan anggaran untuk mengendalikan aktivitas perusahaan disebut budgetary control.

4 Planning and Control Planning – Menentukan tindakan2 apa yang harus dilakukan untuk merealisasikan tujuan tertentu. Control – Menilai apa yang telah dihasilkan dan membandingkannya dengan rencana yang telah disusun.

5 Advantages of Budgeting Advantages Define goal and objectives mengungkap potensi kemacetan Coordinateactivities Communicateplans Think about and plan for the future Means of allocating resources

6 Responsibility Accounting Seorang Manajer harus dibuat bertanggung jawab atas permasalahan tertentu dan hanya masalah tsb saja sehingga manajer dapat melakukan pengendalian pada tingkat yg signifikan.

7 Memilih Periode Anggaran Anggaran Operasi Anggaran operasi mencakup Periode satu tahun, dibagi anggaran kuartal atau anggaran bulanan. Anggaran operasi mencakup Periode satu tahun, dibagi anggaran kuartal atau anggaran bulanan. Anggaran berlanjut atau perpetual adl anggaran 12 bulanan yg bergerak adl anggaran 12 bulanan yg bergerak maju ke bulan berikutnya (atau kuartal maju ke bulan berikutnya (atau kuartal berikutnya) bila bulan (kuartal) berikutnya) bila bulan (kuartal) saat ini telah berakhir Anggaran berlanjut atau perpetual adl anggaran 12 bulanan yg bergerak adl anggaran 12 bulanan yg bergerak maju ke bulan berikutnya (atau kuartal maju ke bulan berikutnya (atau kuartal berikutnya) bila bulan (kuartal) berikutnya) bila bulan (kuartal) saat ini telah berakhir

8 Anggaran Partisipatif Anggaran yg disusun dengan kerja sama dan partisipasi penuh dari seluruh nmanajer pada segala tingkatan disebut participative budget atau self imposed budget.

9 Keunggulan Anggaran Partisipatif 1.Setiap orang pada semua tingkatan organisasi diakui sebagai anggota tim yg pandangan dan penilaiannya dihargai oleh manajemen puncak. 2.Estimasi anggaran yg dibuat oleh manajer lini depan sering kali lebih akurat dan andal dibandingkan dg estimasi yg dibuat oleh manajer puncak yg kurang memiliki pengetahuan mendalam mengenai pasar dan operasi harian. 3.Timbul motivasi yg lebih tinggi bila individu berpartisipasi dalam menentukan tujuan mereka sendiri, dibandingkan bila tujuan tsb ditetapkan dari atas. Anggaran yang ditetapkan sendiri menciptakan adanya komitmen. 4.Seorang manajer yg tdk dapat memenuhi anggaran yg ditetapkan dari atas selalu dapat berkata bahwa anggaran tsb tidak realistis dan tidak mungkin untuk dicapai. Dengan anggaran partisipatif, alasan semacam ini tidak akan timbul. 1.Setiap orang pada semua tingkatan organisasi diakui sebagai anggota tim yg pandangan dan penilaiannya dihargai oleh manajemen puncak. 2.Estimasi anggaran yg dibuat oleh manajer lini depan sering kali lebih akurat dan andal dibandingkan dg estimasi yg dibuat oleh manajer puncak yg kurang memiliki pengetahuan mendalam mengenai pasar dan operasi harian. 3.Timbul motivasi yg lebih tinggi bila individu berpartisipasi dalam menentukan tujuan mereka sendiri, dibandingkan bila tujuan tsb ditetapkan dari atas. Anggaran yang ditetapkan sendiri menciptakan adanya komitmen. 4.Seorang manajer yg tdk dapat memenuhi anggaran yg ditetapkan dari atas selalu dapat berkata bahwa anggaran tsb tidak realistis dan tidak mungkin untuk dicapai. Dengan anggaran partisipatif, alasan semacam ini tidak akan timbul.

