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ADAPTATION FOR INDONESIA STAPLE FOOD SUSTAINABILITY IN CONTINUOUS CLIMATE CHANGE TAJUDDIN BANTACUT Faculty of Agricultural Technology Bogor Agricultural.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ADAPTATION FOR INDONESIA STAPLE FOOD SUSTAINABILITY IN CONTINUOUS CLIMATE CHANGE TAJUDDIN BANTACUT Faculty of Agricultural Technology Bogor Agricultural."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ADAPTATION FOR INDONESIA STAPLE FOOD SUSTAINABILITY IN CONTINUOUS CLIMATE CHANGE TAJUDDIN BANTACUT Faculty of Agricultural Technology Bogor Agricultural Technology National Seminar Promoting and Improving Local Horticulture Products For Food Security in Indonesia Universitas Udayana Gedung Pasca-Sarjana Universitas Udayana 16 October 2013

2 BOGOR AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IPB Campus Dramaga Bogor - INDONESIA 16002 TAJUDDIN BANTACUT Agro - industrial Technologist Environmental Engineer ( Regional ) Development Planner Phone: +62-811-113-851; Fax: +62-251-8623-203 Email : tajuddin@ipb.ac.id; bantacuttajuddin@gmail.comtajuddin@ipb.ac.idbantacuttajuddin@gmail.com

3 Written Papers 1.Adaptation for Indonesia Staple Food Sustainability in Continuous Climate Change, to be published as issued paper of ARG-Environment and Disaster Mitigation, 2013. 2.Rural Economic and Food Security Development Based on Added Value Formation (Pembangunan Ketahanan Ekonomi dan Pangan Perdesaan Mandiri Berbasis Nilai Tambah). Pangan 22(2): 71-85, 2013 3.Rationally Optimum Paddy Production: Chances and Challenges (Produksi Padi Optimum Rasional: Peluang dan Tantangan). Pangan 21(2): 281-296, 2012 4.Sago: Resource for Staple Food Diversification (Sagu: Sumberdaya untuk Penganekaragaman Pangan Pokok). Pangan 20(1): 27-40, 2011. 5.Cassava Based Food Security (Ketahanan Pangan Berbasis Cassava). Pangan 19 (1): 3-13, 2010. 6.Research and Development for Cassava Based Industries (Penelitian dan Pengembangan Untuk Industri Berbasis Cassava). Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian 19(3): 191-202, 2010. 7.Policies Needed to Encourage Flour Agroindustry Development Within the Perspective of Food Security (Kebijakan Pendorong Agroindustri Tepung Dalam Perspektif Ketahanan Pangan). Pangan 18 (53): 32-42, 2009.

4 PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1.INTRODUCTION 2.CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CROPS PRODUCTION 3.OPTIMUM RICE PRODUCTION – INDONESIA 4.ADAPTATION TO AVAILABLE FOOD 5.CONCLUSIONS 6.RECOMMENDATIONS

5 INTRODUCTION

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7 CLIMATE CHANGE a significant and lasting change in the measurement distribution of weather patterns over periods of decades to millions of years. In the context of agricultural production, it is a change in rainfall resulting in more flood, droughts or intense rain. Weather conditions is unpredictable and its distribution is unstable (i.e. more or fewer extreme weather events) (Gosling, et al., 2011).

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9 CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUES • disturb agricultural production • affect water availability • create social related problems • food supply is insecure in the future • necessary to develop adapted agriculture

10 Definition of Staple Food A staple food, sometimes simply referred to as a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet in a given population, supplying a large fraction of the needs for energy-rich materials and generally a significant... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staple_food

11 CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CROPS PRODUCTION

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14 CaseYear Total Damage (ha) CausesSource Aceh 20131,538Flood Waspada Online (Local News Paper) East Java 2011125,000leafhoppers Kompas 26-7-2011 20136,655Flood Actual.co 15-8-2013 2013659Flood Bisnis Indonesia 15- 3-2013 West Sumatera 20132,200Flood damaged dam Okezom.com 11 January 2013 Banten 201210,452Drought Tempo.co 26-11-2012 South Sumatera 2013 280 Flood Sumatera Ekpres Online (10-4-2013) West Java 2012 97 Drought Pikiran Rakyat (31-8- 2012) West Nusatengg ara 2012 2,928 DroughtMICOM 18-9-2012 Table 1. Examples of harvesting failure of paddy

15 OPTIMUM RICE PRODUCTION - INDONESIA

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17 World Rice Production, main producers (FAO, 2008)

