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Presentasi berjudul: "1 KKMPT II SESI 6 TERMINOLOGI MEDIS BLOOD & LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS SISTEM DARAH & LIMFE Disusun oleh dr. Mayang Anggraini Naga FIKES-ARM U-EU (Revisi 2015)"— Transcript presentasi:


2 2 BLOOD & LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS (SITEM DARAH DAN LIMFE) DESKRIPSI Ada l5 istilah medis pada sistem cardio- vaskular yang berhubungan dengan aliran sirkulasi darah dalam tubuh. Cairan limfe yang telah dibersihkan oleh kelenjar limfe dalam sistem limfatik, akan dilepas masuk ke dalam aliran darah untuk ikut kembali ke jantung.

3 3 KOMPETENSI MAMPU: Mengeja, menulis, meringkas dan mentranskrip istilah medis dan tindakan terkait Sistem Darah dan Limfe dengan tepat, dan benar, guna memenuhi tuntutan persyaratan data sistem informasi statistik kesehatan, morbiditas dan mortalitas setempat, nasional dan internasional

4 4 Tujuan Instruksional Khusus: -Mengidentifikasi, mendefinisikan, dan mengeja akarkata sistem darah dan sistem limfe -Mendiskusikan struktur dasar dan fungsi sistem darah dan sistem limfe -Mengidentifikasi dan mengeja istilah gangguan terkait darah dan limfe dengan tepat/benar. -Menyiapkan ejaan istilah sistem darah dan sistem limfe yang tepat bagi definisi istilah medis. -Menganalisis istilah menjadi unsur kata pembentuknya dan menjelaskan arti istilah terkait.

5 5 POKOK BAHASAN TERMINOLOGI BLOOD & LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS (SITEM DARAH DAN LIMFE) SUB-POKOK BAHASAN -Struktur, fungsi darah, organ pembentuk darah & limfe. -Roots Sistem Darah dan Sistem Limfe -Reading: Blood & Lymphatic Sistem -Antigen & Antibody -Prefixes & Suffixes Istilah Sistem Darah & Limfe -Istilah Medis Umum Sistem Darah & Limfe -Istilah Gangguan Sistem Darah & Limfe -Istilah Diagnostik, Laboratoris & Terapi Sistem Darah & Limfe

6 READING: BLOOD Dipetik dari The American Medical Association: Encyclopedia of Medicine Random House, New York (1989)

7 BLOOD The sticky red fluid that circulates in our veins and arteries. Its main function is to act as the body’s transport system, but it also has a major role in the defense against infection. Blood also contains ingenious mechanisms to halt its own loss from the body; it seals damaged blood vessels, protects the injury with a clot, and helps to repair the damage.

8 Reading: Blood (Cont.-1) The average-sized adult has about 10 pints of blood. At rest, 10 pints a minute are pumped by the heart via the arteries to the lungs and all other tissues, then returned to the heart in veins, in a continuous circuit (Circulatory system). During exercise the heart may pump blood at a rate of 40 pints or more a minute.

9 Reading: Blood (Cont.-2) Almost half the volume of blood consists of cells, which include red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets or thrombocytes. The remainder is a fluid called plasma, which contains dissolved: -proteins, - sugar, -fat and -minerals.

10 BLOOD CELLS The main function of erythrocytes is to act as containers for the pigment and protein hemoglobin. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, where it is exchanged for the waste product carbon dioxide (Respiration). Leukocytes play an important part in the defense against infection by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, in an inflammation of any cause (Immune system).

11 BLOOD CELLS (Cont.-) Platelets (thrombocytes) are essential to arrest bleeding and repair damaged blood vessels. They clump together to block small holes, and these clumps release chemicals that begin the process of blood clotting.

12 PLASMA Blood plasma as straw-colored fluid, consisting mainly of water (95%) with a salt content very similar to sea-water. Levels of its many other dissolved constituents vary from time to time. Measurement of these constituents are useful to physicians in the diagnosis of disease states (blood tests; liver function tests). Important constituents of plasma include the following:

13 PLASMA (Cont.-1) NUTRIENTS These substances are transported to the tissues after absorption from the intestinal tract or following release from storage depots such as liver. Nutrients include sugars (princi- pally glucose), fats, amino acids required by cells to make proteins, and various vitamins and minerals. Immediately after a meal that is rich in fats, the plasma has a milky appearance as the consequence of its high fat content.

14 PLASMA (Cont.-2) WASTE PRODUCTS The main product of tissue metabolism is urea, which is transported in the plasma to the kidneys; abnormally high blood urea levels occur in renal failure. The waste product from the destruction of hemoglobin is a yellow pigment called bilirubin.

