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Fokus Mata Kuliah Mata kuliah ini pada dasarnya akan membahas aspek mikro dari kegiatan bisnis lintas negara yang dilakukan oleh para pelaku bisnis. “formation.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Fokus Mata Kuliah Mata kuliah ini pada dasarnya akan membahas aspek mikro dari kegiatan bisnis lintas negara yang dilakukan oleh para pelaku bisnis. “formation."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Fokus Mata Kuliah Mata kuliah ini pada dasarnya akan membahas aspek mikro dari kegiatan bisnis lintas negara yang dilakukan oleh para pelaku bisnis. “formation and enforcement of agreements between private commercial parties”

3 Legal Framework for International Business Growth of international business The importance of law in a transnational business transaction: “strategic planning”  identifying relevant legal issues as early as possible in the process Various legal system: civil law and common law (p. 8) International cooperation and the harmonization of business law (p. 43)

4 Sources of International Business Law National law International law: a)Konvensi internasional b)Model law c)General principles d)Standar kontrak Perbandingan hukum (Adolf p. 13) Standar Kontrak General Principles Model Law Konvensi Internasional

5 Introduction to International and Comparative Law Public vs private international law Public: legal relationships between and among STATES Private: laws governing the conduct between PEOPLE (and corporations) from different states. Nowadays, the term international law refers to both public and private aspects of international law. International law as a soft law: there is no such formal lawmaking machinery (legislatures, court and government agencies) exists

6 Many views on International Law Cosmopolitans: int’l law is based on universal human rights Positivists: int’l law is based on the sovereign equality of all states in the int’l system and state consent to individual int’l laws, either through treaties or custom. Hobbesian: states will make agreements and abide by int’l law only when it suits their self- interests.

7 Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata (KUHPer) sebagai Hukum Nasional KUHPer atau Burgerlijk Wetboek merupakan hukum perdata Indonesia yang bersumber dari Kode Napoleon. Peruntukan awalnya adalah bagi golongan Eropa, Timur Asing dan Tionghoa. Setelah Indonesia merdeka aturan hukum ini berlaku untuk semua warga negara Indonesia, yang diberlakukan melalui Pasal 2 aturan peralihan UUD 1945 (asas konkordasi). “Seluruh peraturan yang dibuat oleh pemerintah Hindia-Belanda berlaku bagi warga negara Indonesia”

8 Sistematika KUHPer (Cont…) Buku I: Orang (subyek hukum, hukum perkawinan dan hukum keluarga) Buku II: Benda/Barang Buku III: Perikatan Buku IV: Pembuktian dan Daluwarsa

9 Perikatan Perikatan = perjanjian? Perikatan adalah lebih luas daripada perjanjian. Semua perjanjian sudah pasti merupakan perikatan. Sedangkan suatu perikatan belum tentu merupakan perjanjian. Mengapa? Karena sumber dari perikatan tidak hanya dari perjanjian, tetapi bisa bersumber dari undang-undang [Pasal 1233 KUHPer) (perbuatan hukum yang melanggar hukum (orechmatige daad) dan pengurusan kepentingan orang lain yang tidak berdasarkan persetujuan (zaakwarneming)). Buku ketiga memiliki sifat terbuka (tambahan/aanvulend recht)

10 Apakah aturan hukum nasional kita sudah mampu mengakomodasi perkembangan hukum komersial yang ada di masyarakat? Ferronica Taylor: “the legal rules that govern contracts in Indonesia are found primarily Dutch-style Civil Code and partially revised Commercial Code, although many of the Code provisions are now regarded as obsolete or inappropriate for current commercial transactions. Commercial parties routinely seek to contract out or exclude the operation of archaic parts of the Code from their own contracts. The fact that there is no authorized or standardized translation of the Civil Code into English also symbolizes its lack of pungency” (Indonesia, Law and Society, page 279). Source: Taryana Sunandar, S.H., M.H., Prinsip-Prinsip UNIDROIT: sebagai Sumber Hukum Kontrak dan Penyelesaian Sengketa Bisnis Internasional, Sinar Grafika, 2004.

