Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Pertemuan 3 Early Behavioristic Theories Matakuliah: L0134/ Psikologi Belajar Tahun : Tahun 2008.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Pertemuan 3 Early Behavioristic Theories Matakuliah: L0134/ Psikologi Belajar Tahun : Tahun 2008."— Transcript presentasi:

1

2 Pertemuan 3 Early Behavioristic Theories Matakuliah: L0134/ Psikologi Belajar Tahun : Tahun 2008

3 BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF BEHAVIORAL THEORY Rene Descartes: –Reflex arc Mid 19 th century: –special functions of nerves; sensor, motor – human as a biological “reflex” machine Prilaku Manusia = prilaku hewan? –Dimana peran reason dan soul? –Intelligence, Morality?

4 Evolutionist “Survival of the fittest is a process of natural selection” C.Darwin ( )

5 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution -Variation -Transmission (heredity, sexual reproduction) -Natural selection Contoh: Lemmings dan jurang

6 Apa hubungannya dengan Psikologi Belajar?

7 Organism engage in random activity. However some activities are found to produce pleasure and/or eliminated pain. Thus these activities continue to occur. H.Spencer ( )

8 The role of learning in animal behavior –Animals can adjust their action based on the outcomes of previous actions –Certain features of environment are associated with other features cth: gajah gurun bisa mengingat lokasi air di bawah tanah

9 LEARNING IS ADAPTIVE

10 Assumption: –All animals are biological in nature –All animals have brains thus they can learn Behave in predictable pattern –Human is Animal (according to Darwin) Behavior can be examined by looking at: –Nature : genes, brains –Nurture: environment, behavior

11 NATURE VS. NURTURE?

12 NATURE: –Phylogenetic history Genetic history of life on earth –Ontogenetic history Life experience from birth to death –Extragenetic history Cummulative oral and written experiences of individual humans (Sagan, 1977)

13 Bicara ttg nature maka kita berbicara ttg Heredity: –Transmission of physical structure from one generation to the next –New Genotype is create during conception –Phenotype changes during a lifetime

14 Genotype: –The genetic make-up of a person. Phenotype: –visible appearance or set of traits of an organism, resulting from the combined action of genotype and environment

15 Evolutionary – Influenced Research Strategies in Learning and Behavior More gene shared more similar behavior Research menunjukan: –General Process Human appear to learn some behavior similar to that rats and pigeons –Mis? Main Video game –Species – Specific Learning Ikan berenang, burung terbang dll

16 Beberapa pendekatan awal –Ethology –Comparative Psychology –Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology

17 Ethology Study the role of learning in Species Specific behavior How do animals behave naturally Particular behaviors are best considered as evolutionary adaptation to survival Tidak setuju dengan lab manipulation of behavior

18 Consumatory behavior –Behaviors indispensable for survival: feeding, mating, courting dll Imprinting –Rapid long lasting instinctive like learning (Konrad Lorenz) Cth: Geese Instinct –Genetically predisposed, organized behavior Fixed Action Patterns (FAP) –An orderly fixed series of movements, triggered by biologically meaningful stimulus Cth: egg retrieving behavior (box 2.3) Reflexes –Similar to FAP but are more modifieable Mis: nahan geli

19 Comparative Psychology Is the study of the motivation and behavior of animals for the express purpose of identifying similarities and differences among them (Barker, 2001)

20 Bermula dari upaya manusia untuk mendomestikasi binatang –Untuk ternak, berburu, transportasi Apa yang dipikirkan oleh binatang? Bagaimana mereka bisa belajar? –“mengenal” pemiliknya

21 Domestication Binatang domestik bersikap beda dengan binatang liar, kenapa? Binatang peliharaan dilahirkan ke lingkungan yang jauh berbeda dengan alam aslinya Mereka harus cepat beradaptasi

22 Role of environment in controlling behavior: –Binatang domestik hidup dalam lingkungan yang terkontrol dan dimanipulasi oleh manusia –Penelitian lab menghasilkan lingkungan yang sangat terkontrol

23 Morgans Canon and Law of Parsimony –Use the simplest explanation possible in interperting one’s observation –Beware of Anthropomorphism Attributing human characteristic to animals Apakah sebaliknya, prilaku manusia juga seharusnya dipandang dalam prilaku “hewani”? –Zoomorphism: attributing non-human qualities to human

24 Animal Model –Comparative Psychology mempelajari prilaku hewan untuk memahami prilaku manusia Drug use/abuse Emotional behavior Appetite Dll Apakah anda setuju?

