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BENTUK MODEL KELEMBAGAAN SISTEM NAMA DOMAIN INTERNET UNTUK INDONESIA Paparan oleh Sukarno Abdulrachman Paparan oleh Sukarno Abdulrachman Pembentukan Lembaga.

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Presentasi berjudul: "BENTUK MODEL KELEMBAGAAN SISTEM NAMA DOMAIN INTERNET UNTUK INDONESIA Paparan oleh Sukarno Abdulrachman Paparan oleh Sukarno Abdulrachman Pembentukan Lembaga."— Transcript presentasi:

1 BENTUK MODEL KELEMBAGAAN SISTEM NAMA DOMAIN INTERNET UNTUK INDONESIA Paparan oleh Sukarno Abdulrachman Paparan oleh Sukarno Abdulrachman Pembentukan Lembaga Pengelolaan Nama Domain Jakarta, Januari 2005

2 2 Ringkasan  Menemukan dan mengembangkan MODEL melalui pengamatan POLA PIKIR, PANDANGAN & SOLUSI di berbagai belahan dunia  Paparan tidak membahas MODEL secara teknis operasional, melainkan KONSEPTUAL  Menemukan dan mengembangkan MODEL melalui pengamatan POLA PIKIR, PANDANGAN & SOLUSI di berbagai belahan dunia  Paparan tidak membahas MODEL secara teknis operasional, melainkan KONSEPTUAL

3 3 Isi Paparan 1.Pengelolaan Internet – Internet Governance a.Tantangan b.Ciri-ciri / Sifat Pengelolaan 2.Sistem Nama Domain se-Dunia, ICANN 3.Fungsi/ tugas Lembaga 4.Kerja-sama Internasional 5.Benchmarking auDA, CIRA 6.Kesimpulan dan Saran 1.Pengelolaan Internet – Internet Governance a.Tantangan b.Ciri-ciri / Sifat Pengelolaan 2.Sistem Nama Domain se-Dunia, ICANN 3.Fungsi/ tugas Lembaga 4.Kerja-sama Internasional 5.Benchmarking auDA, CIRA 6.Kesimpulan dan Saran Hal

4 Referensi-referensi 1.Presentation Mr. Stuart Lynn, Former President ICANN, Cornell University, 28 Juni Kajian Lembaga Internet Indonesia, DepKomInfo, ICANN, auDA, CIRA, CENTR, APTLD, dll. Referensi-referensi 1.Presentation Mr. Stuart Lynn, Former President ICANN, Cornell University, 28 Juni Kajian Lembaga Internet Indonesia, DepKomInfo, ICANN, auDA, CIRA, CENTR, APTLD, dll.

5 Internet Governance/ Pengelolaan Internet

6 6 What Is Internet Governance?  Broad View  Social Policy Issues  Spam  Cybercrime  Terrorism  Pornography  Copyrights  Economic Policy Issues  Haves vs Have Nots  Taxation  Legal  Enforcement  Broad View  Social Policy Issues  Spam  Cybercrime  Terrorism  Pornography  Copyrights  Economic Policy Issues  Haves vs Have Nots  Taxation  Legal  Enforcement  Narrow View  Central Coordination  Names  Numbers  Etc  Internet Stability  (ITU vs ICANN)

7 7 Tantangan dalam Pengelolaan Internet  Trans-jurisdictional (Melintasi batas-batas Negara)  Nations, states, etc.  Rapid change (Perubahan Cepat Sekali)  Instant obsolescence  Porous (Terbuka)  Open to “all” and “everything”  Lack of ”situs” (Lokasi fisik tidak menentu)  Anywhere, any place, any time  Conflicting interests (Konflik Kepentingan - Disputes)  Dan lain-lain  Trans-jurisdictional (Melintasi batas-batas Negara)  Nations, states, etc.  Rapid change (Perubahan Cepat Sekali)  Instant obsolescence  Porous (Terbuka)  Open to “all” and “everything”  Lack of ”situs” (Lokasi fisik tidak menentu)  Anywhere, any place, any time  Conflicting interests (Konflik Kepentingan - Disputes)  Dan lain-lain

8 8 Ciri-ciri / Sifat-sifat Pengelolaan Internet (Juga untuk Pengelolaan Domain)  Governance should be characterized by:  Democratic & transparent processes  Open participation  Governments, private sector, civil society etc  Avoidance of undue influence, capture  Efficient management, decision-making  Kompetisi, dimana mungkin  Governance should be characterized by:  Democratic & transparent processes  Open participation  Governments, private sector, civil society etc  Avoidance of undue influence, capture  Efficient management, decision-making  Kompetisi, dimana mungkin

9 9 The Domain Name System

10 10 Domain Names  In place of a hard to remember number  IP (Internet Protocol) address   Use an easy to remember domain name   In place of a hard to remember number  IP (Internet Protocol) address   Use an easy to remember domain name 