11 Kontrak Kontrak nasional v. kontrak internasional Indikator unsur asing (foreign elements) yang ada didalam suatu kontrak: 1.Kebangsaan yang berbeda 2.Domisili hukum di negara yang berbeda 3.Governing law adalah hukum asing 4.Penyelesaia sengketa dilakukan di luar negeri 5.Penandatanganan kontrak dilakukan di luar negeri 6.Objek perjanjian berada di luar negeri 7.Bahasa yang digunakan adalah bahasa asing 8.Menggunakan mata uang asing Source: Huala Adolf, Dasar-Dasar Hukum Kontrak Internasional, hal: 4

12 Prinsip Fundamental dan Prinsip-Prinsip Hukum Kontrak Internasional Prinsip Fundamental 1.Prinsip kedaulatan hukum nasional 2.Prinsip kebebasan berkontrak (party autonomy) Prinsip-Prinsip Hukum Kontrak Internasional 1.Pacta sunt servanda (Pasal 1338 KUHPer) 2.Good faith

13 Hukum Kontrak Internasional sebagain Bidang Ilmu yang bersifat Interdisipliner a.Hukum Kontrak Nasional b.Hukum Perdata Internasional c.Hukum Perdagangan Internasional d.Hukum Internasioal e.Comparative Law

14 Harmonisasi Hukum Kontrak Internasional Harmonisasi v. Unifikasi Upaya dalam Melakukan Harmonisasi Hukum Kontrak Internasional

15 Para Pihak dalam Kontrak Komersial Internasional Kontrak internasional v. Kontrak Komersial Internasional Pihak-pihak dalam kontrak internasional: a.Antar perusahaan b.Antar negara dan perusahaan c.Antar negara dengan negara d.Antar organisasi internasional dengan perusahaan

16 Sumber Hukum Kontrak Komersial Internasional 1.Hukum nasional 2.Dokumen kontrak 3.Kebiasaan perdagangan internasional (lex mercatoria) 4.Prinsip-prinsip hukum umum mengenai kontrak 5.Putusan pengadilan yang berkekuatan hukum tetap 6.Doktrin 7.Perjanjian internasional mengenai kontrak

17 Pilihan hukum (choice of law/governing law) Substantive law and procedural law Prinsip-prinsip pilihan hukum 1.Prinsip kebebasan para pihak 2.Prinsip bonafide 3.Prinsip real connection 4.Prinsip separabilitas klausul pilihan hukum

18 Pilihan Forum dalam Kontrak Komersial Internasional Fungsi Prinsip-prinsip dalam melakukan pilihan forum 1.Prinsip kebebasan para pihak 2.Prinsip bonafide 3.Prinsip prediktabilitas dan efektivitas 4.Prinsip jurisdiksi ekslusif

19 Penentuan pilihan hukum (choice of law) dan pilihan forum (choice of forum) merupakan hak bagi para pihak, sebagaimana sesuai dengan prinsip universal dalam hukum kontrak, yang dikenal dengan istilah party autonomy (kebebasan para pihak). Meskipun demikian, bebas disini bukan berarti bebas sebebas- bebasnya tanpa ada suatu batasan. Setiap pihak yang terlibat dalam suatu transaksi/bisnis internasional harus memahami bahwa prinsip kedaulatan hukum adalah suatu prinsip yang paling tinggi dan tidak dapat dinegasikan oleh prinsip- prinsip lainnya. Hal penting lainnya yang penting untuk menjadi perhatian adalah bahwa masing-masing negara menganut sistem hukumnya sendiri-sendiri. Selain itu hukum yang ada di masing-masing negara tumbuh dan berkembang sesuai dengan perkembangan yang ada dalam masyarakat tersebut, yang dipengaruhi oleh faktor sosial, budaya, agama, dan politik. Oleh karena itu, meskipun para pihak diberikan kebebasan untuk memilih hukum mana yang akan mengatur kontrak mereka, pilihan hukum tersebut akan dibatasi oleh ketertiban umum yang berlaku di masing-masing negara yang ada kaitannya dengan kontrak yang dibuat oleh para pihak.

20 Fungsi Ketertiban Umum dalam Kaitannya dengan Choice of Law 1.Sebagai rem atau penghambat, yaitu membatasi diberlakukannya hukum asing dalam hal-hal tertentu; 2.Untuk menghalangi kebebasan hak otonomi para pihak dalam menentukan berlakunya hukum dalam kontrak mereka; 3.Sebagai elemen yang membatasi berlakunya stelsel hukum asing yang tidak sesuai dengan stelsel hukum dari hakim yang mengadili sengketa para pihak; dan 4.Sebagai perlindungan terhadap pemakaian otonomi hak para pihak dalam choice of law yang terlampau luas. Sumber: Pandangan Yuridis Conflict of Law dan Choice of Law dalam Kontrak Bisnis Internasional, Prof. Dr. Abdul Gani Abdullah, S.H., BF1B4D6A4028/8007/1pandangan.pdf, terakhir kali diakses pada 20 Oktober 2013.http://www.bi.go.id/NR/rdonlyres/A0050DCB-4CF8-4A5E-B196- BF1B4D6A4028/8007/1pandangan.pdf

21 Pembatasan terhadap Pilihan Hukum di Amerika Serikat Pembatasan terhadap pilihan hukum para pihak diatur dalam Pasal 187 (2) (b) The Restatement (second), yang menentukan pengadilan mengikuti hukum para pihak, kecuali bertentangan dengan kebijaksanaan mendasar dari negara yang mempunyai hubungan lebih erat dengan pilihan hukum yang telah dilakukan.