10 Faktor Manusia dalam Penganggaran Keberhasilan program anggaran juga tergantung pada: 1.Seberapa jauh manajemen puncak menerima program anggaran sebagai bagian penting dari aktivitas perusahaan. 2.Dalam pelaksanaan program anggaran,manajemen puncak untuk tidak menggunakan anggaran untuk menekan atau menyalahkan karyawan. 3.Cara manajemen puncak menggunakan data yang dianggarkan. Keberhasilan program anggaran juga tergantung pada: 1.Seberapa jauh manajemen puncak menerima program anggaran sebagai bagian penting dari aktivitas perusahaan. 2.Dalam pelaksanaan program anggaran,manajemen puncak untuk tidak menggunakan anggaran untuk menekan atau menyalahkan karyawan. 3.Cara manajemen puncak menggunakan data yang dianggarkan.

11 Penganggaran Berbasis Nol Penganggaran berbasis nol (Zero based budget) merupakan suatu alternatif. Berdasarkan anggaran berbasis nol, manajer dituntut untuk menentukan seluruh pengeluaran yang dianggarkan, tidak hanya sekedar mengubah anggaran tahun lalu. Dasar penyusunanannya adalah nol, bukan tahun lalu

12 Komite Anggaran Komite anggaran bertanggung jawab atas: –Semua masalah kebijakan yg berkaitan dengan program anggaran. –Berkaitan dengan koordinasi penyusunan anggaran itu sendiri. Komite anggaran bertanggung jawab atas: –Semua masalah kebijakan yg berkaitan dengan program anggaran. –Berkaitan dengan koordinasi penyusunan anggaran itu sendiri.

13 Anggaran Induk (master budget) Anggaran induk (master budget) adalah rencana keuangan komperhensif untuk keseluruhan organisasi, terdiri atas berbagai anggaran individual. Anggaran induk dapat dibagi: - anggaran operasi - anggaran keuangan

14 Anggaran Operasi Anggaran Operasi terdiri dari laporan laba rugi yang dianggarkan serta beberapa data pendukung: 1.Anggaran Penjualan 2.Anggaran Produksi 3.Anggaran Pembelian bahan langsung 4.Anggaran tenaga kerja langsung 5.Anggaran overhead 6.Anggaran beban penjualan dan administrasi 7.Anggaran persediaan akhir barang jadi 8.Anggaran harga pokok penjualan

15 Anggaran Keuangan Anggaran Keuangan terdiri dari: 1.Anggaran kas 2.Anggaran neraca 3.Anggaran pengeluaran modal

16 The Master Budget: An Overview Production Budget Production Budget Selling and Administrative Budget Selling and Administrative Budget Direct Materials Budget Direct Materials Budget Manufacturing Overhead Budget Manufacturing Overhead Budget Direct Labor Budget Direct Labor Budget Cash Budget Cash Budget Sales Budget Sales Budget Budgeted Financial Statements Ending Finished Goods Budget Ending Finished Goods Budget

17 Anggaran Sebagai Evaluasi kinerja Dua hal yang perlu diperhatikan: 1.Menentukan bagaimana jumlah yang dianggarkan dibandingkan dengan hasil aktual. 2.Mempertimbangkan dampak anggaran terhadap perilaku manusia.

18 Anggaran Statis VS Anggaran Fleksibel Anggaran Statis (Statis Budget) : anggaran yang dibuat berdasarkan tingkat aktivitas yang ditentukan. Anggaran Fleksibel: anggaran yang menjadikan perusahaan memiliki kemampuan untuk menghitung biaya yang diharapkan selama rentang aktivitas.

