INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE Definition : “That science and art devoted to the : (1) anticipation, (2) recognition, (3) evaluation, and (4) control of those (occupational health hazard) / environmental factors or stresses, arising in and from the workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being or significant discomfort and inefficiency among workers or among citizens of the community” Source : AIHA (the American Industrial Hygiene Association)
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS (FACTORS) Definition : Chemical, physical, ergonomic, or biological (stressor) and (stresses). Source : Fundamental of Industrial Hygiene, 5 th ed, 2002.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS Definition : May mean Conditions that cause legally compensable illnesses, or may mean any conditions in the workplace that impar the health of employees enough to make them loss time from work or to cause significant discomfot. Note : Both are undesirable and preventable. Their correction is properly a responsibility of management.
The Industrial Hygienist The Industrial hygienist, although trained in engineering, physics, chemistry, env.sciences, safety, or biology, has acquired through postgraduate study or experience a knowledge of the health effects of hazards. Industrial hygienists do recognition and evaluation of the magnitude of work-related hazards and stresses, give an expert opinion as to the degree of risk the hazards pose, includes develop corrective measures in order to control hazards. source : Fundamental of Industrial Hygiene, 5 th Ed, 2002
Primarily Responsibility 1. To protect the health of employees. 2.To maintain an objective toward the recognition, evaluation and control of health hazard realizing that the health and welfare of workers may depend on industrial hygienist’s professional judgment. 3.To counsel employees regarding the health hazards and precautions to avoid adverse health effects. 4.To respect confidences, advise honestly, and report findings and recommendation accurately 5.To act responsibly in the application of industrial hygiene principles toward the attainment of healthful working environments 6.To hold responsibilities to the employer to protect the health of employees. (Source : American Academy of Industrial Hygiene’s Code of Ethics)
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE FUNCTIONS 1. 1. Direct the industrial hygiene program : - (Policy, Education, Hazards Recognition, Evaluation, and Control, OSHA Compliance) 2. Examine the work environment – –Study work operations and processes and obtain details of nature of the work, materials and equipment used, products and by-products, number and sex of employees, and hours of work. – –Make appropriate measurement to determine the magnitude of exposure to workers and the public, devise methods and select instruments for such measurement, personally conduct measurements, and study and test material associated w/ the work operations – –Using chemical and physical means, study the results of test of biological materials, such as blood and urine, when such examination will aid in determining the extent of exposure.
FUNCTIONS… 3. Interpret results of the examination of the environment in terms of its ability to impair health, nature of health impairment, workers’ efficiency, and community nuisance or damage, and present specific conclusions to appropriate parties such as management, health officials, and employee representatives. Make specific decisions as to the need for or effectiveness of control measures and, when necessary, advise as to the procedures that are suitable and effective for both the work environment and the general environment. 4. Make specific decisions as to the need for or effectiveness of control measures and, when necessary, advise as to the procedures that are suitable and effective for both the work environment and the general environment.
FUNCTIONS… 5. Prepare rules, regulations, standards, and procedures for the healthful conduct of work and the prevention of nuisance in the community 6. Present expert testimony before courts of law, hearing boards, workers’ compensation commissions, regulatory agencies, and legally appointed investigative bodies 7. Prepare appropriate text for labels and precautionary information for materials and products to be used by workers and the public
FUNCTIONS….. 8. Conduct programs for the education of workers and the public in the prevention of occupational disease and community nuisance 9. Conduct epidemiological studies of workers and industries to discover the presence of occupational disease and establish or improve Threshold Limit Values® or standards for the maintenance of health and efficiency 10.Conduct research to advance knowledge concerning the effects of occupation on health and means of preventing occupational health impairment, community air pollution, noise, nuisance, and related problems
ANTICIPATION Anticipation is ability to forecast, predicts, estimates potential hazards which possibly will arise from or in workplace consequently from working activity. Anticipation is ability to forecast, predicts, estimates potential hazards which possibly will arise from or in workplace consequently from working activity. This ability needed to able to plan industrial hygiene program (recognition, evaluation and control of hazards, etc)
ANTICIPATION….. Ability of anticipation based on knowledge and understanding of hazards and stresses, and past experience of field, althrough : 1. Study all available information : detail information should be obtained regarding types of hazardous materials used in a facility, the type of job operation, how the workers are exposed, work patterns, level of air contamination, duration of exposure, and control measures used. 2.Study all cases based on past experience and study. 3.Discussion and consultancy with the experts.
