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UNDER THE PROTECTION OF KA’BAH: AN INDONESIAN CLASSIC NOVEL CONTESTING ROMANCE IN ISLAMIC TEACHING AND LOCAL CULTURE ISTI GANDANA FACULTY OF EDUCATION.

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Presentasi berjudul: "UNDER THE PROTECTION OF KA’BAH: AN INDONESIAN CLASSIC NOVEL CONTESTING ROMANCE IN ISLAMIC TEACHING AND LOCAL CULTURE ISTI GANDANA FACULTY OF EDUCATION."— Transcript presentasi:

1 UNDER THE PROTECTION OF KA’BAH: AN INDONESIAN CLASSIC NOVEL CONTESTING ROMANCE IN ISLAMIC TEACHING AND LOCAL CULTURE ISTI GANDANA FACULTY OF EDUCATION MONASH UNIVERSITY

2 WHY LITERATURE MATTERS… “Literature offers a different form of learning than just processing information; it requires us to experience, to participate. Works of literature are not just about human issues; the power of literature is that it makes issues come alive for the reader…” (Gillespie, 1994, p. 21)

3 WHY LITERATURE MATTERS… Literature...directly relates to the most fundamental aspect of our being—words, language. In my opinion, once people have acquired knowledge about literature...I don’t think it will be too difficult for them to connect with others….I don’t mean to exaggerate about literature, but I think…literature directly relates to the most fundamental aspect of every culture—language. Yes, the metaphor is in the Qur’an, the one in Al-Baqaroh verses 30 until When God informed...the angels...that He will prepare a representative of God on Earth...and He teaches Adam to name things, and so the angels bow....I think that’s a linguistic act—Adam’s ability to name things taught by God. This means, actually humans’ biggest capital, to me, is their linguistic capacity to manage the world....identifying the world through language....not only understanding...but also constructing the world. It is through literature that culture, in my opinion, can be concretely represented....So if you want to know a culture, just read its literature. The literature that was born in that particular cultural community. I’m sure you won’t get lost ( laughs ).

4 ABOUT THE BOOK…  A (short) novel  First published as a serial (‘cerita bersambung’) in Pedoman Masyarakat magazine  First published as a book in 1938 (in Medan)  No. of reprints??

5 ABOUT THE AUTHOR: HAMKA ( )  HAMKA: Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah  Well-known as a sastrawan (literary scholar), Islamic intellectual and activist, philosopher, politician, academic…  Was awarded several titles, both at the national and international levels (e.g. ‘Datuk Indono’ and ‘Prince Wiroguno’ from the Indonesian government, and ‘Doctor honoris Causa’ from University of Al-Azhar Cairo, Egypt in 1958 and from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia in 1974)  More recently…on 9 November as a pahlawan nasional (Keppres No. 113/TK/2011)

6  Source: Hashim, R. (Ed.). (2010). Reclaiming the conversation: Islamic intellectual tradition in the Malay archipelago. Selangor, Malaysia: The Other Press.  Born Feb 17, 1908 in Maninjau, West Sumatra into a noble, religious family  From small, he was taught the Qur’an and the fundamentals of Islam  Developed a great interest in reading Malay and Arabic literary works  Was exposed at a young age to many organisations to liberate the country from the Dutch (e.g. ‘Sarekat Islam’, ‘Muhammadiyah’)  Wrote his first book, ‘Si Sabariah’ in his teen  Left for Makkah at the age of 19, worked in a printing house and became competent in Arabic A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY…

7  Upon returning to his village, he set up a school with the help of Muhammadiyah members  Went to Makassar on missionary work and taught there for 3 years  Wrote for newspapers and became the editor of Pedoman Masyarakat  Actively involved in the Independence movement  After indepence, he was elected to the ‘Dewan Konstituante’ under Parti Islam Masyumi in the first national election in 1955  Arrested and imprisoned for alleged subversive activities by the Communist Party—wrote ‘Tafsir Al-Azhar’…

8 ON HAMKA’S WORKS…  Characterised by Malayness and Islamicity  the foundation forming Hamka’s personality and character  “As an Indonesian I demand the return of West Irian back to the fold of our motherland Indonesia. But my heart and soul is closer to Malaya or the Malay Peninsular…” (Hamka)

9 ON HAMKA’S WORKS… H. B. Jassin:  Hamka as “ Islamic author ”—a pioneering modern Indonesian literary scholar who integrated literature with Islamic values.  Unlike his contemporaries who tended to associate modernism with ‘the West’, Hamka viewed Islam as ‘cahaya perubahan’ in imtaq (faith and piety) and knowledge are intertwined.