18 Figure 1. Indonesia rice production profile (Source of Data: BPS, Agriculture Statistics)

19 ProgramParameter Perbaikan Peningkatan Produksi (ton) Intensification Productivity improvement by 1.66 ton/ha (close to China) 12,000,000 Extension (Ekstensifikasi) Land suitable for “sawah” is about 650,000 ha, only 250,000 ha ready to be implemented 2,682,000 Post-harvest handling Government plan to reduce to 7,27% 1,560,000 Land use conversion Land use function conversion rate of 110,000 ha/year would reach 400,000 ha in about 3 years (1,651,000) Total addition to existing production Integrated improvement through intensification, extensification and post-harvest handling 14,591,000 Table 3. Limit of paddy production – next 3 years

20 ADAPTATION TO AVAILABLE FOOD

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22 Main Food Crops Climate Dependent • Rice • Maize • Wheat • Potatoes Climate Independent • Cassava • Sago • Palm • Some Bananas

23 Consumption Rate of Some Food Stuffs (Gram/cap/day) Jenis Pangan20052006200720082009 Laju (%/th) Energy Source Rice288,30285,04274,03287,26280,06-0,50 Corn9,098,3411,558,026,07-7,38 Wheat Flour23,0322,6031,0730,7228,286,86 Cassava41,1934,6537,0935,3226,21- 8,39 Sweet Potatoes 10,878,716,847,606,56- 11,99 Sago & other tuber crops 3,132,863,333,152,64- 2,28 Protein Source Meat16,1012,5917,1316,2115,101,05 Egg16,7615,9018,5817,4617,451,71 Milk3,864,056,105,845,369,50 Fish50,9148,6749,0150,4546,83-1,30 Soy bean21,3322,7623,6321,0119,66-2,35 Vitamine/Mineral Source Vegetables139,13139,96158,26154,3136,290,59 Fruits86,9664,7193,4187,4063,20-3, 14 Source: Ariani (2010)

24 Wheat flour consumption rate (%) YearUrbanRuralTotal 1993-199659.0106.485.3 1996-1999-3.3-3.5-3.1 1999-200212.213.413.6 2002-20056.112.58.6 Rata-rata18.532.226.1 Source: Hardinsyah dan Amalia (2007)

25 Commodity Content (%, dry basis) Energy (Calorie) Caloric ratio to rice WaterCarbohydrateProteinFat Rice12.080.007.000.50359.70 1.00 Rice flour 13.0 90.697.820.80401.26 1.12 Wheat flour12.0 87.8410.111.48405.11 1.13 Fresh cassava59.4 92.921.710.49157.00 0.44 Cassava flour12.1 93.042.430.77393.75 1.09 Tapioca12.0 86.900.500.30362.00 1.00 Maize24.0 83.6810.394.47416.58 1.16 Sweet potatoes68.5 88.575.712.22397.14 1.11 Potato64.0 93.612.501.11394.44 1.10 Sago Starch 14.798.490.820.23353.000.98 Table 2. Nutritive value of some carbohydarate commodities source

26 Local nameOriginPreparation Papeda Maluku and Papua Sago starch is stirred in cold water to form a suspension and then poured with hot water until thickened and discolored. Stirring is stopped if the color is evenly distributed. KapurungSouth Sulawesi Starch is stirred in cold water then thickened with hot water. Pasta is shaped into small spheres with bamboo chopsticks by rotating pasta. Pasta mixed with fish, shrimp and vegetables. Sagu lempeng Papua and Maluku Starch chunks rubbed on the screen, then sifted again to get more fine starch and ready to be cooked. The starch then cooked in forna (cooking appliance in Maluku). Sago starch put in forna previously heated, then covered with banana leaves for 15-20 minutes until cooked. BuburneeMaluku Wet sago starch is made ​​ into crumbs and smooth as in the preparation of sago plate, then made ​​ the grains with shaking it above a clean surface. The formed granules are roasted in the crock until golden yellowish white or lightly browned. Bagea Maluku and Sulawesi Sago starch wrapped in banana leaves or sago leaves and then heated in a pot. To improve nutritional value, sago starch mixed with eggs, walnuts, and salt. Ongol-ongol Maluku, Papua, Sulawesi, and West Java The preparation is similar to papeda, but mixed with brown sugar. Table 3. Types of local food made ​​ from sago

27 ParameterRiceCassava 1 Sago 2 Consumption (kg/capita/year)130 x 320 y 135 z Productivity (ton/ha) a 34025 Land requirement (ha/person/year)0.0430,0080,0054 Current Indonesia Population (million)230 Total consumption (ton)29.900.00073.600.00033.750.000 Total land requirement (ha)9.890.0001.840.0001.350.000 Total land requirement (ha/year)4.945.000 b 1.840.000 c 1.350.000 d Indonesia Population 2030 (million)270 Total land requirement 2030 (ha)5.805.0002.160.0001.584.000 Land characteristics Fertile and irrigated Marginal to fertile Swamp and coastal Land type Mainly Wetland (rice field) Wet and dry lands Wet land Water consumptionVery highLowHigh Climate influenceVery highLow Fertilizer usedVery highLow Pest attackVery highLow Table 4. Comparison of requirement parameters for Indonesia food crop production