19 Dimensi Perilaku dari Anggaran Keselarasan tujuan (goal congruence): kesesuaian tujuan manajer dan tujuan organisasi. Perilaku disfungsional (dysfunctional behavior): perilaku individu yang memiliki konflik dasar dengan tujuan organisasi. Slack anggaran (padding the budget) timbul bila manajer sengaja menetapkan terlalu rendah pendapatan atau menetapkan terlalu besar biaya. Partisipasi semu (pseudoparticipation): manajemen puncak hanya secara formal menerima anggaran dari manajer bawahan, dan tidak mempelajari masukan yang diberikan. Dengan demikian manfaat perilaku yang diharapkan dari partisipasi tidak akan terwujud

20 Budgeting Example  Royal Company is preparing budgets for the quarter ending June 30.  Budgeted sales for the next five months are: April 20,000 units April 20,000 units May 50,000 units May 50,000 units June 30,000 units June 30,000 units July 25,000 units July 25,000 units August 15,000 units. August 15,000 units.  The selling price is $10 per unit.  Royal Company is preparing budgets for the quarter ending June 30.  Budgeted sales for the next five months are: April 20,000 units April 20,000 units May 50,000 units May 50,000 units June 30,000 units June 30,000 units July 25,000 units July 25,000 units August 15,000 units. August 15,000 units.  The selling price is $10 per unit.

21 The Sales Budget The individual months of April, May, and June are summed to obtain the total projected sales in units and dollars for the quarter ended June 30 th

22 Expected Cash Collections All sales are on account.All sales are on account. Royal’s collection pattern is:Royal’s collection pattern is: 70% collected in the month of sale, 70% collected in the month of sale, 25% collected in the month following sale, 25% collected in the month following sale, 5% uncollectible. 5% uncollectible. The March 31 accounts receivable balance of $30,000 will be collected in full.The March 31 accounts receivable balance of $30,000 will be collected in full. All sales are on account.All sales are on account. Royal’s collection pattern is:Royal’s collection pattern is: 70% collected in the month of sale, 70% collected in the month of sale, 25% collected in the month following sale, 25% collected in the month following sale, 5% uncollectible. 5% uncollectible. The March 31 accounts receivable balance of $30,000 will be collected in full.The March 31 accounts receivable balance of $30,000 will be collected in full.

23 Expected Cash Collections

24 From the Sales Budget for April.

25 Expected Cash Collections From the Sales Budget for May.

26 Quick Check What will be the total cash collections for the quarter? What will be the total cash collections for the quarter? a. $700,000 b. $220,000 c. $190,000 d. $905,000 What will be the total cash collections for the quarter? What will be the total cash collections for the quarter? a. $700,000 b. $220,000 c. $190,000 d. $905,000

27 What will be the total cash collections for the quarter? What will be the total cash collections for the quarter? a. $700,000 b. $220,000 c. $190,000 d. $905,000 What will be the total cash collections for the quarter? What will be the total cash collections for the quarter? a. $700,000 b. $220,000 c. $190,000 d. $905,000 Quick Check

28 Expected Cash Collections

29 The Production Budget ProductionBudget Sales Budget and Expected Cash Collections Completed Production must be adequate to meet budgeted sales and provide for sufficient ending inventory.

30 The Production Budget The management at Royal Company wants ending inventory to be equal to 20% of the following month’s budgeted sales in units. The management at Royal Company wants ending inventory to be equal to 20% of the following month’s budgeted sales in units. On March 31, 4,000 units were on hand. On March 31, 4,000 units were on hand. Let’s prepare the production budget. Let’s prepare the production budget. The management at Royal Company wants ending inventory to be equal to 20% of the following month’s budgeted sales in units. The management at Royal Company wants ending inventory to be equal to 20% of the following month’s budgeted sales in units. On March 31, 4,000 units were on hand. On March 31, 4,000 units were on hand. Let’s prepare the production budget. Let’s prepare the production budget.