11 11 The Domain Name Hierarchy Cnet.com.com.biz... abc.or.id or.id.uk... The Root Root Top Level Domains Second Level Domains Global TLDs ccTLDs Third Level Domains.edu.id

12 12 The Domain Name System /Process Root Server Root Server Domain Name Resolver abc.msl.net?? IP Address of.net Registry IP Address of abc.msl.net Root Server USERISP REGISTRY.msl.net Registry IP Address of.msl.net Registry..net Registry Root Zone File ICANN NAME SERVERS Register Domain Names REGISTRAR(S)

13 ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

14 14 ICANN Mission  Coordinate allocation/assignment of Internet unique identifiers  Names, addresses, protocol numbers  Coordinate operation/evolution of DNS  Stability  Coordinate policy development  Reasonably/appropriately related  Promote core values  Stability, delegation, consensus  Competition, market mechanisms  Openness, transparency, fairness, accountability  Respect for role of governments  Coordinate allocation/assignment of Internet unique identifiers  Names, addresses, protocol numbers  Coordinate operation/evolution of DNS  Stability  Coordinate policy development  Reasonably/appropriately related  Promote core values  Stability, delegation, consensus  Competition, market mechanisms  Openness, transparency, fairness, accountability  Respect for role of governments

15 15 ICANN Organization (2005) President/CEO Staff Ombudsman At Large Advisory Committee Liaison Security & Stability Advisory Committee Liaison Root System Server Advisory Committee Liaison Technical Liaison Group (IETF) GAC Government Advisory Council ALAC At-Large Advisory Council CCNSO Country Code Names Supporting Organization GNSO Generic Names Supporting Organization ASO Address Supporting Organization ICANN Board of Directors

16 16 ccTLD Managers objectives (CENTR) •ccTLD Managers will operate under the law of the country or territory where they are located  A ccTLD Manager is entrusted with the management of the ccTLD, but has no interest in intellectual property rights in the 2 letter code  A ccTLD Manager should be equitable and fair to all eligible registrants and operate the database with accuracy, robustness, and resilience •ccTLD Managers will operate under the law of the country or territory where they are located  A ccTLD Manager is entrusted with the management of the ccTLD, but has no interest in intellectual property rights in the 2 letter code  A ccTLD Manager should be equitable and fair to all eligible registrants and operate the database with accuracy, robustness, and resilience “Manager” = Lembaga / Badan

17 17 The Local Internet Community (CENTR) •Public and private sector (commercial, non commercial, users, government) •Authority of the ccTLD manager comes from serving the LIC •The LIC has the overall responsibility for local policies and will coordinate these policies with respect to the technical operability of the Registry •The role of the IANA as a DNS support service is accepted and supported by ccTLD community •Public and private sector (commercial, non commercial, users, government) •Authority of the ccTLD manager comes from serving the LIC •The LIC has the overall responsibility for local policies and will coordinate these policies with respect to the technical operability of the Registry •The role of the IANA as a DNS support service is accepted and supported by ccTLD community ”Local” = negara y.b.s.

18 18 Why is Public / Private sector partnership important?  Internet technology is changing too fast for many international organisations/forums  The Internet is a “self organizing”network (not following set paths) shows that traditional “regulations”will not work. The system will automatically find a path around any “restriction”.  Consensus based Policy at National and International level should result in light weight market driven improvements to services to the Internet users. •Improvements in services is good for development of society and economic growth.  Internet technology is changing too fast for many international organisations/forums  The Internet is a “self organizing”network (not following set paths) shows that traditional “regulations”will not work. The system will automatically find a path around any “restriction”.  Consensus based Policy at National and International level should result in light weight market driven improvements to services to the Internet users. •Improvements in services is good for development of society and economic growth.

19 19 Top Level Domain Manager / Administrator  Kembangkan Best Practice for ccTLD Manager  (Lihat halaman berikut)  Kembangkan ‘Guidelines on the operation of ccTLD registry‘  Partisipasi dalam menyusun ‘Policies for registry’, berdasarkan “azas-azas”:  self-organised regulation  bottom-up authority  consensus  transparency  cooperation based on trust and fairness  Kembangkan Best Practice for ccTLD Manager  (Lihat halaman berikut)  Kembangkan ‘Guidelines on the operation of ccTLD registry‘  Partisipasi dalam menyusun ‘Policies for registry’, berdasarkan “azas-azas”:  self-organised regulation  bottom-up authority  consensus  transparency  cooperation based on trust and fairness

