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BUREAUCRACY ELECTORAL MANAGEMENT BODY Konsentrasi Tata Kelola Pemilu Program Magister Kebijakan Publik Pascasarjana Universitas Cenderawasih.

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Presentasi berjudul: "BUREAUCRACY ELECTORAL MANAGEMENT BODY Konsentrasi Tata Kelola Pemilu Program Magister Kebijakan Publik Pascasarjana Universitas Cenderawasih."— Transcript presentasi:

1 BUREAUCRACY ELECTORAL MANAGEMENT BODY Konsentrasi Tata Kelola Pemilu Program Magister Kebijakan Publik Pascasarjana Universitas Cenderawasih

2 KEY TERMS: BUREAUCRACY Spoils System Merit System Bureaucrats Civil Service Politics-administration Dichotomy Devolution Privatization Glass Ceiling Cabinet Departments Independent Agencies Adjudication Administrative Discretion Administrative Procedures Neutral Competence Reinventing Government Quasi-Judicial Power Regulatory/Policing Power Civil Service Reform Senior Executive Service (SES) Office of Personnel Management Collective Bargaining Affirmative Action Independent Regulatory Agencies Government Corporations Rule-Making

3 THE BUREAUCRACY HISTORY OF THE BUREAUCRACY THE WHIG THEORY (1780S – 1828) The Idea That Public Service Was Domain Of An Elite Class Families Had A Tradition Of Public Service. THE SPOILS SYSTEM (1828 – 1883) In USA…., Andrew Jackson used government jobs or “patronage” to reward supporters and to remove elitists from the bureaucracy

4 THE BUREAUCRACY THE CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM (1883 – PRESENT) The Pendleton Act (Civil Service Reform Act Of 1883) Established The Principle Of Employment On The Basis Of Merit And Created The Civil Service System To Oversee The Hiring And Firing Of Government Employees (Weber’s, W. Wilson) THE CIVIL SERVICE REFORM ACT (1978 – 2015) Obama’s and Jokowi’s “Greatest Domestic Policy Achievement” Created The Office Of Personnel Management Revised And Expanded The Grade (“GS”) System Created The Senior Executive Service

5 THE BUREAUCRACY ISSUES FOR BUREAUCRACY TODAY : Diversity of Authorities Technological Competence Privatization Devolution Re-inventing Government Mis-management and Mal-Administration Policy Criminal Policy based Evidence

6 THE BUREAUCRACY WHAT IS BUREAUCRACY? Hierarchically Arranged Organization Composed Of Many Small Subdivisions With Specialized Functions Bureaucracy Means “Rule By Officialdom” Bureaucracy Is Complex Bureaucracy Is Hierarchical

7 THE BUREAUCRACY (WEBER) 3- BENTUK OTORITAS Tradisional (Turun Temurun-diwariskan) Kharismatik (Legitimasi Personal) Legal-rasional (Legitimasi-rule Of Law) BIROKRASI  4 KARAKTER : -HYRARCHY -KONTINUITAS -IMPERSONALITY -EXPERTISE Melekat pada tiap praktek organisasi public & privat

8 THE BUREAUCRACY 5 FUNCTIONS OF BUREAUCRATS Implement The Law Provide Expertise Provide Research And Information To The Executives Provide Research And Information To Legislatives Quasi-judicial Powers And Responsibilities

9 ELECTORAL MANAGEMENT BODY Merupakan Bentuk Birokrasi Modern Bertanggung Jawab Terhadap Penyelenggaraan Pemilu 3 MODEL INSTITUSI PENYELENGGARA PEMILU 1.Model Independen 2.Model Governmental - 3.Model Campuran

10 THE BUREAUCRACY MODEL INDEPENDEN CONTOH : INDONESIA, THAILAND, AUSTRALIA, URUGUAY, NIGERIA, AFRIKA SELATAN, POLANDIA - Terlepas Dari Pengaruh Executive - Kontrol, Kebijakan & Anggaran Mandiri - Pert/J Kinerja Hanya Kepada Kepala Negara - Bert/J Terhadap Penyusunan Kebijakan Kepemiluan dan Pelaksanaan Proses Pemilu - Lebih Bersifat Sentralistis

