2 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE Definition : “That science and art devoted to the : (1) anticipation, (2) recognition,(3) evaluation, and (4) controlof those (occupational health hazard) / environmental factors or stresses, arising in and from the workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being or significant discomfort and inefficiency among workers or among citizens of the community”Source : AIHA (the American Industrial Hygiene Association)
3 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS (FACTORS) Definition :Chemical, physical, ergonomic, or biological (stressor) and (stresses).Source : Fundamental of Industrial Hygiene, 5 th ed, 2002.
4 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS Definition :May mean Conditions that cause legally compensable illnesses, or may mean any conditions in the workplace that impar the health of employees enough to make them loss time from work or to cause significant discomfot.Note : Both are undesirable and preventable.Their correction is properly a responsibility of management.
5 The Industrial Hygienist The Industrial hygienist, although trained in engineering, physics, chemistry, env.sciences, safety, or biology, has acquired through postgraduate study or experience a knowledge of the health effects of hazards.Industrial hygienists do recognition and evaluation of the magnitude of work-related hazards and stresses, give an expert opinion as to the degree of risk the hazards pose, includes develop corrective measures in order to control hazards.source : Fundamental of Industrial Hygiene, 5 th Ed, 2002
6 Primarily Responsibility 1. To protect the health of employees.2.To maintain an objective toward the recognition, evaluation and control of health hazard realizing that the health and welfare of workers may depend on industrial hygienist’s professional judgment.3.To counsel employees regarding the health hazards and precautions to avoid adverse health effects.4.To respect confidences, advise honestly, and report findings and recommendation accurately5.To act responsibly in the application of industrial hygiene principles toward the attainment of healthful working environments6.To hold responsibilities to the employer to protect the health of employees.(Source : American Academy of Industrial Hygiene’s Code of Ethics)
7 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE FUNCTIONS Direct the industrial hygiene program :- (Policy, Education, Hazards Recognition, Evaluation, and Control,OSHA Compliance)2. Examine the work environmentStudy work operations and processes and obtain details of nature of the work, materials and equipment used, products and by-products, number and sex of employees, and hours of work.Make appropriate measurement to determine the magnitude of exposure to workers and the public, devise methods and select instruments for such measurement, personally conduct measurements, and study and test material associated w/ the work operationsUsing chemical and physical means, study the results of test of biological materials, such as blood and urine, when such examination will aid in determining the extent of exposure.
8 FUNCTIONS…3. Interpret results of the examination of the environment in terms of its ability to impair health, nature of health impairment, workers’ efficiency, and community nuisance or damage, and present specific conclusions to appropriate parties such as management, health officials, and employee representatives.4. Make specific decisions as to the need for or effectiveness of control measures and, when necessary, advise as to the procedures that are suitable and effective for both the work environment and the general environment.
9 FUNCTIONS…5. Prepare rules, regulations, standards, and procedures for the healthful conduct of work and the prevention of nuisance in the community6. Present expert testimony before courts of law, hearing boards, workers’ compensation commissions, regulatory agencies, and legally appointed investigative bodies7. Prepare appropriate text for labels and precautionary information for materials and products to be used by workers and the public
10 FUNCTIONS…..8. Conduct programs for the education of workers and the public in the prevention of occupational disease and community nuisance9. Conduct epidemiological studies of workers and industries to discover the presence of occupational disease and establish or improve Threshold Limit Values® or standards for the maintenance of health and efficiency10.Conduct research to advance knowledge concerning the effects of occupation on health and means of preventing occupational health impairment, community air pollution, noise, nuisance, and related problems
11 ANTICIPATIONAnticipation is ability to forecast, predicts, estimates potential hazards which possibly will arise from or in workplace consequently from working activity.This ability needed to able to plan industrial hygiene program (recognition, evaluation and control of hazards, etc)
12 ANTICIPATION…..Ability of anticipation based on knowledge and understanding of hazards and stresses, and past experience of field, althrough :Study all available information : detail information should be obtained regarding types of hazardous materials used in a facility, the type of job operation, how the workers are exposed, work patterns, level of air contamination, duration of exposure, and control measures used.2. Study all cases based on past experience and study.3. Discussion and consultancy with the experts.