20 20 Best Practices -Scope  Duties of the ccTLD Manager  Process to Define the Local Internet Community  Process to Register Domain Names  Registrant Policies  Technical Requirements  Relationship with IANA  Financial Basis of Operation  Subcontracting  Data Security  Domain Name Dispute Resolution  Duties of the ccTLD Manager  Process to Define the Local Internet Community  Process to Register Domain Names  Registrant Policies  Technical Requirements  Relationship with IANA  Financial Basis of Operation  Subcontracting  Data Security  Domain Name Dispute Resolution

21 21 Kerjasama Internasional antar Pengelola Nama Domain  (contoh) Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries (CENTR). Not-for-profit organisation, based in Oxford, Salzburg and Brussels.  Established March anggota  (contoh) APTLD (Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association) is an organisation for ccTLD (country-code Top Level Domain) registries in Asia Pacific region.  Established in 1998, and in 2003 legally established in Malaysia. 18 anggota  (contoh) Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries (CENTR). Not-for-profit organisation, based in Oxford, Salzburg and Brussels.  Established March anggota  (contoh) APTLD (Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association) is an organisation for ccTLD (country-code Top Level Domain) registries in Asia Pacific region.  Established in 1998, and in 2003 legally established in Malaysia. 18 anggota

22 22 au Domain Administration Ltd. (auDA)  About auDA .au Domain Administration Ltd (auDA) is the policy authority and industry self-regulatory body for the.au domain space.  Role of auDA  auDA carries out the following functions:  develop and implement domain name policy  license 2LD registry operators  accredit and license registrars  implement consumer safeguards  facilitate.au Dispute Resolution Policy  represent.au at ICANN and other international fora.  About auDA .au Domain Administration Ltd (auDA) is the policy authority and industry self-regulatory body for the.au domain space.  Role of auDA  auDA carries out the following functions:  develop and implement domain name policy  license 2LD registry operators  accredit and license registrars  implement consumer safeguards  facilitate.au Dispute Resolution Policy  represent.au at ICANN and other international fora.

23 23 Tentang auDA  Delegate for.au and all.au 2LDs (dapat dilimpahkan)  Industry self-regulatory body  Non-profit organisation  Membership-based  supply, demand, representative assoc  13 directors  11 elected by members, 2 appointed  3 fulltime staff  Delegate for.au and all.au 2LDs (dapat dilimpahkan)  Industry self-regulatory body  Non-profit organisation  Membership-based  supply, demand, representative assoc  13 directors  11 elected by members, 2 appointed  3 fulltime staff

24 24 Tentang auDA  Implement consumer safeguards  Facilitate.au Dispute Resolution Policy  Represent.au internationally  ICANN, ccTLD, APTLD, dll.  Policy:  Manage.au in the public interest  Preserve security and integrity of the DNS  Promote development of competitive industry  Protect interests of Registrants  Implement consumer safeguards  Facilitate.au Dispute Resolution Policy  Represent.au internationally  ICANN, ccTLD, APTLD, dll.  Policy:  Manage.au in the public interest  Preserve security and integrity of the DNS  Promote development of competitive industry  Protect interests of Registrants

25 25 Industry Structure (Australia) auDA Registry Reseller Registrant Registrar Registrant

26 26 Registry (Australia) [AusRegistry Pty Ltd]  Licensed by auDA  appointed by competitive tender  Operate registry for one or more 2LDs  Technical functions  run nameservers  maintain database of domain names  receive approved registrations from Registrars  operate WHOIS service  Appointed by auDA in December 2001  4 year licence to operate registry for 5 2LDs  asn.au, com.au, id.au, net.au, org.au  Must meet auDA technical specifications  Licensed by auDA  appointed by competitive tender  Operate registry for one or more 2LDs  Technical functions  run nameservers  maintain database of domain names  receive approved registrations from Registrars  operate WHOIS service  Appointed by auDA in December 2001  4 year licence to operate registry for 5 2LDs  asn.au, com.au, id.au, net.au, org.au  Must meet auDA technical specifications

27 27 Canada (CIRA)  Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA); Not-for-profit corporation for managing the.ca domain space in the public interest. (1998)  Canadian government recognized CIRA as the new administrator of the.ca.  Government set the general principles and structure of CIRA to administer the.ca domain space.  Agreement between Gov and CIRA  Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA); Not-for-profit corporation for managing the.ca domain space in the public interest. (1998)  Canadian government recognized CIRA as the new administrator of the.ca.  Government set the general principles and structure of CIRA to administer the.ca domain space.  Agreement between Gov and CIRA

28 28 Tentang CIRA  The general principles are:  Open and transparent, that ensures wide public access to all relevant information; following fair and sound business practices;  Appropriate balance of representation, accountability and diversity on the Board of Directors for all categories of stakeholders;  Service quick and easy, priced competitively;  The general principles are:  Open and transparent, that ensures wide public access to all relevant information; following fair and sound business practices;  Appropriate balance of representation, accountability and diversity on the Board of Directors for all categories of stakeholders;  Service quick and easy, priced competitively;