31 The Production Budget

32 March 31 ending inventory March 31 ending inventory

33 Quick Check What is the required production for May? What is the required production for May? a. 56,000 units b. 46,000 units c. 62,000 units d. 52,000 units What is the required production for May? What is the required production for May? a. 56,000 units b. 46,000 units c. 62,000 units d. 52,000 units

34 What is the required production for May? What is the required production for May? a. 56,000 units b. 46,000 units c. 62,000 units d. 52,000 units What is the required production for May? What is the required production for May? a. 56,000 units b. 46,000 units c. 62,000 units d. 52,000 units Quick Check

35 The Production Budget

36 Assumed ending inventory.

37 The Direct Materials Budget At Royal Company, five pounds of material are required per unit of product.At Royal Company, five pounds of material are required per unit of product. Management wants materials on hand at the end of each month equal to 10% of the following month’s production.Management wants materials on hand at the end of each month equal to 10% of the following month’s production. On March 31, 13,000 pounds of material are on hand. Material cost is $0.40 per pound. Let’s prepare the direct materials budget.On March 31, 13,000 pounds of material are on hand. Material cost is $0.40 per pound. Let’s prepare the direct materials budget. At Royal Company, five pounds of material are required per unit of product.At Royal Company, five pounds of material are required per unit of product. Management wants materials on hand at the end of each month equal to 10% of the following month’s production.Management wants materials on hand at the end of each month equal to 10% of the following month’s production. On March 31, 13,000 pounds of material are on hand. Material cost is $0.40 per pound. Let’s prepare the direct materials budget.On March 31, 13,000 pounds of material are on hand. Material cost is $0.40 per pound. Let’s prepare the direct materials budget.

38 The Direct Materials Budget From production budget

39 The Direct Materials Budget

40 Calculate the materials to by purchased in May. March 31 inventory 10% of following months production needs.

41 Quick Check How much materials should be purchased in May? How much materials should be purchased in May? a. 221,500 pounds b. 240,000 pounds c. 230,000 pounds d. 211,500 pounds How much materials should be purchased in May? How much materials should be purchased in May? a. 221,500 pounds b. 240,000 pounds c. 230,000 pounds d. 211,500 pounds

42 How much materials should be purchased in May? How much materials should be purchased in May? a. 221,500 pounds b. 240,000 pounds c. 230,000 pounds d. 211,500 pounds How much materials should be purchased in May? How much materials should be purchased in May? a. 221,500 pounds b. 240,000 pounds c. 230,000 pounds d. 211,500 pounds Quick Check

43 The Direct Materials Budget

44 Assumed ending inventory

45 Expected Cash Disbursement for Materials Royal pays $0.40 per pound for its materials.Royal pays $0.40 per pound for its materials. One-half of a month’s purchases is paid for in the month of purchase; the other half is paid in the following month.One-half of a month’s purchases is paid for in the month of purchase; the other half is paid in the following month. The March 31 accounts payable balance is $12,000.The March 31 accounts payable balance is $12,000. Let’s calculate expected cash disbursements. Let’s calculate expected cash disbursements. Royal pays $0.40 per pound for its materials.Royal pays $0.40 per pound for its materials. One-half of a month’s purchases is paid for in the month of purchase; the other half is paid in the following month.One-half of a month’s purchases is paid for in the month of purchase; the other half is paid in the following month. The March 31 accounts payable balance is $12,000.The March 31 accounts payable balance is $12,000. Let’s calculate expected cash disbursements. Let’s calculate expected cash disbursements.

46 Expected Cash Disbursement for Materials

47 140,000 lbs. × $.40/lb. = $56,000 Compute the expected cash disbursements for materials for the quarter.