Lokasi : TRF - Proses NoAktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya IndividuDurasiFrekuensi FisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar 12345678 910 1 Mengganti dan menghitung tabel barton - Tabel barton - Instalasi, luar ruangan - Suhu dingin - Pencahaya an N/A - Ular - Nyamuk - Gigitan lebah - Postur statis 3 15 menit 21x/bulan 2 Pengecekan dan kontrol kondisi proses - Jiskot otomatis - Shaw meter - Instalasi, luar ruangan - Suhu panas - Sinar UV - BTX - Ular - Nyamuk - Gigitan lebah - Postur statis - Gerakan berulang 3 30 menit 21x/bulan 3 Tata rumah tangga - Instalasi, luar ruangan - Pemotong rumput - Suhu panas - Sinar UV - Pencahaya an - Getaran lengan tangan N/A - Ular - Nyamuk - Gigitan lebah - Postur janggal - Postur statis - Gerakan berulang 3 8 jam 21x/bulan 4 Pembersihan air - Manual - Dalam ruangan N/AN/AN/A - Postur statis 3 10 menit 21x/bulan 5 Tes alat - Standby Diesel Generator (SDG) 2010 - Test alarm - Diesel kompresor - Bising - Getaran seluruh tubuh - Pencahaya an - Smoke N/AN/A3 - 30 menit - 3s/d5 mnt - 15 menit 4x/bulan 6 Membersihkan level transmiter kondensat di slugcatcher - Level transmitter - Slugcatcher - Instalasi, luar ruangan - Bising - Getaran seluruh tubuh - Sinar UV - Panas N/A - Ular - Nyamuk - Gigitan lebah - Gerakan berulang 3 30 menit 4x/bulan Anticipation of Hazards
NoNoNoNoAktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya IndividuDurasiFrekuensi FisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar 12345678 910 7 Pengecekan tekanan N2 - Botol N2 - Dalam ruangan - Pencahayaan - kebocora n botol N2 N/AN/A3 3 menit 4x/bulan 8 Pengecekan perlindungan katodik - Manual - Dalam ruangan - Pencahayaan N/AN/AN/A3 1-3 menit 4x/bulan 9 Membersihkan aliran transmiter metering - Manual - Dalam ruangan - Pencahayaan N/AN/A - Postur statis 3 15 menit 4x/bulan N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)
Lokasi : TRF - Kontrol NoNoNoNoAktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya IndividuDurasiFrekuensi FisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar 123456710 89 Kantor 1 Memasukkan data - Lampu neon - Komputer - Meja, kursi - Pencahayaan - ELF N/AN/A - Postur statis - Gerakan berulang 3 30 menit 21x/bulan 2 Laporan ke Ruang kontrol CPU dan Vico - Radio transmitter - Radio frekuensi - Bising N/AN/AN/A3 30 menit 21x/bulan Ruang Operator 3Administrasi - Lampu neon - Komputer - Meja, kursi - Telepon - Alat tulis - Pencahayaan - ELF - Radio frekuensi N/AN/A - Postur statis - Gerakan berulang 3 8 jam 21x/bulan N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)
Lokasi : TRF - Kantor NoNoNoNoAktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya IndividuDurasiFrekuensi FisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar 12345678 910 Kantor 1Administrasi - Lampu neon - Komputer - Meja, kursi - Telepon - Alat tulis - Pencahayaan - ELF - Radio frekuensi N/AN/A - Postur statis - Gerakan berulang 2 8 jam 14x/bulan N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)
Lokasi : TRF - Satpam NoAktivitas/Tugas Sumber Bahaya Potensi Bahaya IndividuDurasiFrekuensi FisikKimiaBiologiErgonomiTerpapar 12345678 910 Kantor 1Administrasi - Lampu neon - Meja, kursi - Telepon - Alat tulis - Pencahayaan - Radio frekuensi N/AN/A - Postur statis - Gerakan berulang 5 12 jam 21x/bulan 2Komunikasi - Radio transmitter - Radio frekuensi - Bising N/AN/AN/A5 12 jam 21x/bulan Luar Ruangan 3 Jaga 24 jam - Dalam/luar ruangan - Suhu panas - Suhu dingin - Sinar UV N/A - Ular - Nyamuk - Gigitan lebah - Postur statis 5 12 jam 21x/bulan 4 Patroli rutin (siang dan malam) - Dalam/luar ruangan - Suhu panas - Suhu dingin - Sinar UV N/A - Ular - Nyamuk - Gigitan lebah - Postur statis 5 12 jam 21x/bulan 5Komunikasi - Radio transmitter - Radio frekuensi - Bising N/AN/AN/A5 12 jam 21x/bulan N/A : Not Available (tidak ada/tidak ditemukan)
Environmental Hazards (Factors) in The Work Place
Primary/Secondary – –Primary – at source of contact – –Secondary – travels through blood to another area Reversible/Irreversible Sensitization – –Irritant that has a delayed reaction on subsequent exposure
Simple Asphyxiants – –N 2 – –CO 2 – –He – –CH 4 Dilute air so oxygen content is low Chemical Asphyxiants –CO –HCN –H 2 S Interact at cellular level to inhibit oxygen uptake.
