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Paparan oleh Sukarno Abdulrachman Pembentukan Lembaga Pengelolaan Nama Domain Jakarta, Januari 2005

2 Ringkasan Menemukan dan mengembangkan MODEL melalui pengamatan POLA PIKIR, PANDANGAN & SOLUSI di berbagai belahan dunia Paparan tidak membahas MODEL secara teknis operasional, melainkan KONSEPTUAL

3 Isi Paparan Pengelolaan Internet – Internet Governance a. Tantangan
Hal 5 9 16 21 22 31 Pengelolaan Internet – Internet Governance a. Tantangan b. Ciri-ciri / Sifat Pengelolaan Sistem Nama Domain se-Dunia, ICANN Fungsi/ tugas Lembaga Kerja-sama Internasional Benchmarking auDA, CIRA Kesimpulan dan Saran

4 Referensi-referensi Presentation Mr. Stuart Lynn, Former President ICANN, Cornell University, 28 Juni 2005 Kajian Lembaga Internet Indonesia, DepKomInfo, 2005 ICANN, auDA, CIRA, CENTR, APTLD, dll.

5 Internet Governance/ Pengelolaan Internet

6 What Is Internet Governance?
Broad View Social Policy Issues Spam Cybercrime Terrorism Pornography Copyrights Economic Policy Issues Haves vs Have Nots Taxation Legal Enforcement Narrow View Central Coordination Names Numbers Etc Internet Stability (ITU vs ICANN)

7 Tantangan dalam Pengelolaan Internet
Trans-jurisdictional (Melintasi batas-batas Negara) Nations, states, etc. Rapid change (Perubahan Cepat Sekali) Instant obsolescence Porous (Terbuka) Open to “all” and “everything” Lack of ”situs” (Lokasi fisik tidak menentu) Anywhere, any place, any time Conflicting interests (Konflik Kepentingan - Disputes) Dan lain-lain

8 Ciri-ciri / Sifat-sifat Pengelolaan Internet (Juga untuk Pengelolaan Domain)
Governance should be characterized by: Democratic & transparent processes Open participation Governments, private sector, civil society etc Avoidance of undue influence, capture Efficient management, decision-making Kompetisi, dimana mungkin

9 The Domain Name System

10 Domain Names In place of a hard to remember number
IP (Internet Protocol) address Use an easy to remember domain name

11 The Domain Name Hierarchy
Root The Root Top Level Domains .com .edu .biz . . . .id .uk . . . Second Level Domains Third Level Domains ccTLDs Global TLDs

12 The Domain Name System /Process
Root Server Root Server Root Zone File REGISTRAR(S) Root Server ICANN Register Domain Names USER ISP REGISTRY Domain Name Resolver Registry Registry IP Address of .net Registry IP Address of Registry NAME SERVERS IP Address of

13 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

14 ICANN Mission Coordinate allocation/assignment of Internet unique identifiers Names, addresses, protocol numbers Coordinate operation/evolution of DNS Stability Coordinate policy development Reasonably/appropriately related Promote core values Stability, delegation, consensus Competition, market mechanisms Openness, transparency, fairness, accountability Respect for role of governments

15 ICANN Organization (2005) GAC Government Advisory Council ALAC
At-Large CCNSO Country Code Names Supporting Organization GNSO Generic Names ASO Address ICANN Board of Directors Ombudsman President/CEO Staff At Large Advisory Committee Liaison Security & Stability Advisory Committee Liaison Root System Server Advisory Committee Liaison Technical Liaison Group (IETF)

16 ccTLD Managers objectives (CENTR)
ccTLD Managers will operate under the law of the country or territory where they are located A ccTLD Manager is entrusted with the management of the ccTLD, but has no interest in intellectual property rights in the 2 letter code A ccTLD Manager should be equitable and fair to all eligible registrants and operate the database with accuracy, robustness, and resilience “Manager” = Lembaga / Badan

17 The Local Internet Community (CENTR)
Public and private sector (commercial, non commercial, users, government) Authority of the ccTLD manager comes from serving the LIC The LIC has the overall responsibility for local policies and will coordinate these policies with respect to the technical operability of the Registry The role of the IANA as a DNS support service is accepted and supported by ccTLD community ”Local” = negara y.b.s.

18 Why is Public / Private sector partnership important?
Internet technology is changing too fast for many international organisations/forums The Internet is a “self organizing”network (not following set paths) shows that traditional “regulations”will not work. The system will automatically find a path around any “restriction”. Consensus based Policy at National and International level should result in light weight market driven improvements to services to the Internet users. Improvements in services is good for development of society and economic growth.