48 Quick Check What are the total cash disbursements for the quarter? What are the total cash disbursements for the quarter? a. $185,000 b. $ 68,000 c. $ 56,000 d. $201,400 What are the total cash disbursements for the quarter? What are the total cash disbursements for the quarter? a. $185,000 b. $ 68,000 c. $ 56,000 d. $201,400

49 What are the total cash disbursements for the quarter? What are the total cash disbursements for the quarter? a. $185,000 b. $ 68,000 c. $ 56,000 d. $201,400 What are the total cash disbursements for the quarter? What are the total cash disbursements for the quarter? a. $185,000 b. $ 68,000 c. $ 56,000 d. $201,400 Quick Check

50 Expected Cash Disbursement for Materials

51 The Direct Labor Budget At Royal, each unit of product requires 0.05 hours (3 minutes) of direct labor. The Company has a “no layoff” policy so all employees will be paid for 40 hours of work each week. In exchange for the “no layoff” policy, workers agree to a wage rate of $10 per hour regardless of the hours worked (No overtime pay). For the next three months, the direct labor workforce will be paid for a minimum of 1,500 hours per month. Let’s prepare the direct labor budget. Let’s prepare the direct labor budget. At Royal, each unit of product requires 0.05 hours (3 minutes) of direct labor. The Company has a “no layoff” policy so all employees will be paid for 40 hours of work each week. In exchange for the “no layoff” policy, workers agree to a wage rate of $10 per hour regardless of the hours worked (No overtime pay). For the next three months, the direct labor workforce will be paid for a minimum of 1,500 hours per month. Let’s prepare the direct labor budget. Let’s prepare the direct labor budget.

52 The Direct Labor Budget From production budget

53 The Direct Labor Budget

54 Greater of labor hours required or labor hours guaranteed. Greater of labor hours required or labor hours guaranteed.

55 The Direct Labor Budget

56 Quick Check What would be the total direct labor cost for the quarter if the company follows its no lay-off policy, but pays $15 (time-and-a-half) for every hour worked in excess of 1,500 hours in a month? What would be the total direct labor cost for the quarter if the company follows its no lay-off policy, but pays $15 (time-and-a-half) for every hour worked in excess of 1,500 hours in a month? a. $79,500 b. $64,500 c. $61,000 d. $57,000 What would be the total direct labor cost for the quarter if the company follows its no lay-off policy, but pays $15 (time-and-a-half) for every hour worked in excess of 1,500 hours in a month? What would be the total direct labor cost for the quarter if the company follows its no lay-off policy, but pays $15 (time-and-a-half) for every hour worked in excess of 1,500 hours in a month? a. $79,500 b. $64,500 c. $61,000 d. $57,000

57 What would be the total direct labor cost for the quarter if the company follows its no lay-off policy, but pays $15 (time-and-a-half) for every hour worked in excess of 1,500 hours in a month? What would be the total direct labor cost for the quarter if the company follows its no lay-off policy, but pays $15 (time-and-a-half) for every hour worked in excess of 1,500 hours in a month? a. $79,500 b. $64,500 c. $61,000 d. $57,000 What would be the total direct labor cost for the quarter if the company follows its no lay-off policy, but pays $15 (time-and-a-half) for every hour worked in excess of 1,500 hours in a month? What would be the total direct labor cost for the quarter if the company follows its no lay-off policy, but pays $15 (time-and-a-half) for every hour worked in excess of 1,500 hours in a month? a. $79,500 b. $64,500 c. $61,000 d. $57,000 Quick Check

58 Manufacturing Overhead Budget At Royal manufacturing overhead is applied to units of product on the basis of direct labor hours.At Royal manufacturing overhead is applied to units of product on the basis of direct labor hours. The variable manufacturing overhead rate is $20 per direct labor hour.The variable manufacturing overhead rate is $20 per direct labor hour. Fixed manufacturing overhead is $50,000 per month and includes $20,000 of noncash costs (primarily depreciation of plant assets).Fixed manufacturing overhead is $50,000 per month and includes $20,000 of noncash costs (primarily depreciation of plant assets). Let’s prepare the manufacturing overhead budget. Let’s prepare the manufacturing overhead budget. At Royal manufacturing overhead is applied to units of product on the basis of direct labor hours.At Royal manufacturing overhead is applied to units of product on the basis of direct labor hours. The variable manufacturing overhead rate is $20 per direct labor hour.The variable manufacturing overhead rate is $20 per direct labor hour. Fixed manufacturing overhead is $50,000 per month and includes $20,000 of noncash costs (primarily depreciation of plant assets).Fixed manufacturing overhead is $50,000 per month and includes $20,000 of noncash costs (primarily depreciation of plant assets). Let’s prepare the manufacturing overhead budget. Let’s prepare the manufacturing overhead budget.