Central Nervous System Depressants NarcoticsAnestheticsDepressants
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons – –Increased chain length enhances effect – –Addition of an alcohol group (i.e. ethanol) – –Addition of a halide group enhances the effect
Specific Organ Attack Blood Liver Lungs Kidneys Skin Nerves & Brain Hemotoxic Hepatotoxic Pulmonotoxic Nephrotoxic Dermatotoxic Neurotoxic May be reversible or irreversible
Genetic Activity Causes cancer Causes chromosome damage Causes birth defects Causes damage to reproductive system Carcinogen Mutagen Teratogen Typically is irreversible Reproductive Hazard
Dusts and Fibers Noise Ionizing Radiation Non-Ionizing Radiation Corrosives Temperature Extremes
Concerned about particle size and penetration into pulmonary track – –D > 0.5 micron – does not reach lungs (but may ingest) – –0.2 < D < 0.5 micron – respirable and gets stuck in lungs – –D < 0.2 micron – are exhaled
Noise Hazard Sound level measurement L = 10 * Log (I/I 0 ) 2 L = Sound intensity, decibels (dB) P = Sound pressure, rms (Pa) I 0 = Reference sound pressure, rms (20 Pa)
Body’s Energy Balance – –Metabolic rate – –Radiation – –Convection – –Sweating External Conditions –Temperature –Humidity –Air movement –Radiation In a typical healthy individual the internal core body temperature may rise as much as 3°C during heat stress
Less Common in Industrial Situations – –Cold climates – –Refrigerated space – –Wind chill Responses to Cold Stress – –Body core temperature is typically 37°C – –Shivering when body T c < 36°C – –Lose Consciousness at T c < 34°C
Temperature Stress Control Hot Stress – –Air movement – –Periodic rest – –Remove to cooler location Cold Stress –Limit exposure time –Protective clothing
Physical damage to cells Possible genetic damage Types of Radiation – –Alpha – emitted from nuclei of radioactive particles – –Beta – similar to but with more penetrating (~ 1 cm) – –X-ray – produced from high speed electrons striking material – –Gamma – originates from nucleus, produces burns – –Neutrons – emitted from disintegration of isotopes, very penetrating
Rad – the unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation equal to the absorption of 100 ergs/g Roentgen – exposure to x-rays or gamma rays equal to absorption in 1 cm 3 of air to produce 1 electrostatic unit of charge Rem – the dosage of ionizing radiation that will cause the same biological effect as 1 rad of x-, gamma or beta Curie – the rate at which radioactive material emits particles, 3.7x10 10 disintegrations per second Common Units to Measure Radiation
Low frequency -~ 3 m wavelength Microwaves-3 m to 3 mm Infrared-3 mm to 750 nm Visible light- 750 nm to 400 nm
Non-Ionizing Radiation Ultraviolet Radiation Ultraviolet Radiation –UV-A400 to 320 nm Harmful only to eyes, causes sun tan –UV-B320 to 280 nm Causes skin damage (sun burn), source arc welding –UV-C280 to 220 nm Severe damage, source germicidal lamps
Especially dangerous for eyes Retinal burns Corneal burns
Ergonomic Hazards Increasing emphasis due to repetitive nature of some industrial manufacturing jobs. Also with more operators working at computers or workstations there are ergonomic concerns.
Pathogenic organisms –Five levels of classification 1 least dangerous 5 most dangerous –Pathogenic organisms are typically not found in a chemical processing facility –Possible biological hazards in an industrial setting AIDS Hepatitis B
Industries with possible biological hazards –Pharmaceutical Manufacturing –Food processing or agricultural products Typically hazards are well contained