15 PLASMA (Cont.-3) This is normally removed from the plasma by the liver and turned into bile. Bilirubin levels become abnormally high in liver disease, or in hemolytic anemia, where there is excessive destruction of red blood cells. 15

16 PLASMA (Cont.-4) PROTEINS These include substances, such as fibrinogen, that are involved in the processes of coagulation and clotting, and others that act to inhibit coagulation. Plasma proteins, such as immunoglobulins (antibodies), and complement (bacteria fighters) are part of the immune system.

17 PLASMA (Cont.-5) Another type of plasma protein is albumin. The large size of the protein molecules prevents them from escaping from the blood into the tissues; this helps to “hold in” the water content of blood (by osmotic pressure) and thus maintain blood volume.

18 Hormone: The hormones are chemical messengers transported in the blood from various glands, to their target organs (Endocrine system). 18

19 TUGAS Baca dan Ceriterakan Kembali Isi Materi Reading tersebut!

20 20 STRUKTUR DARAH DAN LIMFE Sistem limfe terdiri dari cairan getah bening, pembuluh, nodi, organ-organ dan sel. Darah terdiri dari cairan plasma dan berbagai tipe sel darah, mengirim O2, nutrient dan zat kimia esensial ke seluruh sel dan mengang- kut CO2 berserta produk sampah lain dari sel-sel tubuh.

21 (Lanjutan-1) Darah dibentuk di sumsum (ss) tulang dan mengalir dalam arteria, vena dan kapiler darah. Sistem limfe berikut strukturnya berperan penting dalam fungsi imunitas tubuh dan juga membantu mengatur balans (keseim- bangan) cairan tubuh. 21

22 (Lanjutan-2) Serum darah adalah cairan yang tersisa setelah darah membeku (tidak mengandung butir darah dan protein fibrinogen). Apa beda antara: Darah:... Plasma:... Serum:... 22

23 23 ROOTS SISTEM DARAH dan SISTEM LIMFE Bentuk akar kata penggabung sistem darah dan sistem limfe: Kata Penggabung Definisi adenoid/o-  adenoid = adenoid agglutin/o-  to clump = menggumpal angi/o-  vessel = pembuluh ather/o-  fat, fatty plague = lemak, plak lemak bas/o-  base = basa blast/o-  immature cell = sel belum dewasa coagul/o-  clotting = pembekuan darah cyt/o-  cell = sel eosin/o-  red; rosy = kemerahan; senja erythr/o-  red = merah granul/o-  granules = granula, biji-biji.

24 24 ROOTS SISTEM DARAH dan SISTEM LIMFE (Lanjutan-1) Kata-penggabungDefinisi hem/o-blood= darah hemat/o-blood= darah immun/oprotection= perlindungan (kebal) is/o-equal= sama kary/o-nucleus= inti leuk/o-white= putih lymph/o-lymph= limfe (getah bening) lymphaden/o-lymph gland= kelenjar limfe lymphangi/o-lymph vessel= pembuluh limfe morph/o-form, shape= bentuk myel/o-bone marrow,spinal cord= sumsum tulang

25 25 ROOTS SISTEM DARAH dan SISTEM LIMFE (Lanjutan-2) Kata-penggabungDefinisi nucle/o-nucleus= inti phag/o-to eat= memakan poikil/o-varied/irregular= tidak teratur sacr/o-flesh= otot spher/osphere, round= bulat splen/o-spleen, lien= limpa thromb/o-clot; thrombus= bekuan darah; trombus thym/o-thymus (gland)= (kelenjar) timus tonsil/o-tonsils= amandel neutr/o-neutral= netral bas/o-basis, philein= basa, miskin

26 26 LATIHAN (1) Tulis Arti Akarkata di Bawah Ini 1.leuk/o-= 2.erythr/o-`= 3.thromb/o-= 4.nucle/o-= 5.immun/o-= 6.morph/o-= 7.lymph/o-= 8.hem/o-; hemat/o-= 9.blast/o-= 10.agglutin/o-= 11.phag/o-= 12.thym/o-= 13.splen/o-= 14.lymphang/o-=

27 27 LATIHAN (2) Tulis ejaan akar-kata istilah di bawah ini: 1.kelenjar limfelymph/o- 2.pembekuan darah_______ 3.sel_______ 4.merah_______ 5.darah_______ 6.putih_______ 7.pembuluh limfe_______ 8.perlindungan_______ 9.form, bentuk_______ 10. bekuan darah_______ 11.memakan_______ 12.sel pemakan besar_______

28 28 READING: BLOOD Jelaskan definisi kata yang digaris bawahi. Blood contains cells called leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelelets (thrombocytes) (45%) within a fluid portion called plasma (55%). Plasma and cells circulate throughout the body in blood vessels called arteries, capillaries and vein.