22 Pembatasan atas Asas Kebebasan Berkontrak di Indonesia Pasal 1337 KUHPerdata, bahwa suatu sebab terlarang apabila bertentangan dengan undang-undang, kesusilaan atau ketertiban umum, demikian pula Pasal 25 AB, bahwa perbuatan atau perjanjian tidak boleh menghilangkan kekuatan peraturan hukum, ketentuan umum atau kesusilaan. Pasal 17 AB mengatur tentang barang tidak bergerak berlaku hukum nasional di tempat barang itu terletak sesuai dengan asas lex rei sitae.

23 Hukum negara hakim yang mengadili dapat menjadi dasar penyelesaiannya apabila hukum yang dipilih para pihak tidak dapat diterapkan dalam sengketa yang terjadi.

24 Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam Menentukan Pilihan Hukum yang Tepat Lex Loci contractus: the law of the place of contracting  “a contract is like a person, was subject to the law of the place of its origin, and the origin as such was the place where the contract was born” (20 EMORY INT’L L. REV (2006)) Party autonomy: party intention What if the parties did not expressly or impliedly state the governing law of their contract?

25 Friedrich Carl Von Savigny “Every legal relationship is governed by the law of the state or nation… in which it has its seat” Dalam menentukan “seat” yang dimaksud, Savigny berpendapat bahwa hakim sebaiknya memperhatikan “the intimate connection between the forum and the territorial law”: the primary factor in determining the seat it the intention of the parties in concluding the contract. “If such intention was not clearly manifested, it should be inferred from the circumstances under which the obligation arose”

26 The parties feel that the question of an express choice of law and forum clause would cause an unnecessary quarrel over a matter of prestige and impair chances for effective co-operation Thus, some multi-party contracts on long-term cooperation, e.g. ventures on the exploitation of natural resources (mining, fishing) do not contain express choice of law clauses. This inclination to avoid the application of a national law is obvious in contracts with international institutions, such as the World Bank

27 the parties still regard an express choice of law clause as a certain safeguard against unforeseen legal consequences. Moreover, some countries insist on the application of their own national law. This is often true with contracts where one party is a government or governmental agency, particularly in the case of developing countries. It is legal tradition in Latin American countries, and more recently the practice of some of the Arab countries has been to have contracts subjected to their own national laws and jurisdiction. This position can lead to difficult problems if the applicable national laws have no adequate solution to the legal problems which may arise out of the relevant transaction, or if the courts are not inclined to take notice of the fair expectations of foreign parties.

28 Metode Penyelesaian Sengketa dalam Kasus Kontrak Komersial Internasional Litigasi Non-litigasi 1.Negosiasi 2.Mediasi 3.Arbitrase

29 Hal-hal penting yang harus dipahami dalam pembuatan dan pelaksanaan kontrak komersil internasional “contracts as the legal tools for the peaceful transfer of goods, services and technology in a fair balance of interests” (http://www.trans-lex.org/113800)http://www.trans-lex.org/ Types of contracts, types of clauses and types of legal problems Identical standard clauses: contract’s legal structure Internationally uniform legal regime of mandatory rules of an international convention

30 Elements of Good Contract Quality of the text Clause/rule (responding to practical needs and must reflect a fair balance of interests and risks) Attention to firmly established traditions/rules/customs

31 Harmonisasi Hukum Kontrak Komersial Internasional United Nations Convention on Contract for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) by United Nations Conference on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Principles of International Commercial Contract (Prinsip-prinsip UNIDROIT) Upaya harmonisasi hukum kontrak telah dimulai sejak tahun 1917 yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah Perancis dan Italia. Upaya unifikasi hukum antar negara dipandang sebagai suatu proyek yang ambisius. Oleh karena itu, dibentuklah suatu kelompok kerja yang disebut dengan kelompok kerja UNIDROIT. Tujuan dibentuknya kelompok kerja ini adalah untuk menghasilkan prinsip-prinsip umum bagi hukum kontrak komersial internasional. (Soenandar, hal. 9)

