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Metode Penelitian Administrasi / Manajemen Hasan Mustafa.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Metode Penelitian Administrasi / Manajemen Hasan Mustafa."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Metode Penelitian Administrasi / Manajemen Hasan Mustafa

2 The Scientific Method The goal of all scientific endeavors is: a.To explain b.To predict c.To control phenomena Based on the assumption that all behaviors and events are orderly, and they are effects that have discoverable causes

3 Sources of knowledge 1. Application of the scientific research 2. Experience 3. Authority

4 Story told about Aristotle One day Aristotle caught a fly and carefully counted and recounted its legs. He then announced that flies have five legs. No one questioned the word of Aristotle. For years his finding was uncritically accepted. Of course, the fly that Aristotle caught just happened to be missing a leg. Whether or not you believe the story, it does illustrate the limitations of relying on personal experience and authority as a source of knowledge

5 Inductive reasoning Formulation of generalizations based on observation of a limited number of specific events Example : Every research textbook examined contains a chapter on sampling Therefore, all research textbooks contains a chapter on sampling

6 Deductive reasoning Arriving at specific conclusions based on generalizations Example : All research textbooks contains a chapter on sampling This is a research textbook Therefore, this book contains a chapter on sampling

7 Sequential steps of scientific method 1.Recognition and definition of the problem 2.Formulation hypotheses 3.Collection of data 4.Analysis data 5.Statement of conclusions regarding confirmation or disconfirmation of the hypotheses

8 Identification of problem Theoretical framework Hypotheses Research design Data collection Analysis of data Interpretation of data observation Refinement of theory (pure research) Or Implementation (applied research) The building blocks of science Uma Sekaran, 1984

9 Types of research by purpose Pure/basic research : The main purpose of conducting basic research is to generate more knowledge and understanding of the phenomena that occur and to build theories based on the research results. Applied research : The main purpose of this type of research is to applying the results of findings to solving specific problems currently being experienced in the organization

10 Types of research by method Descriptive Research : A descriptive study determines and reports the way things are. One common type of descriptive research involves assessing attitudes or opinions toward individuals, organizations, events, or procedures. Examples : Customer Satisfaction Employee Satisfaction The application of “flextime” Correlational Research : Attempts to determine whether, and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables Examples : The relationship between motivation and job performance Causal Relationship Research : Try to trace the cause-effect relationships between two phenomena. Example : The effect of positive reinforcement on job performance “Sebab-akibat atau Korelasi?”

11 Business and management research Management : Employee attitude and behavior Human Resource Management Information system Organizational Culture Organization Structure Etc. Accounting : Budget and control system Inventory costing methods Accelerated depreciation Cash recovery rates Etc. Marketing : Product image Advertising Sales promotion Consumer preferences Brand image Etc. Finance : Optimum financial ratios Merger and acquisition The operations of financial institution Etc.

12 Some commonly researched area in administration/mgt. Employee behavior such as performance, absenteeism, and turnover, validation of performance appraisal system, brand loyalty, product life cycle, product innovation, consumer complaints, logo image, market testing, product positioning, portfolio investment, dividend policy, pricing model, corporate culture and socialization process, advertising effectiveness, designing career paths, gender differences in leadership styles, pollution emission and health of the worker, organizational effectiveness, deferred compensation plans, participative management and performance effectiveness, downsizing, creative management of a diverse workforce, etc.

13 Proses Penelitian Mengenali secara umum masalah penelitian melalui observasi Mengumpul- kan data awal Merumuskan masalah penelitian Kerangka kerja teoritis. Menetapkan variabel penelitian Memuncul- kan hipotesis atau pertanyaan penelitian Menyusun rancangan penelitian Mengum- pulkan mengolah, meng- analisis, menginter pretasi data Menyusun laporan penelitian Mempre- sentasikan laporan Menyusun keputusan manajerial Uma Sekaran, 2003 click Teknik sampling Teknik pengumpulan data Teknik penskalaan

14 1. Observasi Masalah Penelitian Masalah yang dihadapi oleh organisasi yang perlu dicari jalan keluarnya Program pelatihan yang ternyata hasilnya tidak sesuai dengan harapan Disiplin pegawai yang rendah Pelayanan kepada masyarakat kurang memuaskan Sistem kerja baru yang diterapkan ternyata tidak berjalan sesuai dengan rencana Indeks Prestasi mahasiswa di bawah rata-rata Dan Lain-lain

15 2. Pengumpulan Data Awal tentang masalah penelitian Data tentang kinerja pegawai setelah mengikuti pelatihan Data pegawai yang sering melanggar aturan organisasi, dan aturan-aturan yang sering dilanggar Data keluhan masyarakat atas pelayanan yang diberikan oleh organisasi Data kegagalan penerapan sistem kerja baru Data lengkap tentang Indeks Prestasi Mahasiswa

16 3. Perumusan Masalah Penelitian Berdasarkan data awal tentang masalah penelitian maka masalah perlu dirumuskan Pernyataan yang spesifik yang akan dicari jawabnya atau jalan pemecahannya Data keluhan masyarakat atas pelayanan yang diberikan oleh organisasi Waktu pelayanan tidak sesuai dengan yang dijanjikan ? Biaya pelayanan terlampau besar ? Petugas pelayanan tidak profesional ? Tempat pelayanan kurang memadai ?

17 4. Kerangka Kerja Teoritis Contoh : Five determinants of service quality : 1.Reliability – the ability to perform service dependability and accurately. “Bisa dipercaya” 2. Responsiveness – the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. “Cepat tanggap” 3. Assurance – the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence. – “Jaminan mutu” 4. Empathy – the provision of caring, individualized attention to customers – “mengerti kebutuhan pelanggan” 5. Tangibles – the appearance of physical facilities, equipments, personnel, and communication materials. – “Tampilan fisik” Kotler, 1977

18 Kualitas Pelayanan Keterandalan Kecepat- tanggapan Kesopanan aparat Pengetahuan aparat atas tugasnya empati Kenyamanan tempat pelayanan Tampilan petugas Model Penelitian

19 5. Hipotesis atau Pertanyaan Penelitian Apakah pekerjaan aparat dalam melayani masyarakat dapat diandalkan? Apakah aparat memahami kebutuhan masyarakat? Apakah tampilan aparat menarik ? Apakah kondisi fisik tempat pelayanan memuaskan ? Apakah aparat mengetahui dengan baik tugas mereka ? Dll. “Penyebab penyebab utama ketidakpuasan masyarakat atas mutu pelayanan organisasi adalah ketidak tepatan-waktu pengurusan perijinan” “Persepsi masyarakat terhadap aparat yang berjenis kelamin wanita lebih positif daripada pria”

20 6. Rancangan Penelitian Maksud penelitian : Menjajagi ? – explore Menguraikan apa adanya secara rinci? – description Menguji hipotesis ? – hypotheses testing Jenis penelitian : Hubungan kausal ? Korelasi? Deskripsi? Komparasi? Unit analisis (populasi penelitian) : Individu? Pasangan? Kelompok? Organisasi? Mesin? Aturan-aturan? Penetapan sampel : -Jumlahnya -Cara penetapannya a. sampel acak? b. sampel tidak acak? Cara pencarian data -Wawancara ? -Kuesioner? -Studi dokumen? -Observasi? Operasionalisasi variabel penelitian. Skala pengukuran variabel. Rentang waktu Penelitian : -“Sekali tembak”? (one-shot) - Longitudinal? Analisis : Univariate? Bivariate? Multivariate?

21 7. Pengumpuan data WawancaraKuesioner Studi Dokumen Observasi Survai


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