Presentasi berjudul: "Enzyme technology is concerned with the application of enzymes as tools of industry, agriculture and medicine. Enzymes are biological catalysts that fulfil."— Transcript presentasi:
Enzyme technology is concerned with the application of enzymes as tools of industry, agriculture and medicine. Enzymes are biological catalysts that fulfil their role by binding specific substrates at their active sites. This specificity is one property of enzymes that makes them useful for industrial applications. The value of using enzymes over inorganic catalysts in the technological field is their efficiency, selectivity and specificity. Enzymes are able to operate at room temperature, atmospheric pressure and within normal pH ranges (around 7) – all of which create energy savings for industry. Enzymes possess specifically shaped active sites for reacting with one specific substrate thereby generating pure products free from unwanted by-products. Enzymes are biodegradable and, unlike many inorganic catalysts, cause less damage to the environment. Enzyme Technology
The micro-organisms (such as yeast) are really used as a source of enzymes during the manufacture of these products of biotechnology Many industrial processes now make use of pure sources of enzymes, i.e. the enzymes have been ISOLATED from the micro-organisms before use Micro-organisms have been used for thousands of years for making products such as wine, beer, vinegar, soy sauce, bread and cheese Products of Enzyme Technology
MODIFICATION – possible application of genetic engineering to improve the microbial strain LABORATORY SCALE PILOT – to determine the optimum conditions for growth of the Micro-organism PILOT PLANT – small scale fermenter to clarify optimum operating conditions SCREENING – choosing an appropriate micro-organism for the desired enzyme INDUSTRIAL SCALE FERMENTATION The Biotechnological Process of Enzyme Production
Pectin is an insoluble substance found in the cell walls of plants In the drinks industry, juice extracted from fruits appears cloudy due to the presence of pectin PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE Pectinase is an enzyme that is used in the industry to break down the pectin The effect of pectinase is to clarify the fruit juice and to make it flow more freely Pectinase is obtained from the fungus Aspergillus niger Aspergillus niger produces pectinase as an extracellular enzyme Commercial Enzyme Production - An Example
Serial no. Enzyme Purpose/Function 1. Rennet (protease)Coagulant in cheese production 2. LactaseHydrolysis of lactose to give lactose-free milk products 3. ProteaseHydrolysis of whey proteins 4 CatalasesRemoval of hydrogen peroxide
Enzymes break down specific components within fruit & vegetables such as pectin, starch, proteins and cellulose which results in increased yields, shortening of processing time and improving sensory characteristics. Some examples: Pectinases and Cellulases are used to break down cell walls in fruit and vegetables, resulting in improved extraction and increase in yield. They can also be used to decrease the viscosity of purees or nectars, and to provide ‘cloud stability’ and texture in juices.
Serial no. Enzyme Purpose/Function 1.Cellulases, beta-glucanases, alpha amylases, proteases, maltogenic amylases For liquefaction, clarification and to supplement malt enzymes 2.AmyloglucosidaseConversion of starch to sugar
Brewing Food enzymes aid brewers in cutting down production time and cost while still delivering the quality product that consumers have come to expect. Such enzymes are specifically selected to perform highly specific tasks and improve the overall effectiveness of the process. Key benefits include: Malt separation Better extraction yield Efficient fermentation Beer filtration and stabilization Utilization of local raw materials
Serial no. EnzymePurpose/Function 1.Alpha-amylasesBreakdown of starch, maltose production 2.AmyloglycosidasesSaccharification 3.Maltogen amylase (Novamyl) Delays process by which bread becomes stale 4.ProteaseBreakdown of proteins 5.PentosanaseBreakdown of pentosan, leading to reduced gluten production 6.Glucose oxidaseStability of dough
Sr. no.Industry EnzymePurpose/Function 1.Wine & fruit Juice Pectinase Glucose oxidase Increase of yield and juice clarification Oxygen removal 2.MeatProteaseMeat tenderising 3.ProteinProteass, trypsin, aminopeptidases Breakdown of various components 4.StarchAlpha amylase, glucoamylases, hemicellulases, amylases, Modification and conversion (eg to dextrose or high fructose syrups) 5.InsulinInulinasesProduction of fructose syrup
During starch processing, enzymes help to separate raw milled cereals into polysaccharides, gluten and fibres. Enzymes are also used to further break down the long chains of sugars (polysaccharides) into multiple sugars (e.g. glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, maltotriose, raffinose). Benefits for the starch processors: - Efficient and better starch conversion into valuable products: glucose, maltose, high fructose and other syrups - Increased capacity utilisation during conversion, due to rapid viscosity reduction and low fouling frequency of process equipment such as evaporators - Improved starch purity due to greater extraction yield from raw materials, and efficient removal of fibres and proteins - Energy savings due to less use of process water, lower evaporator costs and decreased production time.
Alpha-amylase: Converts starch to dextrins in producing corn syrup. Solubilizes carbohydrates found in barley and other cereals used in brewing. Glucoamylase: Conversion of dextrins to glucose in the production of corn syrup. Conversion of residual dextrins to fermentable sugar in brewing for the production of "light" beer. Beta-glucanase: Breakdown of glucans in malt and and other materials to aid in filtration after mashing in brewing. Lipase: Enhancing flavor development and shortening the time for cheese ripening. Production of specialty fats with improved qualities. Production of enzyme-modified cheese/butter from cheese curd or butterfat. Papain : Used as meat tenderizer. Used in brewing to prevent chill-haze formation by digesting proteins that otherwise react with tannins to form insoluble colloids. Chymosin: Curdling of milk by breaking down kappa-caseins in cheese making. Microbial proteases: Processing of raw plant and animal protein. Production of fish meals, meat extracts, texturized proteins, and meat extenders. Pectinase: Treatment of fruit pulp to facilitate juice extraction and for clarification and filtration of fruit juice.
Lactase: Additive for dairy products for individuals lacking lactase. Breakdown of lactose in whey products for manufacturing polyactide. Acetolactate decarboxylase: Reduction of maturation time in wine making by converting acetolactate to acetoin. Glucose oxidase: Conversion of glucose to gluconic acid to prevent Maillard reaction in products caused by high heat used in dehydration. Cellulase: Conversion of cellulose waste to fermentable feedstock for ethanol or single- cell protein production. Degradation of cell walls of grains, allowing better extraction of cell contents and release of nutrients.