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1.1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall 1 Chapter Information Systems in Global Business Today.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1.1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall 1 Chapter Information Systems in Global Business Today."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1.1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall 1 Chapter Information Systems in Global Business Today

2 1.2 © 2007 by Prentice Hall LEARNING OBJECTIVES Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today Menjelaskan mengapa sistem informasi sangat penting dalam bisnis saat ini. Mendefinisikan sistem informasi baik dari teknis dan perspektif bisnis. Mengidentifikasi dan menjelaskan tiga dimensi sistem informasi.

3 1.3 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Menilai aset pelengkap yang diperlukan untuk teknologi informasi untuk memberikan nilai bagi bisnis. Mengidentifikasi dan menggambarkan pendekatan kontemporer terhadap studi sistem informasi dan membedakan antara melek komputer dan sistem melek informasi. LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Continued) Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

4 1.4 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Smart Systems and Smart Ways of Working Help Toyota Become Number One Masalah: Persaingan ketat dan menuntut pelanggan. Solusi: Agar Didesain ulang dan proses produksi mengurangi biaya, meningkatkan pendapatan, dan meningkatkan layanan pelanggan. Oracle E-Business Suite memungkinkan untuk membangun mobil dengan permintaan order dan perkiraan dan persyaratan produksi yang lebih akurat. Menunjukkan TI berperan dalam menganalisis tren pasar dan pemantauan kualitas, efisiensi, dan biaya. Menggambarkan munculnya lanskap perusahaan digital di mana bisnis dapat menggunakan alat untuk menganalisis data penting. Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

5 1.5 © 2007 by Prentice Hall The Role of Information Systems in Business Today Bagaimana sistem informasi yang mengubah bisnis Peningkatan investasi teknologi Peningkatan tanggap terhadap permintaan pelanggan: A "Fed-Ex" ekonomi Pergeseran media dan periklanan Keamanan federal yang baru dan hukum akuntansi Peluang globalisasi Internet telah secara drastis mengurangi biaya operasi pada skala global Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

6 1.6 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today Penanaman Modal Teknologi Informasi Figure 1-1 Information technology investment, defined as hardware, software, and communications equipment, grew from 34% to 50% between 1980 and Source: Based on data in U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts, 2006.

7 1.7 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Di negara berkembang, perusahaan sepenuhnya digital –Hubungan bisnis yang signifikan diaktifkan digital dan dimediasi –Proses bisnis inti dicapai melalui jaringan digital –Aset penting perusahaan dikelola secara digital Perusahaan digital menawarkan fleksibilitas yang lebih besar dalam organisasi dan manajemen –Pergeseran waktu dan ruang Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

8 1.8 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Read the Interactive Session and then discuss the following questions: Apa keuntungan bekerja dalam lingkungan virtual seperti yang dibuat oleh Accenture? Apa kerugiannya? Apakah Anda ingin bekerja di perusahaan seperti Accenture? Mengapa atau mengapa tidak? Jelaskan jawaban Anda. Apa jenis perusahaan bisa mendapatkan keuntungan dari yang dijalankan hampir seperti Accenture? Mungkinkah semua perusahaan dijalankan hampir seperti Accenture? Virtual Management at Accenture The Role of Information Systems in Business Today Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

9 1.9 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Tumbuh saling ketergantungan antara kemampuan untuk menggunakan teknologi informasi dan kemampuan untuk menerapkan strategi perusahaan dan mencapai tujuan perusahaan. Perusahaan bisnis melakukan investasi besar dalam sistem informasi untuk mencapai enam tujuan bisnis strategis: –Keunggulan operasional –Produk baru, jasa, dan model bisnis –Pelanggan dan pemasok keintiman –Peningkatan pengambilan keputusan –keunggulan kompetitif –kelangsungan hidup Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

10 1.10 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Keunggulan Operasional : –Peningkatan efisiensi untuk mencapai profitabilitas yang lebih tinggi –Sistem informasi, teknologi alat penting dalam mencapai efisiensi dan produktivitas –Misalnya Wal-Mart RetailLink sistem link pemasok ke toko-toko untuk sistem pengisian superior Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

11 1.11 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Produk baru, jasa, dan model bisnis: –Model bisnis: menggambarkan bagaimana perusahaan memproduksi, memberikan, dan menjual produk atau jasa untuk menciptakan kekayaan –Sistem informasi dan teknologi utama memungkinkan alat untuk produk baru, jasa, model bisnis Misalnya Apple iPod, iTunes, dan penyewaan DVD berbasis internet Netflix Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