11 THE BUREAUCRACY INDEPENDENT AGENCIES ADMINISTERED BY A PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTEE WITH NO FIXED TERM RESPONSIBLE FOR NARROWER SET OF FUNCTIONS THAN DEPARTMENT INDEPENDENT REGULATORY AGENCIES AND COMMISSIONS INDEPENDENT OF ANY DEPARTMENT OR AGENCY EACH HEADED BY A GROUP OF COMMISSIONERS WHO ARE APPOINTED BY PRESIDENT TO FIXED TERMS AND NOT SUBJECT TO REMOVAL BY PRESIDENT

12 THE BUREAUCRACY MODEL GOVERNMENT CONTOH DI : AS, DENMARK, NZ, SWISS, SINGAPURA - MELEKAT PADA EXECUTIVE - BAHKAN DAPAT BERADA DI BAWAH KEMENTERIAN TERTENTU DAN DIPIMPIN OLEH MENTERI ATAU BIROKRAT - ANGGARAN PEMILU MELEKAT PADA ANGGARAN KEMENTERIAN - LEBIH TERDESENTRALISTIS

13 THE BUREAUCRACY MODEL CAMPURAN CONTOH, ANTARA LAIN : JEPANG, PERANCIS, SPANYOL -FUNGSI KEBIJAKAN DAN MONEV MELEKAT DI EXECUTIVE -FUNGSI IMPLEMENTASI DIEMBAN OLEH LEMBAGA TERPISAH -LEBIH TERDESENTRALISTIS

14 THE BUREAUCRACY WHICH BRANCH CONTROLS THE BUREAUCRACY? The Executive Branch With Chief Executive? The Legislative Branch With The Budget? The Judicial Branch With The Judges/Justices That Interpret The Constitution? ANSWER: ALL AND NONE…

15 POLITICAL CONTROL OF THE BUREAUCRACY DPR’S MECHANISMS Power Of The Purse Revision Of Empowering Or Limiting Statutes Senate Approval Of Certain Appointees Threats Of Hearings And Investigations The Power To Create Or Destroy Agencies PRESIDENTIAL MECHANISMS Appointment Power Budget Proposal Reorganization Of Bureaucratic Structure Executive Orders JUDICIAL MECHANISMS Judicial Review

16 BAD THINGS THAT BUREAUCRATS DO… Bureaucracies Will Try to Expand Authority Bureaucracies Will Try to Develop Political Constituencies Bureaucracies Will Fight Over Jurisdiction The “Spend It or Lose It” Mentality Bureaucracies Will Expand Their Internal Work Bureaucracies Will Become Paternalistic And Aloof “The Peter Principle ” – Incompetence Always Rises to The Top… Who’s to Blame When There’s A Problem?

17 ADMINISTRATIVE POLITICS - THE LEGISLATURE All State Agencies That Are Not Established By The Constitution Are Creations Of The Legislature Sweeping Legislative Power The Difficulty Of Vigorous Oversight Oversight Mechanisms Sunset Review Legislative Budget Board

18 ADMINISTRATIVE POLITICS - THE GOVERNOR Appointment Power Far Reaching But Limited Budget Power The Line-item Veto ADMINISTRATIVE POLITICS - INTEREST GROUPS Every Program And The Agencies That Administer Them Have Several Interest Groups Rallying Support ADMINISTRATIVE POLITICS – BUREAUCRATS Bureaucrats Have Particular Goals

19 4 KOMPONEN DESAIN ORGANISASI (IVANCEVICH, 2008) DIVISION OF WORK WITH SPECIALIZATION DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY DEPARTEMENTATION CHAIN OF SCALAR 4 UNSUR ORGANISASI (MINTZBERG) LEADER’S (STRATEGIC ARPEX) MIDDLE LINE DIAPLIKASIKAN TECHNO-STRUCTURE DALAM “EMB” SUPPORTING STAFF

20 Strategic Arpex Techno- Structur e Middle Line Techno- Structur e OC Sumber : dsalam Miftah Thoha, 2008 MODEL IDEAL SUSUNAN ORGANISASI (Mintzberg)

21 PENYUSUNAN STRUCTURE EMB PERHATIKAN ! Kewenangan, Fungsi, Dan Tugas EMB Yang Ada di Dalam Kerangka Regulasi Waktu Implementasi Tugas EMB Jumlah Staf Permanen Jumlah Dan Preferensi Staf Temporal Hubungan Antar Lapisan Organisasi Dalam EMB


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