29 READING (Cont.-1) Lymph Lymph does not contain erythrocytes or platelets, but rich in two types of white blood cells called lymphocytes and monocytes. Lymph actually originates from the blood as fluid is squeezed out of tiny blood capillaries into the spaces between cells. This fluid is called interstitial fluid. 29

30 30 READING:BLOOD (Cont.-2) The interstitial fluid passes continuously into special thin-walled vessels called lymph capillaries, which begin at the tissue spaces. The lymph passes through larger lymphatic vessels and glands (nodes), finally it reach large veins in the thorac region of the body. Lymph enters the veins and thus empties back into the bloodstream.

31 READING:BLOOD (Cont.-3) The blood and lymphatic systems have many functions. Blood caries vital materials such as: oxygen, nutrients and hormones to tissue cells and transports waste materials, such as carbon dioxide and urea, away from tissue cells to be excreted from the body. 31

32 READING:BLOOD (Cont.-4) Lymph transports needed proteins which have leaked out of the blood capillaries back to the bloodstream via the veins. Both blood and lymph protect the body by carrying disease-fighting cells (phagocytes) and protein substances called antibodies which combat infection. 32

33 33 READING:BLOOD (Cont.-5) Also, plasma proteins and blood-clotting cells (platelets) contribute in the important coagulation (clotting) function of the blood. Plasma is composed of a solution of water and solid materials such as: -proteins, -sugar, -salts, -hormones and -vitamins.

34 READING:BLOOD (Cont.-6) All blood cells originate from unspecialized, immature cells called : stem cells haemocytoblasts which mature in the red bone marrow of adults -skull, vertebrae, ribs, -pelvis, breastbone, -thigh, and upper arm bones and in -liver and spleen of the fetus. 34

35 35 READING:BLOOD (Cont.-7) The change from primitive to specialized, or differentiated, form involves alterations in the size and shape of the blood cell. This means that the blood cells change from large immature cells to small mature forms; the size of the nucleus in red cells actually disappears; and the intensity of the stain taken up by cytoplasm diminishes.

36 36 ERYTHROCYTES In the mature erythrocytes the nucleus is extruded from the cell and the cell assumes the shape of a biconcave disk, which allows for a large surface area on the erythrocytes so that absorption and release of O2 and CO2 can take place.

37 ERYTHROCYTES (Cont.-1) In addition hemoglobin is found in mature erythrocytes. Hemoglobin enable the cell to carry O2 all through the body. The combination of O2 and Hb (oxyhem- oglobin) produces the bright color of blood. 37

38 Erythrocyte (Cont.-2) Erythrocytes live for about 120 days in the circulating bloodstream. After this time, macrophages in the spleen, liver and bone marrow destroy the worn-out erythrocytes break the hemoglobin down into its heme and globin portions. 38

39 Erythrocyte (Cont.-3) The hem decomposes into bilirubin and iron. Iron is used to form new red cells or stored in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow for later use. Bilirubin is carried to the liver and excreted through the duodenum with bile. 39

40 40 LEUKOCYTES There are 5 (five) types of mature leukocytes. -3 (three) of the types are called granulocytes and -2 (two) are agranulocytes.

41 LEUKOCYTES (Cont.-1) Granulocytes are the most numerous leukocytes (60%) and include basophils, containing cytoplasmic granules which stain with a basic dye (blue) and eosinophils, which contain granules with an affinity for acid dye (red), and neutrophils, with granules that do not stain intensely with either dye. 41

42 LEUKOCYTES (Cont.-2) The exact function of basophils is unknown, but their numbers are increased in leukemia. Eosinophils are increased in allergic conditions and parasitic infections. They fight disease by engulfing and swallowing up germs. They also increase in a number of pyogenic (fever- producing) infections and in some types of leukemia. 42

43 43 LEUKOCYTES (Cont.-2) All granulocytes are polymorphonuclear (multiple nuclei). The term polymorphonuclear leukocytes is used most often to describe the most numerous of the granulocytes, the neutrophil. Agranulocytes are leukocytes that do not have darkstaining granules in their cytoplasm. They are the lymphocytes and monocytes.

44 Leucoctytes (Cont.-3) Lymphocytes (33% of leukocytes) are important in the process of producing immunity (protection) in the body. They are capable of making antibodies which can neutralize and destroy foreign antigens (bacteria, virus) that may enter the body. 44

45 Leucoctytes (Cont.-4) Monocytes (70%) also fight against disease, but their mode and action is by phagocytosis. They dispose of dead and dying cells and other debris by engulfing and swallowing the cells. 45

46 46 THROMBOCYTES Platelets (thrombocytes) are formed in red blood marrow from giant multinucleated cells called megakaryocytes. Tiny fragments of the megakaryocyte break off from the cell to form platelets. The main function of platelets is to help in the clothing of blood.

