Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu


Presentasi serupa

Presentasi berjudul: "INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ANTICIPATION OF HAZARDS"— Transcript presentasi:


2 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE Definition : “That science and art devoted to the :
(1) anticipation, (2) recognition, (3) evaluation, and (4) control of those (occupational health hazard) / environmental factors or stresses, arising in and from the workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being or significant discomfort and inefficiency among workers or among citizens of the community” Source : AIHA (the American Industrial Hygiene Association)

Definition : Chemical, physical, ergonomic, or biological (stressor) and (stresses). Source : Fundamental of Industrial Hygiene, 5 th ed, 2002.

Definition : May mean Conditions that cause legally compensable illnesses, or may mean any conditions in the workplace that impar the health of employees enough to make them loss time from work or to cause significant discomfot. Note : Both are undesirable and preventable. Their correction is properly a responsibility of management.

5 The Industrial Hygienist
The Industrial hygienist, although trained in engineering, physics, chemistry, env.sciences, safety, or biology, has acquired through postgraduate study or experience a knowledge of the health effects of hazards. Industrial hygienists do recognition and evaluation of the magnitude of work-related hazards and stresses, give an expert opinion as to the degree of risk the hazards pose, includes develop corrective measures in order to control hazards. source : Fundamental of Industrial Hygiene, 5 th Ed, 2002

6 Primarily Responsibility
1. To protect the health of employees. 2.To maintain an objective toward the recognition, evaluation and control of health hazard realizing that the health and welfare of workers may depend on industrial hygienist’s professional judgment. 3.To counsel employees regarding the health hazards and precautions to avoid adverse health effects. 4.To respect confidences, advise honestly, and report findings and recommendation accurately 5.To act responsibly in the application of industrial hygiene principles toward the attainment of healthful working environments 6.To hold responsibilities to the employer to protect the health of employees. (Source : American Academy of Industrial Hygiene’s Code of Ethics)

Direct the industrial hygiene program : - (Policy, Education, Hazards Recognition, Evaluation, and Control, OSHA Compliance) 2. Examine the work environment Study work operations and processes and obtain details of nature of the work, materials and equipment used, products and by-products, number and sex of employees, and hours of work. Make appropriate measurement to determine the magnitude of exposure to workers and the public, devise methods and select instruments for such measurement, personally conduct measurements, and study and test material associated w/ the work operations Using chemical and physical means, study the results of test of biological materials, such as blood and urine, when such examination will aid in determining the extent of exposure.

8 FUNCTIONS… 3. Interpret results of the examination of the environment in terms of its ability to impair health, nature of health impairment, workers’ efficiency, and community nuisance or damage, and present specific conclusions to appropriate parties such as management, health officials, and employee representatives. 4. Make specific decisions as to the need for or effectiveness of control measures and, when necessary, advise as to the procedures that are suitable and effective for both the work environment and the general environment.

9 FUNCTIONS… 5. Prepare rules, regulations, standards, and procedures for the healthful conduct of work and the prevention of nuisance in the community 6. Present expert testimony before courts of law, hearing boards, workers’ compensation commissions, regulatory agencies, and legally appointed investigative bodies 7. Prepare appropriate text for labels and precautionary information for materials and products to be used by workers and the public

10 FUNCTIONS….. 8. Conduct programs for the education of workers and the public in the prevention of occupational disease and community nuisance 9. Conduct epidemiological studies of workers and industries to discover the presence of occupational disease and establish or improve Threshold Limit Values® or standards for the maintenance of health and efficiency 10.Conduct research to advance knowledge concerning the effects of occupation on health and means of preventing occupational health impairment, community air pollution, noise, nuisance, and related problems

11 ANTICIPATION Anticipation is ability to forecast, predicts, estimates potential hazards which possibly will arise from or in workplace consequently from working activity. This ability needed to able to plan industrial hygiene program (recognition, evaluation and control of hazards, etc)

12 ANTICIPATION….. Ability of anticipation based on knowledge and understanding of hazards and stresses, and past experience of field, althrough : Study all available information : detail information should be obtained regarding types of hazardous materials used in a facility, the type of job operation, how the workers are exposed, work patterns, level of air contamination, duration of exposure, and control measures used. 2. Study all cases based on past experience and study. 3. Discussion and consultancy with the experts.