29 29 Tentang CIRA  The general principles are:  Reducing conflicts between persons granted domain names and other rights holders, including trade-marks or business names; and  Administering a system that facilitates and encourages entry for new players including registrars.  Volunteer Board of Directors (14 members) – policy setting  3 Directors (representing User Community, Industry, Registrars)  9 Directors elected by mCIRA members  2 Ex-officio members non voting (Gov + CEO)  The general principles are:  Reducing conflicts between persons granted domain names and other rights holders, including trade-marks or business names; and  Administering a system that facilitates and encourages entry for new players including registrars.  Volunteer Board of Directors (14 members) – policy setting  3 Directors (representing User Community, Industry, Registrars)  9 Directors elected by mCIRA members  2 Ex-officio members non voting (Gov + CEO)

30 30 LII BOARD POLICY OPR’NT GAC -Postel -Kominfo -Indag -POLRI -TNI NGAC -Mastel -ISOC-ID -FTII -ATSI -Portal -Webhost -IndoWLI -Awari -Etc… At Large Memberships President and CEO Sekretariat IP Registrars Domain Registrars ASO Terdiri dari: -APJII -Napsindo -TLKM, -Indosat, dll DNSO -gTLD -ccTLD -Registrars ACCS Akreditasi & Sertifikasi CERT ID-First ID-Cert Etc Lain-2 Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Struktur Organisasi LII Keterangan: GAC:Government Advisory Committee NGAC:Non Government Advisory Committee ASO: Address Supporting Organization DNSO: Domain Name Supporting Organization ACCS: Accreditation and Sertification Organization CERT: Computer Emergency Response Team Badan Penyelesaian sengketa Etc: Lain2, disiapkan untuk perangkat lembaga lainnya Kajian Lembaga Internet Indonesia, hal 48

31 31 Kesimpulan & Saran tentang Bentuk Model Lembaga Pengelola Nama Domain Indonesia 1.Lembaga menyandang tugas sebagai Manager / Administrator Top Level Domain, dengan Dewan Pimpinan (Board) yang integritasnya tinggi, peduli akan kemajuan Internet di Indonesia. Organisasi adalah “Not for Profit”. 2.Pada dasarnya Lembaga adalah juga Registry, tetapi tugas itu dapat juga didelegasikan ke badan lain, komersial, yang berkualifikasi teknis (dasar kontrak) – pola Australia 1.Lembaga menyandang tugas sebagai Manager / Administrator Top Level Domain, dengan Dewan Pimpinan (Board) yang integritasnya tinggi, peduli akan kemajuan Internet di Indonesia. Organisasi adalah “Not for Profit”. 2.Pada dasarnya Lembaga adalah juga Registry, tetapi tugas itu dapat juga didelegasikan ke badan lain, komersial, yang berkualifikasi teknis (dasar kontrak) – pola Australia

32 32 Kesimpulan & Saran 3. Lembaga merupakan Public-Private Partnership, dengan pendekatan “industry selfregulation”, dimana intervensi Pemerintah dibuat minimal / sekecil mungkin, 4. Lembaga memiliki tugas mewakili “komunitas Internet Indonesia” di berbagai forum Internasional, sejauh mengenai masalah (sistem) nama domain – ICANN, IANA, APTLD, ITU (?) 5. Azas-azas harus ditetapkan dan pegang teguh, a.l. transparansi, pendekatan konsensus, fairness. 3. Lembaga merupakan Public-Private Partnership, dengan pendekatan “industry selfregulation”, dimana intervensi Pemerintah dibuat minimal / sekecil mungkin, 4. Lembaga memiliki tugas mewakili “komunitas Internet Indonesia” di berbagai forum Internasional, sejauh mengenai masalah (sistem) nama domain – ICANN, IANA, APTLD, ITU (?) 5. Azas-azas harus ditetapkan dan pegang teguh, a.l. transparansi, pendekatan konsensus, fairness.

33 33 Kesimpulan & Saran 6.Perangkat-perangkat dikembangkan dan dipraktekkan dengan patuh-azas, sehingga terbentuk Best Practices yang dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. 7.Lembaga berpartisipasi dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa (perlu didalami, dan dilaksanakan sesuai arahan/ guidelines ICANN, dls) 8.Bila mungkin, adakan benchmarking ke 2-3 negara. 6.Perangkat-perangkat dikembangkan dan dipraktekkan dengan patuh-azas, sehingga terbentuk Best Practices yang dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. 7.Lembaga berpartisipasi dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa (perlu didalami, dan dilaksanakan sesuai arahan/ guidelines ICANN, dls) 8.Bila mungkin, adakan benchmarking ke 2-3 negara.

34 TERIMA KASIH


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