47 PLASMA Plasma consist of 91% water and 9% solid materials, which are mainly proteins (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and prothrombin), with lesser amount of sugar, wastes, salts, hormones, and other substances. Albumin and globulin are serum proteins. Serum is plasma from which the clotting proteins, fibrinogen and prothrombin, have been removed. 47

48 48 PLASMA (Cont.-1) Albumin and globulin help to maintain the proper water content of the blood. These proteins, by their presence, hold water in the blood, opposing its tendency to leak out into the tissue spaces, which would cause edema (swelling). If albumin escape from the capillaries as result of injury, such as severe burn, water cannot be held in the blood and the blood volume drops.

49 PLASMA (Cont.-2) Shock can result if the loss of water is too great (dehydration). Globulin portion of plasma contains antibodies which can fight off foreign antigens. There are 3 (three) kind of globulins called alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulin, and they are be distinguished by the process of electrophoresis (electrical method) 49

50 50 PLASMA (Cont.-3) Immunoglobulins (Ig) are a specific type of gamma globulin which are capable of acting as antibodies. IgG is present in the fetus before and at birth, while IgA is found in: -breast milk, -saliva, -tear and -respiratory mucus.

51 PLASMAPHERESIS Plasmapheresis is the process of separating plasma from the formed elements in the blood. The separation is mechanical, not electrical as in electrophoresis. The entire blood sample is spun around in a centrifuge machine, and the plasma, being lighter in weight than the blood cells, in found at the top of the sample. 51

52 (Cont.-) The procedure usually takes approximately two hours. The main use of plasmapheresis is to remove damaging antibodies or antibody- antigen particle (immune complexes) from the circulation in some autoimmune disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, Goodpasture’s syndrome, kidney disease associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and thrombotic thrombocytopenia. 52

53 53 BLOOD GROUP Transfusions of “whole blood” are used to replace blood lost after injury, during surgery, or in severe shock. A transfusion cannot be made between any two people at random, however. Human blood falls into 4 (four) main groups called A, B, C and O, and there are harmful effects to transfusing blood from a donor of one blood group into a recipient who is of another blood group.

54 BLOOD GROUP (Cont.-1) Each of the blood groups has a specific combination of factors (antigens and antibodies) which are inherited. This antigen (agglutinogen) and antibody (agglutinin) factors of the various types are: -Type A, containing A antigen and anti-B antibody -Type B, containing B antigen and anti-A antibody 54

55 55 BLOOD GROUP (Cont.-2) -Type AB, containing A and B antigen and no anti-A or anti-B antibodies. -Type O, containing no A or B antigens and both anti-A and anti-B antibodies. People with type O blood are known as universal donor (contains neither A or B antigens), those with type AB blood are known as universal recipients (contains neither anti-A or anti-B antibodies). ( Dikutib dari: The language of Medicine, David Ellen Chabner, B.A., M.A.T. Chapter 14)

56 56 LATIHAN (3) Cocokkan komponen darah di lajur kiri dengan definisi yang tepat: 1.agranulosita. absorb different types of stain 2. basofilb. do not absorb stain 3. eosinofilc. iron-protein substance 4. granulositd. largest leukocyte 5.hemoglobine. release histamine & heparin 6. limfositf. necessary for coagulation 7. monocytesg. engulf, digest, and/or destroy unwanted material 8. neutrofilh. produce antibodies 9. fagosit i. increases in an allergic reaction 10. plateletj. phagocytic white blood cell

57 57 LATIHAN 4 Jawab istilah yang dimaksud dalam kalimat definisi di bawah ini: 1.Protein yang mengatur keseimbangan air dalam darah adalah: … 2.Butir sel darah yang berfungsi mengangkut O2: … 3.Butir sel darah yang terlibat dalam mekanisme imunitas selular adalah … 4.Butir sel darah putih yang bertanggungjawab tentang imunitas spesifik humoral adalah … 5.Umumnya pada gangguan parasit cacing, sel yang meningkat jumlahnya adalah … 6.Sel leukosit muda yang jumlahnya meningkat pada leukemia adalah …

58 58 ANTIGEN & ANTIBODY An antigen is a substance usually foreign to the blood (such as poison, virus, or bacterium), which stimulates the production of antibodies. Antibodies are protein substances developed by the body in response to the presence of foreign antigens. These antibodies will then attach to and destroy the antigens (the foreign bodies which produced them). The reaction between an antigen and antibody is called: IMMUNE REACTION.