12 1.12 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Keterkaitan Pelanggan dan pemasok : −Melayani pelanggan dengan baik mengarah ke pelanggan kembali, yang menimbulkan pendapatan dan keuntungan −Misalnya Hotel high-end yang menggunakan komputer untuk melacak preferensi pelanggan dan digunakan untuk memantau dan menyesuaikan lingkungan −Keintiman dengan pemasok memungkinkan mereka untuk memberikan masukan penting, yang menurunkan biaya −Misalnya Sistem informasi JCPenney yang menghubungkan rekor penjualan ke produsen kontrak Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

13 1.13 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Peningkatan Pengambilan Keputusan –Tanpa informasi yang akurat: Manajer harus menggunakan perkiraan, tebakan terbaik, keberuntungan Menghasilkan: Kelebihan produksi, rendahnya produksi barang dan jasa, Misalokasi sumber daya, Waktu respon miskin Hasil yang buruk menaikkan biaya, kehilangan pelanggan Misalnya Dashboard digital berbasis Web Verizon untuk menyediakan manajer dengan data real-time pada keluhan pelanggan, performa jaringan, pemadaman baris, dll. Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

14 1.14 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Keunggulan operasional: –Peningkatan efisiensi untuk mencapai profitabilitas yang lebih tinggi Produk baru, jasa, dan model bisnis: –Diaktifkan oleh teknologi Hubungan Pelanggan dan pemasok : –Melayani pelanggan menimbulkan pendapatan dan keuntungan –Komunikasi yang lebih baik dengan pemasok menurunkan biaya Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

15 1.15 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Keunggulan Kompetitif –Memberikan kinerja yang lebih baik –Pengisian kurang untuk produk unggulan –Menanggapi pelanggan dan pemasok secara real time –Sering dicapai ketika perusahaan mencapai salah satu dari empat pertama keuntungan –Misalnya Dell: profitabilitas konsisten lebih dari 25 tahun, Dell tetap satu produsen yang paling efisien dari PC di dunia. –Namun Dell telah kehilangan sebagian dari keuntungan kepada pengikut cepat - HP Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

16 1.16 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Kelangsungan hidup –Teknologi informasi sebagai kebutuhan bisnis –Mungkin : Industry-level changes, e.g. Citibank’s introduction of ATMs Governmental regulations requiring record-keeping –E.g. Toxic Substances Control Act, Sarbannes-Oxley Act Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

17 1.17 © 2007 by Prentice Hall The Role of Information Systems in Business Today Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The Interdependence Between Organizations and Information Technology There is a growing interdependence between a firm’s information systems and its business capabilities. Changes in strategy, rules, and business processes increasingly require changes in hardware, software, databases, and telecommunications. Often, what the organization would like to do depends on what its systems will permit it to do. Figure 1-2

18 1.18 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Sistem Informasi: –Set komponen yang saling terkait –Mengumpulkan, memproses, menyimpan, dan mendistribusikan informasi –Dukungan pengambilan keputusan, koordinasi, dan pengendalian Informasi vs Data –Data aliran fakta-fakta mentah –Informasi adalah data yang dibentuk menjadi bentuk yang berarti Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

19 1.19 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today Raw data from a supermarket checkout counter can be processed and organized to produce meaningful information, such as the total unit sales of dish detergent or the total sales revenue from dish detergent for a specific store or sales territory. Figure 1-3 Data and Information

20 1.20 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Sistem Informasi: Tiga kegiatan organisasi menghasilkan informasi yang dibutuhkan –Masukan: Menangkap data mentah dari organisasi atau lingkungan eksternal –Pengolahan: Mengkonversi data mentah ke dalam bentuk yang bermakna –Output: Transfer olahan informasi kepada orang atau kegiatan yang menggunakannya Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

21 1.21 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Feedback: –Output dikembalikan kepada anggota organisasi bisnis yang tepat untuk membantu tahap input mengevaluasi atau benar Computer/Computer program vs. information system –Komputer dan perangkat lunak landasan teknis dan alat, mirip dengan bahan dan alat yang digunakan untuk membangun rumah Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

22 1.22 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today An information system contains information about an organization and its surrounding environment. Three basic activities—input, processing, and output—produce the information organizations need. Feedback is output returned to appropriate people or activities in the organization to evaluate and refine the input. Environmental actors, such as customers, suppliers, competitors, stockholders, and regulatory agencies, interact with the organization and its information systems. Figure 1-4 Functions of an Information System