59 Manufacturing Overhead Budget Direct Labor Budget

60 Manufacturing Overhead Budget Total mfg. OH for quarter $251,000 Total labor hours required 5,050 = $49.70 per hour* *rounded

61 Manufacturing Overhead Budget Depreciation is a noncash charge.

62 Ending Finished Goods Inventory Budget Direct materials budget and information Direct materials budget and information

63 Ending Finished Goods Inventory Budget Direct labor budget

64 Ending Finished Goods Inventory Budget Total mfg. OH for quarter $251,000 Total labor hours required 5,050 = $49.70 per hour*

65 Ending Finished Goods Inventory Budget Production Budget

66 Selling and Administrative Expense Budget At Royal, the selling and administrative expenses budget is divided into variable and fixed components.At Royal, the selling and administrative expenses budget is divided into variable and fixed components. The variable selling and administrative expenses are $0.50 per unit sold.The variable selling and administrative expenses are $0.50 per unit sold. Fixed selling and administrative expenses are $70,000 per month.Fixed selling and administrative expenses are $70,000 per month. The fixed selling and administrative expenses include $10,000 in costs – primarily depreciation – that are not cash outflows of the current month.The fixed selling and administrative expenses include $10,000 in costs – primarily depreciation – that are not cash outflows of the current month. Let’s prepare the company’s selling and administrative expense budget. At Royal, the selling and administrative expenses budget is divided into variable and fixed components.At Royal, the selling and administrative expenses budget is divided into variable and fixed components. The variable selling and administrative expenses are $0.50 per unit sold.The variable selling and administrative expenses are $0.50 per unit sold. Fixed selling and administrative expenses are $70,000 per month.Fixed selling and administrative expenses are $70,000 per month. The fixed selling and administrative expenses include $10,000 in costs – primarily depreciation – that are not cash outflows of the current month.The fixed selling and administrative expenses include $10,000 in costs – primarily depreciation – that are not cash outflows of the current month. Let’s prepare the company’s selling and administrative expense budget.

67 Selling and Administrative Expense Budget Calculate the selling and administrative cash expenses for the quarter.

68 Quick Check What are the total cash disbursements for selling and administrative expenses for the quarter? What are the total cash disbursements for selling and administrative expenses for the quarter? a. $180,000 b. $230,000 c. $110,000 d. $ 70,000 What are the total cash disbursements for selling and administrative expenses for the quarter? What are the total cash disbursements for selling and administrative expenses for the quarter? a. $180,000 b. $230,000 c. $110,000 d. $ 70,000

69 What are the total cash disbursements for selling and administrative expenses for the quarter? What are the total cash disbursements for selling and administrative expenses for the quarter? a. $180,000 b. $230,000 c. $110,000 d. $ 70,000 What are the total cash disbursements for selling and administrative expenses for the quarter? What are the total cash disbursements for selling and administrative expenses for the quarter? a. $180,000 b. $230,000 c. $110,000 d. $ 70,000 Quick Check

70 Selling and Administrative Expense Budget

71 Format of the Cash Budget The cash budget is divided into four sections: 1.Cash receipts listing all cash inflows excluding borrowing 2.Cash disbursements listing all payments excluding repayments of principal and interest 3.Cash excess or deficiency 4.The financing section listing all borrowings, repayments and interest The cash budget is divided into four sections: 1.Cash receipts listing all cash inflows excluding borrowing 2.Cash disbursements listing all payments excluding repayments of principal and interest 3.Cash excess or deficiency 4.The financing section listing all borrowings, repayments and interest