19 Top Level Domain Manager / Administrator
Kembangkan Best Practice for ccTLD Manager (Lihat halaman berikut) Kembangkan ‘Guidelines on the operation of ccTLD registry‘ Partisipasi dalam menyusun ‘Policies for registry’, berdasarkan “azas-azas”: self-organised regulation bottom-up authority consensus transparency cooperation based on trust and fairness

20 Best Practices -Scope Duties of the ccTLD Manager
Process to Define the Local Internet Community Process to Register Domain Names Registrant Policies Technical Requirements Relationship with IANA Financial Basis of Operation Subcontracting Data Security Domain Name Dispute Resolution

21 Kerjasama Internasional antar Pengelola Nama Domain
(contoh) Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries (CENTR). Not-for-profit organisation, based in Oxford, Salzburg and Brussels. Established March anggota (contoh) APTLD (Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association) is an organisation for ccTLD (country-code Top Level Domain) registries in Asia Pacific region. Established in 1998, and in 2003 legally established in Malaysia. 18 anggota

22 au Domain Administration Ltd. (auDA)
About auDA .au Domain Administration Ltd (auDA) is the policy authority and industry self-regulatory body for the .au domain space. Role of auDA auDA carries out the following functions: develop and implement domain name policy license 2LD registry operators accredit and license registrars implement consumer safeguards facilitate .au Dispute Resolution Policy represent .au at ICANN and other international fora.

23 Tentang auDA Delegate for .au and all .au 2LDs (dapat dilimpahkan)
Industry self-regulatory body Non-profit organisation Membership-based supply, demand, representative assoc 13 directors 11 elected by members, 2 appointed 3 fulltime staff

24 Tentang auDA Implement consumer safeguards
Facilitate .au Dispute Resolution Policy Represent .au internationally ICANN, ccTLD, APTLD, dll. Policy: Manage .au in the public interest Preserve security and integrity of the DNS Promote development of competitive industry Protect interests of Registrants

25 Industry Structure (Australia)
auDA Registry Registrar Registrar Registrar Reseller Reseller Reseller Registrant Registrant Registrant

26 Registry (Australia) [AusRegistry Pty Ltd]
Licensed by auDA appointed by competitive tender Operate registry for one or more 2LDs Technical functions run nameservers maintain database of domain names receive approved registrations from Registrars operate WHOIS service Appointed by auDA in December 2001 4 year licence to operate registry for 5 2LDs,,,, Must meet auDA technical specifications

27 Canada (CIRA) Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA); Not-for-profit corporation for managing the .ca domain space in the public interest. (1998) 1999. Canadian government recognized CIRA as the new administrator of the .ca. Government set the general principles and structure of CIRA to administer the .ca domain space. 2000. Agreement between Gov and CIRA

28 Tentang CIRA The general principles are:
Open and transparent, that ensures wide public access to all relevant information; following fair and sound business practices; Appropriate balance of representation, accountability and diversity on the Board of Directors for all categories of stakeholders; Service quick and easy, priced competitively;

29 Tentang CIRA The general principles are:
Reducing conflicts between persons granted domain names and other rights holders, including trade-marks or business names; and Administering a system that facilitates and encourages entry for new players including registrars. Volunteer Board of Directors (14 members) – policy setting 3 Directors (representing User Community, Industry, Registrars) 9 Directors elected by mCIRA members 2 Ex-officio members non voting (Gov + CEO)

30 Struktur Organisasi LII
BOARD 29 President and CEO Sekretariat POLICY Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Memberships At Large 2 2 3 3 GAC -Postel -Kominfo -Indag -POLRI -TNI NGAC Mastel ISOC-ID FTII ATSI Portal Webhost IndoWLI Awari Etc… ASO 2 DNSO 2 ACCS Akreditasi & Sertifikasi 2 CERT Etc Lain-2 3 Terdiri dari: -APJII -Napsindo -TLKM, -Indosat, dll -gTLD -ccTLD -Registrars ID-First ID-Cert OPR’NT Keterangan: GAC: Government Advisory Committee NGAC: Non Government Advisory Committee ASO: Address Supporting Organization DNSO: Domain Name Supporting Organization ACCS: Accreditation and Sertification Organization CERT: Computer Emergency Response Team Badan Penyelesaian sengketa Etc: Lain2, disiapkan untuk perangkat lembaga lainnya IP Registrars Domain Registrars Kajian Lembaga Internet Indonesia, hal 48

31 Kesimpulan & Saran tentang Bentuk Model Lembaga Pengelola Nama Domain Indonesia
Lembaga menyandang tugas sebagai Manager / Administrator Top Level Domain, dengan Dewan Pimpinan (Board) yang integritasnya tinggi, peduli akan kemajuan Internet di Indonesia. Organisasi adalah “Not for Profit”. Pada dasarnya Lembaga adalah juga Registry, tetapi tugas itu dapat juga didelegasikan ke badan lain, komersial, yang berkualifikasi teknis (dasar kontrak) –pola Australia

32 Kesimpulan & Saran 3. Lembaga merupakan Public-Private Partnership, dengan pendekatan “industry selfregulation”, dimana intervensi Pemerintah dibuat minimal / sekecil mungkin, 4. Lembaga memiliki tugas mewakili “komunitas Internet Indonesia” di berbagai forum Internasional, sejauh mengenai masalah (sistem) nama domain – ICANN, IANA, APTLD, ITU (?) 5. Azas-azas harus ditetapkan dan pegang teguh, a.l. transparansi, pendekatan konsensus, fairness.

33 Kesimpulan & Saran 6.Perangkat-perangkat dikembangkan dan dipraktekkan dengan patuh-azas, sehingga terbentuk Best Practices yang dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. 7.Lembaga berpartisipasi dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa (perlu didalami, dan dilaksanakan sesuai arahan/ guidelines ICANN, dls) 8.Bila mungkin, adakan benchmarking ke 2-3 negara.



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