13 Anticipation of Hazards
Lokasi : TRF - Proses No Aktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya Individu Durasi Frekuensi Fisik Kimia Biologi Ergonomi Terpapar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mengganti dan menghitung tabel barton - Tabel barton Instalasi, luar ruangan - Suhu dingin Pencahayaan N/A - Ular Nyamuk Gigitan lebah - Postur statis 15 menit 21x/bulan Pengecekan dan kontrol kondisi proses - Jiskot otomatis Shaw meter Instalasi, luar ruangan - Suhu panas Sinar UV - BTX - Postur statis Gerakan berulang 30 menit Tata rumah tangga - Instalasi, luar ruangan Pemotong rumput - Suhu panas Sinar UV Pencahayaan Getaran lengan tangan - Postur janggal Postur statis Gerakan berulang 8 jam Pembersihan air - Manual Dalam ruangan 10 menit Tes alat - Standby Diesel Generator (SDG) Test alarm Diesel kompresor - Bising Getaran seluruh tubuh Pencahayaan - Smoke - 30 menit s/d5 mnt menit 4x/bulan Membersihkan level transmiter kondensat di slugcatcher - Level transmitter Slugcatcher Instalasi, luar ruangan - Bising Getaran seluruh tubuh Sinar UV Panas - Gerakan berulang

14 No Aktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya Individu Durasi Frekuensi Fisik Kimia Biologi Ergonomi Terpapar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Pengecekan tekanan N2 - Botol N Dalam ruangan - Pencahayaan -kebocoran botol N2 N/A 3 menit 4x/bulan Pengecekan perlindungan katodik - Manual Dalam ruangan 1-3 menit Membersihkan aliran transmiter metering - Postur statis 15 menit N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)

15 Lokasi : TRF - Kontrol No Aktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya Individu Durasi Frekuensi Fisik Kimia Biologi Ergonomi Terpapar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 8 9 Kantor Memasukkan data - Lampu neon Komputer Meja, kursi - Pencahayaan ELF N/A - Postur statis Gerakan berulang 30 menit 21x/bulan Laporan ke Ruang kontrol CPU dan Vico - Radio transmitter - Radio frekuensi Bising Ruang Operator Administrasi - Lampu neon Komputer Meja, kursi Telepon Alat tulis - Pencahayaan ELF Radio frekuensi 8 jam N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)

16 Lokasi : TRF - Kantor No Aktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya Individu Durasi Frekuensi Fisik Kimia Biologi Ergonomi Terpapar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Kantor Administrasi - Lampu neon Komputer Meja, kursi Telepon Alat tulis - Pencahayaan ELF Radio frekuensi N/A - Postur statis Gerakan berulang 8 jam 14x/bulan N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)

17 Lokasi : TRF - Satpam No Aktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya Individu Durasi Frekuensi Fisik Kimia Biologi Ergonomi Terpapar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Kantor Administrasi - Lampu neon Meja, kursi Telepon Alat tulis - Pencahayaan Radio frekuensi N/A - Postur statis Gerakan berulang 12 jam 21x/bulan Komunikasi - Radio transmitter - Radio frekuensi Bising Luar Ruangan Jaga 24 jam - Dalam/luar ruangan - Suhu panas Suhu dingin Sinar UV - Ular Nyamuk Gigitan lebah - Postur statis Patroli rutin (siang dan malam) N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)

18 Environmental Hazards (Factors) in The Work Place

19 Environmental Hazards
Chemical Physical Biological Ergonomic

20 Chemical Hazards Irritants Asphyxiants CNS Agents
Specific Organ Agents Genetic Activity Acute versus Chronic

21 Irritants Skin Eye Respiratory

22 Reversible/Irreversible Sensitization
Irritants Primary/Secondary Primary – at source of contact Secondary – travels through blood to another area Reversible/Irreversible Sensitization Irritant that has a delayed reaction on subsequent exposure

23 Asphyxiants Simple Asphyxiants Dilute air so oxygen content is low
He CH4 Dilute air so oxygen content is low Chemical Asphyxiants CO HCN H2S Interact at cellular level to inhibit oxygen uptake.