28 Flour Based Food • Easy to store, transport and distribution • Relatively longer storage life • Relatively easy and simple for food preparation • Availability cooking appliances • Variation of processed foods • Might be processed to rice-like-product

29 PROBLEMS - ACCEPTANCE • Social: eating sago and cassava is deemed to be inappropriate due to difficult to find and hard to prepare. • Phsychology : difficult to accept “low-grade” food into the main menu. • Physiological: the body acceptance to new intake needs adequate adjustments and recognition.

30 CONCLUSIONS • Climate change is and will be continuing to happen that certainly disrupt food production, especially rice. • Disruption to the rice plant has been very common such as droughts, floods, and pests. • Rely on rice as single staple food is very risky. • Staple food diversification is necessary to reduce the risk of hunger in the future. • Cassava and sago are commodities with huge potential and relatively undisturbed climate. • Indonesian must adapt to “new” staple food to survive

31 RECOMMENDATIONS • Research and development: more food - more acceptable, feasible and practical. • Menu development to meet the taste of community at large. • Establishing Cassava and Sago Research Center (CSRC). • Extensive introduction and promotion utilising all media networks printing, electronic or virtual media.

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33 THANK YOU

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35 Carbohydrate content of some food commodities Commodity Energy (kkal) Carbohydrate (g) Calorie ratio to rice Rice36078.91.00 Cassava14634.70.41 Sweet Potatoes12327.90.34 Potatoes8319.10.24 Breadfruit10828.20.30 Cassava flour34281.40.95 Wheat flour37685.11.05 Sago flour2400.67 Sweet potatoes flour36794.11.02 Yellow corn36174.31.00 Breadfruit flour30278.90.84

36 Definisi Tepung Komposit  Tepung komposit adalah campuran dari berbagai jenis tepung, tepung aneka umbi, dengan atau tanpa penambahan tepung tinggi protein (aneka kacang), dengan atau tanpa penambahan tepung serealia, dengan atau tanpa penambahan terigu.  Komposisi tepung komposit sesuai dengan produk olahan yang dapat memenuhi permintaan pasar dan preferensi konsumen.

37 Komposisi Tepung Komposit  Tujuan pembuatan tepung komposit adalah mendapatkan karakteristik bahan yang sesuai untuk produk olahan yang diinginkan atau mendapatkan sifat fungsional tertentu.  Pembuatan tepung komposit adalah untuk mensubstitusi dan atau bahkan menggantikan terigu.  Produk berbasis terigu dibagi menjadi dua yaitu produk yang memerlukan pengembangan dan yang tidak memerlukan pengembangan.

38 Aplikasi Tepung Komposit  Pada prinsipnya tepung komposit dapat diaplikasikan sangat luas untuk pengolahan berbagai produk pangan yang memerlukan sifat mengembang dan tidak.  Untuk produk-produk yang tidak membutuhkan sifat mengembang atau elastis sangat luas seperti produk biscuit, muffin, cakes, dan produk sejenisnya.

39 TEPUNG KOMPOSIT UNTUK PEMBUATAN ROTI TAWAR • Secara umum, penggunaan tepung non terigu untuk substitusi sampai 20% masih menghasilkan roti yang dapat diterima. • Tepung BIMO/MOCAF dapat mensubstitusi sedikit lebih besar dari 20% untuk menghasilkan roti yang masih dapat diterima

40 TEPUNG KOMPOSIT UNTUK PEMBUATAN MIE o Mie yang dibuat dari tepung komposit dengan tepung non terigu sampai 30% mempunyai sifat reologi dan karakter mi yang tidak berubah. o Tepung komposit berupa terigu 80% dan tepung ubikayu 20% yang difortifikasi dengan tepung jagung 5% dapat menghasilkan mi yang sesuai dengan standar (Yulmar, 1997). o Tepung komposit dengan kandungan tepung non terigu sampai 20 % tidak merubah rheologi dapat diterima konsumen dengan baik

41 Contoh PRODUK dengan Komponen Non Terigu Relatif Tinggi Brownish Kukus Ubijalar, Dapat menggunakan tepung ubijalar sampai lebih dari 70%

42 Black Forest Menggunakan Tepung Ubijalar 50%


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