72 The Cash Budget Royal: lMaintains a 16% open line of credit for $75,000 lMaintains a minimum cash balance of $30,000 lBorrows on the first day of the month and repays loans on the last day of the month lPays a cash dividend of $49,000 in April lPurchases $143,700 of equipment in May and $48,300 in June paid in cash lHas an April 1 cash balance of $40,000 Royal: lMaintains a 16% open line of credit for $75,000 lMaintains a minimum cash balance of $30,000 lBorrows on the first day of the month and repays loans on the last day of the month lPays a cash dividend of $49,000 in April lPurchases $143,700 of equipment in May and $48,300 in June paid in cash lHas an April 1 cash balance of $40,000

73 The Cash Budget Schedule of Expected Cash Collections Schedule of Expected Cash Collections

74 The Cash Budget Direct Labor Budget Budget Manufacturing Overhead Budget Manufacturing Selling and Administrative Expense Budget Selling and Administrative Expense Budget Schedule of Expected Cash Disbursements Schedule of Expected Cash Disbursements

75 The Cash Budget Because Royal maintains a cash balance of $30,000, the company must borrow $50,000 on it line-of-credit. Because Royal maintains a cash balance of $30,000, the company must borrow $50,000 on it line-of-credit.

76 The Cash Budget Ending cash balance for April is the beginning May balance. Ending cash balance for April is the beginning May balance.

77 The Cash Budget

78 Quick Check What is the excess (deficiency) of cash available over disbursements for June? What is the excess (deficiency) of cash available over disbursements for June? a. $ 85,000 b. $(10,000) c. $ 75,000 d. $ 95,000 What is the excess (deficiency) of cash available over disbursements for June? What is the excess (deficiency) of cash available over disbursements for June? a. $ 85,000 b. $(10,000) c. $ 75,000 d. $ 95,000

79 What is the excess (deficiency) of cash available over disbursements for June? What is the excess (deficiency) of cash available over disbursements for June? a. $ 85,000 b. $(10,000) c. $ 75,000 d. $ 95,000 What is the excess (deficiency) of cash available over disbursements for June? What is the excess (deficiency) of cash available over disbursements for June? a. $ 85,000 b. $(10,000) c. $ 75,000 d. $ 95,000 Quick Check

80 The Cash Budget $50,000 × 16% × 3/12 = $2,000 Borrowings on April 1 and repayment on June 30.

81 The Budgeted Income Statement Cash Budget Budgeted Income Statement Completed After we complete the cash budget, we can prepare the budgeted income statement for Royal.

82 The Budgeted Income Statement Sales Budget Ending Finished Goods Inventory Selling and Administrative Expense Budget Cash Budget

83 The Budgeted Balance Sheet Royal reported the following account balances prior to preparing its budgeted financial statements: –Land - $50,000 –Common stock - $200,000 –Retained earnings - $146,150 –Equipment - $175,000 Royal reported the following account balances prior to preparing its budgeted financial statements: –Land - $50,000 –Common stock - $200,000 –Retained earnings - $146,150 –Equipment - $175,000

84 11,500 lbs. at $0.40/lb. 11,500 lbs. at $0.40/lb. 5,000 units at $4.99 each 5,000 units at $4.99 each 50% of June purchases of $56,800 50% of June purchases of $56,800 25% of June sales of $300,000 25% of June sales of $300,000

85

86 International Aspects of Budgeting Perusahaan multinasional menghadapi masalah2 khusus pada saat menyusun anggaran. Masalah ini muncul karena: 1.Fluktuasi nilai tukar mata uang asing. 2.Tingkat inflasi yang tinggi. 3.Kondisi ekonomi lokal dan kebijakan pemerintah.


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