13 Anticipation of Hazards Lokasi : TRF - ProsesNoAktivitas/TugasSumber BahayaPotensi BahayaIndividuDurasiFrekuensiFisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar12345678910Mengganti dan menghitung tabel barton- Tabel barton Instalasi, luar ruangan- Suhu dingin PencahayaanN/A- Ular Nyamuk Gigitan lebah- Postur statis15 menit21x/bulanPengecekan dan kontrol kondisi proses- Jiskot otomatis Shaw meter Instalasi, luar ruangan- Suhu panas Sinar UV- BTX- Postur statis Gerakan berulang30 menitTata rumah tangga- Instalasi, luar ruangan Pemotong rumput- Suhu panas Sinar UV Pencahayaan Getaran lengan tangan- Postur janggal Postur statis Gerakan berulang8 jamPembersihan air- Manual Dalam ruangan10 menitTes alat- Standby Diesel Generator (SDG) Test alarm Diesel kompresor- Bising Getaran seluruh tubuh Pencahayaan- Smoke- 30 menit s/d5 mnt menit4x/bulanMembersihkan level transmiter kondensat di slugcatcher- Level transmitter Slugcatcher Instalasi, luar ruangan- Bising Getaran seluruh tubuh Sinar UV Panas- Gerakan berulang
14 NoAktivitas/TugasSumber BahayaPotensi BahayaIndividuDurasiFrekuensiFisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar12345678910Pengecekan tekanan N2- Botol N Dalam ruangan- Pencahayaan-kebocoran botol N2N/A3 menit4x/bulanPengecekan perlindungan katodik- Manual Dalam ruangan1-3 menitMembersihkan aliran transmiter metering- Postur statis15 menitN/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)
15 Lokasi : TRF - KontrolNoAktivitas/TugasSumber BahayaPotensi BahayaIndividuDurasiFrekuensiFisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar12345671089KantorMemasukkan data- Lampu neon Komputer Meja, kursi- Pencahayaan ELFN/A- Postur statis Gerakan berulang30 menit21x/bulanLaporan ke Ruang kontrol CPU dan Vico- Radio transmitter- Radio frekuensi BisingRuang OperatorAdministrasi- Lampu neon Komputer Meja, kursi Telepon Alat tulis- Pencahayaan ELF Radio frekuensi8 jamN/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)
16 Lokasi : TRF - KantorNoAktivitas/TugasSumber BahayaPotensi BahayaIndividuDurasiFrekuensiFisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar12345678910KantorAdministrasi- Lampu neon Komputer Meja, kursi Telepon Alat tulis- Pencahayaan ELF Radio frekuensiN/A- Postur statis Gerakan berulang8 jam14x/bulanN/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)
17 Lokasi : TRF - SatpamNoAktivitas/TugasSumber BahayaPotensi BahayaIndividuDurasiFrekuensiFisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar12345678910KantorAdministrasi- Lampu neon Meja, kursi Telepon Alat tulis- Pencahayaan Radio frekuensiN/A- Postur statis Gerakan berulang12 jam21x/bulanKomunikasi- Radio transmitter- Radio frekuensi BisingLuar RuanganJaga 24 jam- Dalam/luar ruangan- Suhu panas Suhu dingin Sinar UV- Ular Nyamuk Gigitan lebah- Postur statisPatroli rutin (siang dan malam)N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)
18 Environmental Hazards (Factors) in The Work Place
22 Reversible/Irreversible Sensitization IrritantsPrimary/SecondaryPrimary – at source of contactSecondary – travels through blood to another areaReversible/IrreversibleSensitizationIrritant that has a delayed reaction on subsequent exposure
23 Asphyxiants Simple Asphyxiants Dilute air so oxygen content is low HeCH4Dilute air so oxygen content is lowChemical AsphyxiantsCOHCNH2SInteract at cellular level to inhibit oxygen uptake.