32 Prinsip-prinsip UNIDROIT akan berlaku apabila terdapat kesepakatan diantara para pihak untuk menggunakan prinsip ini sebagai governing law bagi kontrak yang mereka buat, dan sekaligus juga tunduk pada prinsip hukum umum (general principles of law) dan lex mercatoria. (Soenandar, hal. 10) Biasanya para pihak akan menentukan terlebih dahulu governing law bagi kontrak mereka, i.e. CISG atau misalnya hukum negara X (dimana hukum perdata internasional negara tersebut juga menunjuk CISG sebagai hukum bagi penyelesaian sengketa bagi para pihak), lalu klausul ini kemudian diikuti oleh pernyataan sebagai berikut “This contract shall be governed by the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods of 1980 (CISG) without regard to any national reservation, supplemented for matters which are not governed by the CISG, by the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts and these supplemented by the otherwise applicable national law.”

33 Pembentukan CISG Harmonisasi hukum kontrak jual beli barang internasional UNCITRAL sebagai lembaga yang mempromosikan progresivitas dalam harmonisasi dan unifikasi hukum di bidang perdagangan internasional. Konferensi yang membahas rancangan (draft) konvensi diselenggarakan selama lebih kurang 1 bulan, yang menghasilkan CISG yang tediri dari 101 pasal.

34 Sistematika CISG Aturan substansial Pasal 1 s.d. Pasal 88 Aturan administratif Pasal 89 s.d. Pasal 101 CISG mulai berlaku pada tanggal 1 Januari 1988 terhadap 11 negara. (Berapakah jumlah negara peratifikasi CISG hingga saat ini?) CISG hanya mengatur kontrak jual beli barang yang bersifat internasional.

35 Pertanyaan Refleksi Apakah kehadiran CISG dan UNIDROIT principles telah menunjukkan adanya harmonisasi hukum kontrak komersial internasional dalam praktik transaksi komersial lintas negara?

36 Empat tahapan kontrak 1.Negosiasi 2.Pembuatan kontrak (formation of contract) 3.Tahap pelaksanaan (performance of contract) 4.Pasca contractual

37 Muatan Konvensi CISG Ketentuan-ketentuan terkait substansi kontrak dibagi kedalam lima bab: I.Ketentuan umum II.Kewajiban membayar III.Kewajiban pembeli IV.Peralihan resiko V.Ketentuan umum terhadap kewajiban penjual dan pembeli

38 Berlakunya CISG 1.For parties with their relevant places of business in different Contracting States, where their contract falls within the scope of the CISG, the contract is automatically governed by the CISG, unless the parties indicate otherwise; 2.When only one of the parties has his relevant place of business in a Contracting State if the applicable domestic law regards the law of that Contracting State as the governing law; 3.The CISG can apply to transactions between parties neither of whom has his relevant place of business in a Contracting State; and 4.There are situations in which principles of the CISG can be deemed applicable even when neither party has his relevant place of business in a Contracting State and the parties have made no reference to the CISG in their contract

39 In a series of contracts for the sale of goods on f.o.b. terms, the buyer disputed, both prior to shipment and upon arrival, the conformity of goods covered under one of the contracts with certain contract specifications. The buyer treated the goods in order to make them more saleable and sold them at a loss. The seller demanded full payment and the buyer filed a counterclaim demanding compensation for direct losses, financing costs, lost profits and interest. The arbitral tribunal held, pursuant to article 13(3) of the 1975 ICC arbitration rules, which allows the tribunal in the absense of a choice of law by the parties to determine the applicable law by applying the private international law rule that it deems appropriate, that the contract was governed by the law of the country where the seller had his place of business. In addition, pursuant to article 13(5) of the ICC arbitration rules, the tribunal decided to take into account CISG as a source of prevailing trade usages. As the applicable provisions of the law of the country where the seller had his place of business appeared to deviate from the generally accepted trade usages reflected in CISG in that it imposed extremely short and specific time requirements in respect of the buyer giving notice to the seller in case of defects, the tribunal applied CISG. The tribunal found that the buyer had complied with the requirements of CISG to examine the goods properly (art. 38(1) CISG) and to notify the seller accordingly (art. 39(1) CISG). It was held that, according to article 40 CISG, at any rate the seller would not be entitled to rely on non-compliance by the buyer with article 38 and 39 of CISG for the reason that the seller knew of could not have been unaware of the non-conformity of the goods with contract specifications. The tribunal awarded the seller the full amount of its claim and set it off against part of the buyer's counterclaim.

40 Applicability/Trade usages, CISG as source of/Lex mercatoria. Article 9(1) states that the parties are bound by any usages to which they have agreed, either expressly or by implication. Article 9(2) provides that an agreement may be implied only when the usage is "widely known to, and regularly observed by parties to contracts of the type involved in the particular trade concerned." Referring to ICC Arbitration Rules which state that arbitrators will take into account "relevant trade usages", the tribunal stated that the CISG's notice provisions are "prevailing trade usages" and held that, as such, they apply to this case.