59 ANTIGEN & ANTIBODY (CONT.-1) Another example of familiar antigen-antibody reaction is the Rh-condition on his or her red blood cells (RBC). This antigen factor is something that is inherited. An Rh- (Rh negatif) person does not carry the Rh factor antigen. 59

60 60 ANTIGEN & ANTIBODY (Cont.-2) If an Rh- woman and an Rh+ man conceive an embryo, the fetus may be Rh- or Rh+. A dangerous condition arises only when the embryo is Rh+. During delivery of the first Rh+ baby, some of the baby’s red blood cells containing antigens may escape into the mother’s bloodstream. This sensitizes the mother and causes her to produce antibodies against the new Rh+ antigens in her blood. Because this occurs at delivery, the first baby is not generally affected and is normal at birth.

61 ANTIGEN & ANTIBODY (Cont.-3) Difficulties arise with the second Rh+ pregnancy, if the embryo is Rh+ again during pregnancy the mother’ acquired antibodies will enter the infant’s bloodstream and attact the infant’s red blood cells (Rh+). The treatment infant’s RBCs are destroyed and the infant attempts to compensate for this loss of cells by making many new immature red blood cells (erythroblasts). The infant is born with a condition known as erythroblastosis fetalis. 61

62 62 ANTIGEN & ANTIBODY (Cont.-4) One of the clinical symptoms of erythroblastosis fetalis is jaundice, or yellow skin pigmentation. The jaundice results from the excessive destruction of red blood cells, which causes a substance called bilirubin (chemical pigmentation produced when hemoglobin of red blood cells is broken down) to accumulation in the blood.

63 ANTIGEN & ANTIBODY (Cont.-5) To prevent erythroblastosis fetalis, Rh immune globin is given to the mother after Rh+ delivery, abortion and miscarriage The globulin destroys Rh+ cells which have escaped into the mother’s circulation, and thus prevents sensitization of the mother and formation of Rh+ antibodies so that future babies will not develop erythroblastosis fetalis. (Petikan dari: The Language of Medicine, Davi-Ellen Chabner, B.A., M.A.T. Chapter 5) 63

64 64 LATIHAN (5) Tuliskan istilah medis dari definisi di bawah ini: 1.Donor darah yang memiliki A-antigen dan Anti-B antibodi disebut memiliki tipe golngan darah: … 2.Hemoglobin bocor keluar sel darah merah: … 3.Donor universal adalah donor darah tipe: … 4.Tipe golongan darah AB disebut: … 5.Seorang yang lahir dengan Rh-antigen disebut: … 6.Bila darah Rh+ ditransfusikan ke pasien Rh- maka akan terjadi pembentukan: … 7.Pigmentasi kuning pada kulit disebut: ……, ….. 8.Perusakan eritrosit janin diikuti hadirnya sel eritrosit muda/immature disebut: … 9.Simtoma klinik erythroblastosis fetalis adalah: … 10.Sebutan lain bagi jaundice adalah: …

65 65 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Lymph system includes lymph fluid, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymphocytes, thymus, spleen and tonsils. The lymph system is an important part of the immune system and also helps maintain our internal fluid balance. Lymph fluids is clear, transparent, and colorless, it consist of proteins, electrolytes, fats, glucose, and lymphocytes. Lymph fluid is derived from the blood and the fluid that collects in body tissue.

66 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (Cont.-1) The smallest lymph vessels are called lymphatic capillaries. Lymph capillaries collect the fluid that filters out of the blood capillaries and into the interstitial space. Interstitial spaces are located between the cells of the body tissue. 66

67 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (Cont.-2) The lymph capillaries transport the lymph fluid to the larger lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic vessel allow water and dissolved substances to be returned to the blood. Lymph vessels continue to merge to eventually lead to the two lymphatic ducts: the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct. 67

68 68 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (Cont.-3) Lymph nodes are collections of lymphatic tissue located at intervals along the course of the lymph vessels. Lymph nodes function as filters for old, dead cells and bacteria that are present in the lymph fluid. Macrophages, phagocytes located in the lymph nodes, engulf and destroy the bacteria. Lymph nodes also produce antibodies and lymphocytes.

69 69 THYMUS Thymus is lymph and endocrine gland. It is located in the mediastinum near the middle of the chest. The thymus secretes a hormone called thymosin which stimulatte the production of T-lymphocytes (T-cells). T-cells are an important part of our immune system because they circulate throughout the body and attack foreign and/or abnormal cells.