24 Central Nervous System Depressants NarcoticsAnestheticsDepressants
25 CNS Depressants Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Increased chain length enhances effectAddition of an alcohol group (i.e. ethanol)Addition of a halide group enhances the effect
26 May be reversible or irreversible Specific Organ AttackMay be reversible or irreversibleBloodLiverLungsKidneysSkinNerves & BrainHemotoxicHepatotoxicPulmonotoxicNephrotoxicDermatotoxicNeurotoxic
27 Typically is irreversible Genetic ActivityTypically is irreversibleCauses cancerCauses chromosome damageCauses birth defectsCauses damage to reproductive systemCarcinogenMutagenTeratogenReproductive Hazard
28 Physical Hazards Dusts and Fibers Noise Corrosives Temperature ExtremesIonizing RadiationNon-Ionizing Radiation
29 Dusts and FibersConcerned about particle size and penetration into pulmonary trackD > 0.5 micron – does not reach lungs(but may ingest)0.2 < D < 0.5 micron – respirable and gets stuck in lungsD < 0.2 micron – are exhaled
33 Corrosive HazardsUsually concerned with the affect of corrosives on process equipmentConcern for contact of workers with corrosivesUsually involves necrosis, the death of local tissue due to contact of agent
35 Heat Stress Body’s Energy Balance Metabolic rate Radiation ConvectionSweatingExternal ConditionsTemperatureHumidityAir movementRadiationIn a typical healthy individual the internal core bodytemperature may rise as much as 3°C during heat stress
36 Cold Stress Less Common in Industrial Situations Cold climatesRefrigerated spaceWind chillResponses to Cold StressBody core temperature is typically 37°CShivering when body Tc < 36°CLose Consciousness at Tc < 34°CCold Stress
37 Temperature Stress Control Hot StressAir movementPeriodic restRemove to cooler locationCold StressLimit exposure timeProtective clothing
38 Ionizing Radiation Physical damage to cells Possible genetic damage Types of RadiationAlpha – emitted from nuclei of radioactive particlesBeta – similar to but with more penetrating (~ 1 cm)X-ray – produced from high speed electrons striking materialGamma – originates from nucleus, produces burnsNeutrons – emitted from disintegration of isotopes, very penetrating
39 Common Units to Measure Radiation Rad – the unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation equal to the absorption of 100 ergs/gRoentgen – exposure to x-rays or gamma rays equal to absorption in 1 cm3 of air to produce 1 electrostatic unit of chargeRem – the dosage of ionizing radiation that will cause the same biological effect as 1 rad of x-, gamma or betaCurie – the rate at which radioactive material emits particles, 3.7x1010 disintegrations per second
40 __ _______ ________ Low frequency - ~ 3 m wavelength __ _______ ________Low frequency - ~ 3 m wavelengthMicrowaves - 3 m to 3 mmInfrared mm to 750 nmVisible light nm to 400 nm
41 Non-Ionizing Radiation Ultraviolet RadiationUV-A 400 to 320 nmHarmful only to eyes, causes sun tanUV-B 320 to 280 nmCauses skin damage (sun burn), source arc weldingUV-C 280 to 220 nmSevere damage, source germicidal lamps
42 Laser LightEspecially dangerous for eyesRetinal burnsCorneal burns
44 Ergonomic HazardsIncreasing emphasis due to repetitive nature of some industrial manufacturing jobs.Also with more operators working at computers or workstations there are ergonomic concerns.
45 Biological Hazards Pathogenic organisms Five levels of classification 1 least dangerous5 most dangerousPathogenic organisms are typically not found in a chemical processing facilityPossible biological hazards in an industrial settingAIDSHepatitis B
46 Biological Hazards Industries with possible biological hazards Pharmaceutical ManufacturingFood processing or agricultural productsTypically hazards are well contained