25 Species-specific Defense Reactions animals have innate defensive behaviors: –such as freezing, fleeing and fighting if a particular avoidance response is rapidly learned, then that response must necessarily be one of the animal's species-specific defense reactions, or part of such a reaction (Bolles, 1970) –Reinforcement-produced learning: more slowly learned avoidance response Reuires many pairing and trials Not every individual in the species can learn it

26

27 Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology Sociobiology (Wilson, 1975) –The systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior; the interaction of two or more individuals Mis:Mating, courting, fighting, altruism dll Social behavior which have the strongest contribution to survival has a biological basis Inclusive fitness: ensuring the survival and continuation of genetic material of the species, even by means of “selfless” individual acts (altruism, (Holcomb, 1993)) –Cth: bunuh diri pada lebah (Sakagami & Akahira, 1960) dan rayap (Wilson, 1975) untuk menyelamatkan koloninya

28 Evolutionary Psychology (Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby, 1992) –The study of human and animal minds and behavior from the perspective of evolutionary theory –There are situations where reinforcement and contiguity are inadequate for explaining learning and behavior Situations: –Autoshaping »The appearance of learned behavior without reinforcement –Instincitive drift »Regression of learned behavior to instinctual behavior

29 Biological Constraints –An inborn predesposition that makes learning highly probable to a particular species, yet highly improbable to another (Breland & Breland, 1966)

30 Both Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology proposed a shift in the determinant of behavior from proximal (Psychological and sociological) to distal/ultimate causes SELF REPLICATE

31 General Process Learning Theory Purpose: –To find a set of laws that can adequately describe the learning process in all animals

32 Assumptions –Behavioral Flexibility: Instinctive behavior is important, but the focus of animal and human behavior study is associative learning process –Lawfulness of Learning: Behavior is neither capricious, accidental nor random. Rather, it changes in predictable and adaptive way –Generality of Learning: Many of the phenomena of learning are general across species and across situations. Thus, observable under different conditions for different species –Replicability: Various phenomena of learning are reproduceable –Benefits of Laboratory Analysis: Allow for careful measurements, manipulation and control of procedures, and control of confound variables

33 Biofeedback: –A procedure by which individuals are given information about their biological functioning Neurofeedback: –A procedure by which individuals are given information about their neurological functioning

34 Behavior Observation

35 Prilaku apa yang ingin anda ubah?

36 HARI/TGL Kamis 11/09/08 JAMFREKUENSILOKASIDENGAN SIAPA APA YANG TERJADI /DIRASAKAN SEBELUMNYAAPA YANG DIRASAKAN SETELAHNYA 09:00-10: : :00 1 TOTAL FREK2

37 HARI/TGL Kamis 11/09/08 JAMFREKUENSILOKASIDENGAN SIAPA APA YANG TERJADI /DIRASAKAN SEBELUMNYAAPA YANG DIRASAKAN SETELAHNYA 09:00-10:00 1 Kampus, waktu istirahat Teman-teman (3 orang) Merasa bosan lebih rileks, bisa ngelanjutin ngobrol 10: :00 1 Kampus, cabut kelas di kantin sendiriSambil mengerjakan tugas, susah mikir Konsentrasi kembali TOTAL FREK2


Download ppt "Pertemuan 3 Early Behavioristic Theories Matakuliah: L0134/ Psikologi Belajar Tahun : Tahun 2008."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google