70 SPLEEN Spleen is the largest lymph organ in the body. It is situated in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen just below the diaphragm and behind the stomach. The spleen filters blood in much the same way as the lymph nodes filter lymph fluid. Macrophage in the spleen remove pathogens which are disease causing substances, from the blood. 70

71 71 TONSILS Tonsils are masses of lymphatic tissue, are located in the mouth at the back of the throat and are divided into three groups. The pharyngeal tonsils, also called the adenoids, are near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx. The palatine tonsils are located on each side of the throat at the back of the oral cavity.

72 TONSILS (Cont.-) The lingual tonsils are near the base of the tongue The tonsils are the first lines of defense against bacteria, and other harmful substances that may enter the body through the nose and mouth (Petikan dari: Medical Terminology, A Student-Centered Approach, Marie A. & Elmer W. Moiso, Chapter 8) 72

73 73 PREFIXES & SUFFIXES ISTILAH SISTEM DARAH & LIMFE Prefix Arti SuffixArti inter- di antara -ema kondisi darah macro- besar -globin protein mono- satu -lysis, -lytic destruksi, terkait dengan destruksi pan- semua -oid mirip, sperti -oma tumor, benjolan -osis kondisi -penia defisiensi, kurang -philia tertarik kepada -poiesis formasi, produksi dari -stasis menghentikan (kontrol)

74 74 LATIHAN (6) ANALISIS dan ARTI ISTILAH 1.lymphadenopathy  lymph – aden/o- pathy 2.lymphoid  3.Leukocytopenia  4.hemolysis  5.macrophage  6.hemoglobin  7.hemostasis  8.lymphoma  9.leukemia  10.leukocytosis  11.pancytopenia  12.erythroblastosis  13.bilirubinamia 

75 75 LATIHAN (7) Tulis Arti Istilah di Bawah Ini, dan Tulis mana prefix, mana Suffixnya: 1.interstitial= di anatra sel tubuh Prefix: interSuffix: -al 2.hemoglobin= … Prefix: …Suffix: … 3.monocyte= … Prefix: …Suffix: … 4.macrophage= … Prefix: …Suffix:.. 5.hemolysis= … Prefix: …Suffix:.. 6.leukopenia= … Prefix: …Suffix: …

76 76 LATIHAN (7) (Lanjutan) 7.lympadenopathy= … Prefix: …Suffix: … 8.erythropoiesis= … Prefix: …Suffix: … 9.hemophylia= … Prefix: …Suffix: … 10. granulocytosis= … Prefix: …Suffix: … 11.leukemia= … Prefix: …Suffix: … 12.hemocytoblast= … Prefix …Suffix: …

77 77 ISTILAH MEDIS UMUM SISTEM DARAH & LIMFE ISTILAHARTI agglutination= gumpalan (sel-sel) menjadi satu. coagulation= … corpuscle = … hematologist = … hematology = … hemostasis= … heparin= … histamine= … pathogen= … phagocyte= … phagocytosis= …

78 78 LATIHAN (8) Beri garis bawah pada istilah yang tercetak miring sesuai dengan maksud kalimat 1.Agglutinasi atau coagulation yang berarti pembekuan darah 2.Yang termasuk substansi anticoagulant adalah histamin atau heparin 3.Sel darah mana saja disebut corpuscle atau hemocyte 4.Phagocyte atau phagocytosis menggambarkan penghancuran bakteri 5.Phagocyte atau pathogen yang berarti penyebab penyakit. 6.Menghentikan perdarahan disebut haemorrage atau hemostatsis

79 79 ISTILAH GANGGUAN SISTEM DARAH DAN LIMFE ISTILAHARTI: AIDSsindroma/infeksi yang ditimbulkan oleh virus HIV; disertai gejala kehilangan progresif fungsi sistem imun tubuh. adenoiditisradang adenoid anemia defisiensi kuantitas/kualitas darah merah aplastic anemiadefisiensi produk sel darah merah akibat gangguan pada sumsum tulang. dyscrasia keadaan abnormalitas tubuh/bagian tubuh khususnya yang terkait metabolisme dan pertumbuhan embolismobstruksi pembuluh darah oleh benda asing atau bekuan darah embolus(i)bekuan darah yang jalan ikut sirkulasi

80 80 ISTILAH GANGGUAN SISTEM DARAH DAN LIMFE (Lanjutan) ISTILAHARTI: erythremia peningkatan abnormal jumlah erithrosit erythrocytopenia: pengurangan jumlah sel eritrosit erythroblastopenia aplasia murni sel eritrosit leukocytosis peningkatan jumlah leukosit lymphosarcoma tumor ganas limfe lymph edem edem sebab sumbatan limfe DIC (dissminated koagulasi tersebar di dalam intravascular vascular pembuluh/vasa darah coagulation

81 81 NAMA GANGGUAN SISTEM DARAH DAN LIMFE (Lanjutan-2) ISTILAHDefinisi mononucleosis= peningkatan tak normal jumlah monosit diikuti pembesaran lien dan nodus limfatik multiple myeloma= neoplasm malignant sumsum tulang pancytopenia = penurunan jumlah semua sel darah pernicious anemia= anemia akibat turunnya formasi sel eritrosit dewasa. polycythemia vera= peningkatan jumlah eritrosit dalam darah purpura= perdarahan di bawah kulit splenomegaly= pembesaran limpa (lien) thalassemia= anemia hemolitik heriditer.

