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Presentasi berjudul: "SOURCE OF AUTHORITY 1 THE COMPLIANCE PULL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW Emmy Yuhassarie."— Transcript presentasi:


2 DIMULAI DARI POSITIVISME “ positivism… teaches that international law is the sum of the rules by which states have consented to be bound, and that nothing can be law to which they have not consented”. “but the assumption that international law consist of nothing save what states have consented to is an inadequate account of the system as it can be seen in actual operation”… “a customary rules is observed, not because it has been consented to, but because it is believed ( or expected) to be binding”. 2 Is International Law Really Law ?

3 Apakah HI itu Hukum : tergantung konsep hukum itu sendiri Asal usul konsep kembali ke karya pikir Hobbes, Bentham, Austin Kelsen; - Apakah hubungan antara pemerintah dan warganya itu tercermin sama di hubungan hukum antara negara? Hobbes - Apakah sifat hubungan itu koordinatif-horisontal atau hierarkis- vertikal Situasi yang meragukan efektifitas HI: - tidak ada nya struktur trias politika; - Bukan hukum positif dalam konsep Austin ( Hukum harus beda dengan etika) Menjadi hukum positif melalui konsep H.L.A. Hart 3

4 FAKTANYA : Hasil observasi Louis Henkin 1979: “ Almost all nations observe almost all principles of International law and almost all of their obligations almost all the time “ Hart: postivisme modern beda dengan Austin ( command law theory) International law could be described as a legal order rather than collection of social rules, because: 1.rule did exist as how states ought to behave: 2.appeals were commonly made to precedents and treatise: 3.the system itself operated with a degree of ethical neutrality; and 4.the system was capable of change by treaty. 4

5 THE DUTY OF GOOD FAITH AND MAINTAIN ORDER There is a duty upon Domestic laws to fulfill international obligations in good faith; The declaration on Rights and Duties of States, which was prepared by the International Law Commission and approved by the UN General Assembly in 1949, Art. 13 : “Every state has a duty to carry out in good faith its obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law, and it may not invoke its provisions or its laws as an excuse for failure to perform this duty. “ 5


7 THE APPEAL OF CUSTOMARY LAW AND TREATY “PULL OF COMPLIANCE” Art 27 VCLT : Internal Law and Observance of Treaties : A party may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for its failure to perform a treaty. This rule is without prejudice to article 46. Art 46 VCLT : Provisions of internal law regarding competence to conclude treaties 1. A State may not invoke the fact that its consent to be bound by a treaty has been expressed in violation of a provision of its internal law regarding competence to conclude treaties as invalidating its consent unless that violation was manifest and concerned a rule of its internal law of fundamental importance. 2. A violation is manifest if it would be objectively evident to any State conducting itself in the matter in accordance with normal practice and in good faith. 7

8 HISTORY TRACK FROM THE LAW OF WAR “he who violates the laws of war cannot obtain immunity while acting in pursuance of the authority of the state if the state in authorizing action moves outside its competence under international law ” Opinion and judgment Int Military Tribunal at Nuremberg ( 1946 – Oct 1) US Military Tribunal 1948, XI Trials of war Criminals ( 1950) “Ïnternational law operates as a restriction and limitation on the sovereignty of nations. It may also limit the obligations which individuals owe to their states, and create for then international obligations which are binding on then to an extent that they must be carried out even if to do so violates a positive law of the state. “ 8

9 “ a piece of national law can not be regarded as an excuse for the breach of obligations given by international law.” In another case this court also held that: “ it is the duty of every state to bring its domestic law in line with international law”. 9

10 Conclusion The base of effectiveness of International law: a) Lack of permanent structures /institutions so It is not positive law; b) Interdependency and state’s self interest; c)The common goal, that is PEACE, STABILITY and ORDER; d) A self perpetuating quality of International law as a system of law e)The practitioner habit of obedience, and flexible in nature 10

11 The WEAKEN FEATURES 1.Lack of Institution 2.Lack of positive regulations 3.Lack of certainty 4.Lack of universal interests. 11

12 HI tetap hukum dan efektif terbukti dari 1.Banyaknya modus,upaya menyelesaikan konflik, bilateral, maupun regional multilateral, baik publik maupun privat ; 2.Hadirnya forum penyelesaian sengketa PCIJ, ICJ, kemudian yang sifatnya “ad Hoc – Ruwanda Yugoslavia, Nurenberg dst ; 3.Kepatuhan yang terbukti terjadi walaupun tidak disebabkan oleh beratnya sanksi tapi lebih pada rasa tenggang yng timbal balik; 4.Banyak ketentuan Konvensi Internasional yang akhirnya di “ adopsi” menjadi kaidah hukum nasional. 5.Collective action yang cukup sering terjadi, bila satu negara terang terangan melanggar hukum internasional, 12

13 HI tetap ditaati dengan berbagai alasan..... 6. Dibentuknya Dewan Keamanan PBB untuk memonitor ditaatinya prinsip dasar hukum internasional untuk, kalau perlu dengan force/ samksi ekonomi ; Korea 1950, Iraq 1990 -1998, Libya 1992 dst.. 7. Terdapat mekanisme gugat menggugat akan ganti rugi atau meminta penetapan atau advis ICJ untuk menjatuhkan sanksi ; 8. Pemutusan hubungan diplomatik secara sepihak. 9. Dibentuknya International Criminal Court menggambarkan untuk kejahatan yang sangat berat, telah terdapat Pengadilan Supra Negara. 10. Kepedulian bersama membuat intervensi humanitarian menjadi “sah” alias terlegitimasi secara hukum internasional 13

14 SOME EXAMPLES ITU charts the frequency distribution and usage through out the world; US also removed its safeguard measures on steel following a loss before the WTO’s appelate body. Mexico reformed its telecommunications regulations to comply to decision of WTO Panel. Namibia accepted the ICJ decision on longterm border dispute in favor of Botswana. British government bowed to ruling from the ECHR that gay individuals be permitted to serve in the armed forces. Even recommending to amend domestic regulation on homosexuality. NAFTA could enforce domestic regulations to change 14

15 US passed the Foreign Relations Authorization Act which includes implementing legislation for the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. This legislation amends title 18 of the USCode to establish criminal penalties for persons committing or attempting to commit torture outside of the US. The Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act requires that the US government seek the issuance of a search warrant in response to a demand from the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons to engage in a challenge inspection of a public or private facility. The Basel Accord on International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards, a soft law instrument that sets standards governing the capital –asset ratios maintained by central banks, was initially signed by the G- 10 and Luxemburg, but has subsequently been implemented by more than100 states. 15

16 IN CONCLUSIONThe basis of compliance is 3 R: Reputation, Reciprocity, and Retaliation With national interests as Underlying causes 16 Interests INTERESTS


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