23 1.23 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today Using information systems effectively requires an understanding of the organization, management, and information technology shaping the systems. An information system creates value for the firm as an organizational and management solution to challenges posed by the environment. Figure 1-5 Information Systems Are More Than Computers

24 1.24 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Organizational dimension of information systems –Hierarchy of authority, responsibility Senior management Middle management Operational management Knowledge workers Data workers Production or service workers Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

25 1.25 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today Business organizations are hierarchies consisting of three principal levels: senior management, middle management, and operational management. Information systems serve each of these levels. Scientists and knowledge workers often work with middle management. Figure 1-6 Levels in a Firm

26 1.26 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Organizational dimension of information systems (cont.) –Separation of business functions Sales and marketing Human resources Finance and accounting Production and manufacturing) –Unique business processes –Unique business culture –Organizational politics Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

27 1.27 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management dimension of information system –Managers set organizational strategy for responding to business challenges –In addition, managers must act creatively: Creation of new products and services Occasionally re-creating the organization Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

28 1.28 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Technology dimension of information systems –Computer hardware and software –Data management technology –Networking and telecommunications technology Networks, the Internet, intranets and extranets, World Wide Web – IT infrastructure: provides platform that system is built on Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

29 1.29 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Read the Interactive Session: Technology, and then discuss the following questions: What are the inputs, processing, and outputs of UPS’s package tracking system? What technologies are used by UPS? How are these technologies related to UPS’s business strategy? What problems do UPS’s information systems solve? What would happen if these systems were not available? UPS Competes Globally with Information Technology Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

30 1.30 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Dimensions of UPS tracking system –Organizational: Procedures for tracking packages and managing inventory and provide information –Management: Monitor service levels and costs –Technology: Handheld computers, bar-code scanners, networks, desktop computers, etc. Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

31 1.31 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Business perspective on information systems: –Information system is instrument for creating value –Investments in information technology will result in superior returns: Productivity increases Revenue increases Superior long-term strategic positioning Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

32 1.32 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Business information value chain –Raw data acquired and transformed through stages that add value to that information –Value of information system determined in part by extent to which it leads to better decisions, greater efficiency, and higher profits Business perspective: Calls attention to organizational and managerial nature of information systems Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

33 1.33 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today From a business perspective, information systems are part of a series of value-adding activities for acquiring, transforming, and distributing information that managers can use to improve decision making, enhance organizational performance, and, ultimately, increase firm profitability. Figure 1-7 The Business Information Value Chain

34 1.34 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today Although, on average, investments in information technology produce returns far above those returned by other investments, there is considerable variation across firms. Figure 1-8 Variation in Returns on Information Technology Investment

35 1.35 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Investing in information technology does not guarantee good returns Considerable variation in the returns firms receive from systems investments Factors: –Adopting the right business model –Investing in complementary assets (organizational and management capital) Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

36 1.36 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Complementary assets: –Assets required to derive value from a primary investment –Firms supporting technology investments with investment in complementary assets receive superior returns –E.g.: invest in technology and the people to make it work properly Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

37 1.37 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Complementary assets include: –Organizational investments, e.g. Appropriate business model Efficient business processes –Managerial investments, e.g. Incentives for management innovation Teamwork and collaborative work environments –Social investments, e.g. The Internet and telecommunications infrastructure Technology standards Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

38 1.38 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today The study of information systems deals with issues and insights contributed from technical and behavioral disciplines. Figure 1-9 Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems

39 1.39 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Technical approach Emphasizes mathematically based models Computer science, management science, operations research Behavioral approach Behavioral issues (strategic business integration, implementation, etc.) Psychology, economics, sociology Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

40 1.40 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Science Combines computer science, management science, operations research and practical orientation with behavioral issues Four main actors Suppliers of hardware and software Business firms Managers and employees Firm’s environment (legal, social, cultural context) Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

41 1.41 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Approach of this book: Sociotechnical view Optimal organizational performance achieved by jointly optimizing both social and technical systems used in production Helps avoid purely technological approach Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today

42 1.42 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Perspectives on Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today In a sociotechnical perspective, the performance of a system is optimized when both the technology and the organization mutually adjust to one another until a satisfactory fit is obtained. Figure 1-10 A Sociotechnical Perspective on Information Systems


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