10 THE NOVEL…  Inspired by personal journey to Makkah  Setting: West Sumatra in 1920s  Theme: the doomed romance of a young Minang couple (Hamid and Zainab) from different social backgrounds…

11 As Hamid’s mother is dying… “Sebagai seorang yang telah lama hidup, ibu telah mengetahui suatu rahasia pada dirimu.” “Rahasia apa?” “Engkau cinta pada Zainab!....Mataku telah kabur, tetapi hatiku masih terang-benderang.” “Anakku, sekarang cintamu masih bersifat angan- angan….Dia belum berbahaya sebelum mendalam….Kalau engkau perturutkan, tentu engkau menjadi seorang anak yang putus asa. Apalagi kalau cinta itu tertolak, terpaksa ditolak oleh keadaan yang ada di sekelilingnya. Hapuskanlah perasaan itu dari hatimu….Engkau tentu memikirkan juga bahwa emas tak setara dengan loyang, sutra tak sebangsa dengan benang…”

12 ON LOVE AND RELIGION…  Ending similar to ‘Romeo and Juliet’ except for…  On religion: “Allah adalah Maha-adil. Jika sempit dunia bagimu berdua, maka alam akhirat adalah lebih luas dan lapang, di sanalah kelak makhluk menerima balasan dari kejujuran dan kesabarannya; di sanalah penghidupan yang sebenarnya, bukan mimpi dan bukan tonil..”  On love: “Cinta itu adalah perasaan yang mesti ada pada tiap-tiap diri manusia, ia laksana setitis embun yang turun dari langit, bersih dan suci. Jika ia jatuh pada tanah yang subur, di sana akan tumbuh kesucian hati, keikhlasan, setia, budi pekerti yang tinggi dan lain-lain perangai terpuji.”  On Hamid: “Engkau telah mengambil jalan yang lurus dan jujur di dalam memupuk dan mempertahankan cinta.”  “Hidupmu yang tiada mengenal putus asa, kesabaran dan ketenangan hatimu menanggung sengsara, dapatlah menjadi tamsil dan ibarat kepada kami.”

13 THE MESSAGE…  Islam at the interface of tradition and traditionalism (e.g. arranged marriages, the ‘old’ view of women’…)  The novel is didactic and attempts to educate readers based on the writer’s point of view—to uphold Islamic teaching and undermine the power of local tradition.  Metaphorical use of ‘Ka’bah’ in title (‘The House of Allah’—direction when praying—orientation of life)

14 A BRIEF COMMENT ABOUT THE FILM  Personal opinion…  Characterization—very different portrayal: “Bang Hamid!...Sudah lama benar Abang tak kemari. Lupa Abang agaknya pada kami!” Gugup saya hendak menjawab. Saya pintar mengarang khayal dan angan-angan, tetapi bila sampai di hadapannya, saya menjadi seorang yang bodoh… “Zainab,” kataku pula, “sebentar tidaklah saya…pernah lupa…barangkali engkaulah…agaknya yang…lupa kepadaku.” Mendengar itu….tak berani dia rupanya mengangkat mukanya lagi. Dan saya pun gugup pula hendak menambah perkataan. Memang bodoh saya ini…dan pengecut!

15 THE NOVEL vs. THE FILM  Incorporation of additional incidences in the film, e.g. the ‘fence scene’, the expel of Hamid from his village due to an ‘inappropriate’ act  The ‘black and white’ approach (creation of protagonists/antagonists dramatic effect)  Flashbacks vs. chronological

16 RECOMMENDATION… Please read the book first before watching the film!!


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