82 82 ISTILAH GANGGUAN SISTEM DARAH DAN LIMFE (Lanjutan-3) ISTILAHDEFINISI thrombocytopenia= penurunan jumlah trombosit thrombosis= bekuan darah dalam pembuluh d. thrombus= bekuan darah tonsillitis= inflamasi tonsil lymphadenitis= radang kelenjar limfe lymphangitis= radang saluran limfe Hogdkin’s disease= tumor ganas nodus dan kelenjar limfe, ganas sangat fatal. lymphosarcoma= tumor ganas sarkoma limfe christmas disease=. satu bentuk hemofilia, herediter, kekurangan faktor pembeku darah IX.

83 83 LATIHAN (9) ISTILAHARTI: 1.granulocytosis= 2.hemolysis= 3.haemolytic anemia= 4.hemophilia= 5.iron deficiency anemia= 6.lymphadenitis= 7.lymphadenopathy= 8,lymphangititis= 9. lymphoma= 10. thrombocytopenia= 11. hematoma= 12. hematochezia=

84 84 LATIHAN PENGENALAN ISTILAH MEDIS GANGGUAN SISTEM DARAH & LIMFE 1.Rosita diberi antibiotika untuk terapi radang adenoid = adenoiditis 2.Bekuan darah yang ikut aliran sirkulasi darah bisa menyumbat pembuluh koroner jantung. = … 3.Vera didiagnosis radang kelenjar limfe = … 4.Kekurangan kuantitas dan kualitas darah menimbulkan rasa letih, lelah, lesu, bisa sampai sesak napas. =... 5.Hasil test darah Anto menunjukkan adanya peningkatan jumlah granulosit. = … 6.Post operasi timbul sumbatan pembukuh darah akibat bekuan darah. = … 7.Penyakit darah yang tidak bisa membeku = … 8.Keracunan arsen menimbulkan anemia akibat destruksi sumsum tulang.= …

85 85 LATIHAN (10) Beri garis bawah pada istilah yang sesuai dengan definisi: 1.Anemia akibat kekurangan formasi darah merah dewasa. - talasemia atau anemia pernisiosa 2.Anemia disertai bentuk sel eritrosit seperti bulan sabit - sickle cell anemia atau spherocytosis 3.Anemia hemolitik heriditer - anemia pernisiosa atau talasemia 4.Bintik-bintik perdarahan di bawah kulit - hematoma atau purpura 5.Neoplasm ganas sumsum tulang: - multiple myeloma atau polycythemia 6.Peningkatan abnomal jumlah leukosit: - agranulositosis atau granulositosis

86 86 ISTILAH DIAGNOSTIK, LABORATORIS & TERAPI SISTEM DARAH & LIMFE ISTILAH DEFINISI: bleeding time= ukuran waktu perdrahan berhenti blood transfusion= transfusi darah bone marrow biopsy= biopsi susum tulang CBC (complete blood= hitung kuantitas dan count)pengamatan kualitas komponen selular darah. ESR (erythrocyte = laju endap eritrosit (LED) sedementation rate) lymphangiogram= rekam X-ray pembuluh limfe prothrombin time= test evaluasi kemampuan darah membeku (waktu pro- thrombin)

87 87 ISTILAH DIAGNOSTIK, LABORATORIS & TERAPI SISTEM DARAH & LIMFE (Lanjutan-1) ISTILAH DEFINISI: red blood cell = test penentu bentuk individual morphology test= sel darah eritrosit. Bisa untuk mendeteksi anisocytosis, poikiocytosis, sickle cells, “target cell” (central dens area of hemoglobin) and hypochromia. coagulation time= waktu yang diperlukan darah vena menggumpal (normal kurang dari 15 menit) prothrombine time= waktu yang diperlukan darah membeku.

88 88 ISTILAH DIAGNOSTIK, LABORATORIS & TERAPI SISTEM DARAH & LIMFE (Lanjutan-2) ISTILAH DEFINISI: partial prothrombin time= waktu hadirnya faktor pembeku darah yang penting. Ada 13 faktor, di antara- nya 11 dapat segera terukur. Coomb’s test (antiglobulin test) = test penentu adanya antibodi pada bayi yang lahir dari ibu darah Rh(-).