41 Scholarly articles on CISG (General Principles of European Contract Law ) hachem.html (The CISG - Successes and Pitfalls) hachem.html (The Vienna Sales Convention and the Lex Mercatoria )

42 Ruang Lingkup Pengaturan Berlakunya CISG CISG tidak berlaku apabila: Article html Article html

43 Sales and Goods Sales: secara eksplisit tidak ditemukan pengertian “sales” (jual beli) di dalam CISG. Secara implisit CISG menyebutkan bahwa kewajiban seorang penjual terdiri dari “mengirimkan barang, menyerahkan dokumen-dokumen terkait dan menyerahkan hak kepemilikan dari benda tersebut”; sedangkan seorang pembeli berkewajiban untuk “melakukan pembayaran”. Berdasarkan penjabaran tersebut, bisa dilihat bahwa pengertian “sales” menurut CISG adalah “passing of title from the seller to they buyer for a price”. Goods: Drafters CISG juga tidak menyebutkan pengertian CISG, melalui pengecualian-pengecualian yang dijabarkan dalam Pasal 2 dapat dipahami bahwa konvensi CISG hanya mengatur tentang barang-barang yang bergerak (movable) dan dapat dilihat (tangible). Dalam versi bahasa Perancis Convention Relating to a Uniform Law on the International Sales of Goods 1964, istilah “goods” merujuk pada terminologi “merchandise”.

44 Pengecualian-pengecualian untuk jenis jual beli “barang” tertentu dibuat karena mengingat hukum nasional masing-masing negara telah memiliki pengaturan tersendiri mengenai hal tersebut.

45 Isu Kontraktual yang Dikecualikan oleh CISG 1.Illegality (ketidaksahan) and incompetency (ketidakcakapan hukum) 2.Third-party Claims and Personal Injuries

46 Interpreting CISG Article 7(1) 1.The international character of the convention; 2.The need to promote uniformity in the convention’s application; and 3.The observance of good faith. The use of “plain meaning” Travaux preparatoires Case law

47 Article 7 (2): 1.The convention; 2.The general principles on which the convention is based; 3.The rules of private international law.

48 Interpreting Sales Contract What? Whether a contract has been made Interpretation of the terms Ascertaining that contract has been performed as agreed How? Article 8: Rules for interpreting the statements and conduct of the parties Article 9: Usages and practices (of the parties and as well as the practices of trade to which the contract relates)

49 Article 8 1.For the purposes of this Convention statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to his intent where the other party knew or could not have been unaware what that intent was; 2.If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to the understanding that a reasonable person of the same kind as the other party would have had in the same circumstances; and 3.In determining the intent of a party or the understanding a reasonable person would have had, due consideration is to be given to all relevant circumstances of the case including the negotiations, any practices which the parties have established between themselves, usages and any subsequent conduct of the parties.

50 Statement and Conduct of the Parties Subjective Intent Approach Objective Intent Approach Parol evidence rule: a rule that forbids a court from considering any “prior” or any “contemporaneous oral understanding” when it is interpreting a writing that the parties intended as a “final expression of their agreement”. Did CISG adopt this kind of rule?

51 Article 8 (3) and Article 6 Article 8 (3): Article 6: The parties may exclude the application of this Convention or, subject to article 12, derogate from or vary the effect of any of its provisions. Article 12: Any provision of article 11, article 29 or Part II of this Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing does not apply where any party has his place of business in a Contracting State which has made a declaration under article 96 of this Convention. The parties may not derogate from or vary the effect or this article.

52 Article 11: A contract of sale need not be concluded in or evidenced by writing and is not subject to any other requirement as to form. It may be proved by any means, including witnesses. Article 96: A Contracting State whose legislation requires contracts of sale to be concluded in or evidenced by writing may at any time make a declaration in accordance with article 12 that any provision of article 11, article 29, or Part II of this Convention, that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance, or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing, does not apply where any party has his place of business in that State.

53 Pembentukan Kontrak Penawaran (offer) Kapan suatu penawaran menjadi efektif? Acceptance Does silence constitute as an acceptance? What about acceptance with modifications?

54 Wanprestasi (breach of contract) Fundamental breach Avoidance Requests for specific performance Ganti rugi (remedies)

55 Excuses for Non-Performance Force Majeur

56 Exercises page 569 Questions

57 Seller and Buyer’s Obligations Seller’s obligations Buyer’s obligations


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