24 Central Nervous System Depressants
Narcotics Anesthetics Depressants

25 CNS Depressants Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Increased chain length enhances effect Addition of an alcohol group (i.e. ethanol) Addition of a halide group enhances the effect

26 May be reversible or irreversible
Specific Organ Attack May be reversible or irreversible Blood Liver Lungs Kidneys Skin Nerves & Brain Hemotoxic Hepatotoxic Pulmonotoxic Nephrotoxic Dermatotoxic Neurotoxic

27 Typically is irreversible
Genetic Activity Typically is irreversible Causes cancer Causes chromosome damage Causes birth defects Causes damage to reproductive system Carcinogen Mutagen Teratogen Reproductive Hazard

28 Physical Hazards Dusts and Fibers Noise Corrosives
Temperature Extremes Ionizing Radiation Non-Ionizing Radiation

29 Dusts and Fibers Concerned about particle size and penetration into pulmonary track D > 0.5 micron – does not reach lungs (but may ingest) 0.2 < D < 0.5 micron – respirable and gets stuck in lungs D < 0.2 micron – are exhaled

30 Noise Hazard Sound level measurement L = 10 * Log (I/I0)2
L = Sound intensity, decibels (dB) P = Sound pressure, rms (Pa) I0 = Reference sound pressure, rms (20  Pa)

31 Typical Noise Sources Source Sound Level (dB) Rocket 195
Jet Engine Rock Band Power Lawn Mower 95 Factory Noisy Office Conversation Quite Room Whisper

32 ACGIH Sound Level TLV’s
Sound Level (dB) Exposure Time Limit (hr) /2 /4 /8 >

33 Corrosive Hazards Usually concerned with the affect of corrosives on process equipment Concern for contact of workers with corrosives Usually involves necrosis, the death of local tissue due to contact of agent

34 Temperature Extremes Heat Stress Cold Stress Heat Stroke
Heat Exhaustion Cold Stress Frostbite Hypothermia

35 Heat Stress Body’s Energy Balance Metabolic rate Radiation
Convection Sweating External Conditions Temperature Humidity Air movement Radiation In a typical healthy individual the internal core body temperature may rise as much as 3°C during heat stress

36 Cold Stress Less Common in Industrial Situations
Cold climates Refrigerated space Wind chill Responses to Cold Stress Body core temperature is typically 37°C Shivering when body Tc < 36°C Lose Consciousness at Tc < 34°C Cold Stress

37 Temperature Stress Control
Hot Stress Air movement Periodic rest Remove to cooler location Cold Stress Limit exposure time Protective clothing

38 Ionizing Radiation Physical damage to cells Possible genetic damage
Types of Radiation Alpha – emitted from nuclei of radioactive particles Beta – similar to  but with more penetrating (~ 1 cm) X-ray – produced from high speed electrons striking material Gamma – originates from nucleus, produces burns Neutrons – emitted from disintegration of isotopes, very penetrating

39 Common Units to Measure Radiation
Rad – the unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation equal to the absorption of 100 ergs/g Roentgen – exposure to x-rays or gamma rays equal to absorption in 1 cm3 of air to produce 1 electrostatic unit of charge Rem – the dosage of ionizing radiation that will cause the same biological effect as 1 rad of x-, gamma or beta Curie – the rate at which radioactive material emits particles, 3.7x1010 disintegrations per second

40 __ _______ ________ Low frequency - ~ 3 m wavelength
__ _______ ________ Low frequency - ~ 3 m wavelength Microwaves - 3 m to 3 mm Infrared mm to 750 nm Visible light nm to 400 nm

41 Non-Ionizing Radiation
Ultraviolet Radiation UV-A 400 to 320 nm Harmful only to eyes, causes sun tan UV-B 320 to 280 nm Causes skin damage (sun burn), source arc welding UV-C 280 to 220 nm Severe damage, source germicidal lamps

42 Laser Light Especially dangerous for eyes Retinal burns Corneal burns

43 Ergonomic Hazards Physiological Hazards Psychological Hazards
Awkward movements Muscle strain Psychological Hazards Boredom Concentrated attention Simulated inputs

44 Ergonomic Hazards Increasing emphasis due to repetitive nature of some industrial manufacturing jobs. Also with more operators working at computers or workstations there are ergonomic concerns.

45 Biological Hazards Pathogenic organisms Five levels of classification
1 least dangerous 5 most dangerous Pathogenic organisms are typically not found in a chemical processing facility Possible biological hazards in an industrial setting AIDS Hepatitis B

46 Biological Hazards Industries with possible biological hazards
Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Food processing or agricultural products Typically hazards are well contained


Presentasi serupa

Iklan oleh Google