89 89 COMPONENTS OF A COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT red blood cell (RBC) count = measures the number of red blood cell on a sample blood hemoglobin (Hbg) = measure the number of grams of hemoglobin in a sample blood. hematocrite (Hct) = measures the percentage of red blood cells in a specific volume of blood. red blood cell (RBC) indices = mathematical calculations that identify erythrocytes size and hemoglobin content of blood. white blood cell count (WBC) = measures number of white blood cells in a sample of blood. white blood cell differential = measures percentage of each type of white blood cell in s sample of blood. platelet count = measures the number of platelets in a sample of blood.

90 90 LATIHAN (11) Cocokkan Istilah di Kiri dengan Definisi di Kanan: 1.Blood transfusion (a) % eritrosit dalam darah 2.Complete blood count (b) % masing jenis sel darah putih 3.Bone marrow biosy (c) jumlah eritrosit darah 4.Hematocrite (d) jumlah leukosit darah 5.Hemoglobin (e) jumlah trombosit darah 6.Platelet count (f) lymphangiogram 7.Red blood cells count (g) biopsi sumsum tulang 8.White blood cells count (h) komponen seluler darah 9.X-ray of a lymph vessel (i) jumlah grams hemoglobin ` di dalam darah. 10.White blood cellls (j) pemberian darah. diffrential

91 91 SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN MANDIRI PILIH JAWABAN YANG TEPAT: 1.Sel darah putih tidak menyerap cat warna: - basofil - granulosit -eosinofil - agranulosit 2.Struktur limfe yang dikenal sebagai adenoid: - thymus- pharyngeal tonsils, - palatine tonsils- lingual tonsils 3.Sel darah putih pelepas histamin: - basofil - eosinofil - monosit- limfosit 4.Sel darah putih yang mnyerap warna: - basofil - eosinofil - neutrofil- monosit 5.Pembuluh darah/limfe yang menampung cairan interstitial: - kapiler limfe - venula - nodes limfe - arteriola

92 92 SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN MANDIRI (Lanjutan-1) 7.Anemia akibat destruksi sel eritrosit - anemia aplastik- anemia pernisiosa - anemia sickle cell- anemia hemolitik 8.Sel darah yang bertugas membekukan darah adalah - platelet- eritrosit - eosinofil- limfosit 9.Substansi yang merupakan komponen utama eritrosit: - hematokrit - antibodi - (Hbg)hemoglobin - heparine 10.Sel limfe yang menyerang sel abnormal adalah: - monocyte - lymphocyte - T lymphocytes- macrophage

93 93 SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN MANDIRI (Lanjutan-2) (dibatalkan!) Cocokkan istilah gangguan di kiri dengan simtoma di kanan: 1.Purpura(a) pansitopenia 2.Anemia pernisiosa(b) eosinofilia 3.Policytemia(c) kekurangan faktor pembeku darah dalam plasma 1.Hemofilia(d) monositosis 2.Anemia aplastik(e) defek sintensis Hbg heriditer 3.Mononucleosis(f) tidak dapat menyerap vit.B12 4.Talasemia(g) erythremia 5.Anemia sickle cell(h) granulomatous tubercles dalam nodi limfatik, lien dan kulit 6.Granulositosis (i) retikulosis, (inti bulan sabit) 7.Sarcoidosis (j) bintik-2 halus perdarahan dan akumulasi darah di kulit

94 94 SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN MANDIRI (Lanjutan-3) Pilih istilah yang tepat untuk menyelesaikan kalimat di bawah ini: coagulation; hemoglobin; serum; antigen: albumin; hypersplenism; Hodgkin’s disease; elephantiasis; agglutination: eosinofil, stem cell; protein asing; sel darah basofil. 1.Penyakit keganasan nodes limfatik dan lien; sel Reed- Sternberg adalah karateristik dari …. 2.Blokade pembuluh limfe yang menimbulkan bengkak kaki seperti kaki gajah disebut …. 3.Splenomegali berkaitan dengan cytopenia disebut … 4.Penggumpalan darah A yang ditransfusi dengan darah B: …

95 95 SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN MANDIRI (Lanjutan-4) 5.Pembekuan darah … 6.Protein plasma … 7.Plasma dikurangi protein pembeku darah … 8.Substansi alamiah atau asing di darah yang menstimulasi produk antibodi … 9.Protein membawa O2 dalam darah … 10.Sel cikal bakal pembentuk sel darah … 11.Antigen dalam darah dihasilkan oleh … 12.Pada penderita leukemia umumnya kadar sel …. meningkat. 13. Orang sering dapat serangan alergi mengakibatkan sel darah jenis …………. meningkat.

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