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Chap 2-1 BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik Statistika Bisnis.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Chap 2-1 BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik Statistika Bisnis."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chap 2-1 BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik Statistika Bisnis

2 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-2 Tujuan Kuliah Pada Bab ini Anda diharapkan mempelajari:  Membangun tabel dan grafik untuk data kategori (categorical data)  Membangun tabel dan grafik untuk data numerik  Prinsip-prinsip yang tepat dalam menyajikan data

3 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-3 Menyajikan Data  Data yang telah kita dapat biasanya tidak mudah untuk langsung digunakan dalam pengambilan keputusan  Beberapa tipe penyajian data dibutuhkan, yaitu:  Tabel  Grafik  Teknik-teknik menyajikan data yang akan di bahas disini adalah:  Bar charts and pie charts  Pareto diagram  Ordered array  Stem-and-leaf display  Frequency distributions, histograms and polygons  Cumulative distributions and ogives  Contingency tables  Scatter diagrams

4 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-4 Tabel and Grafik untuk Categorical Data Categorical Data Graphing Data Pie Charts Pareto Diagram Bar Charts Tabulating Data Summary Table

5 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-5 CONTOH  Kita melakukan investasi sebagai berikut: (in thousands $) Stocks 46.5, Bonds 32, CD 15.5, Savings 16 Buat summary table (tabel rekapitulasi) dan grafik bar/pie berdasarkan frekuensi setiap kategori

6 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-6 The Summary Table (Tabel Rekapitulasi) Total Rekapitulasi data berdasarkan kategori Contoh: Portofolio Investasi

7 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-7 Bar and Pie Charts  Bar charts and Pie charts digunakan untuk categorical data  Tinggi dari dari bar atau size dari irisan pie memperlihatkan frekuensi dari setiap kategori

8 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-8 Bar Chart Example Investment Amount Percentage Type (in thousands $) (%) Stocks Bonds CD Savings Total Current Investment Portfolio

9 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-9 Pie Chart Example Percentages are rounded to the nearest percent Current Investment Portfolio Savings 15% CD 14% Bonds 29% Stocks 42% Investment Amount Percentage Type (in thousands $) (%) Stocks Bonds CD Savings Total

10 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-10 Bar dan Pie Chart  Apa perbedaan bar dan pie chart?  Bar chart digunakan untuk melihat kategori data mana yang terbesar/terkecil  Pie chart digunakan untuk melihat proporsi dari setiap kategori dibanding keseluruhan

11 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-11 Pareto Diagram  Digunakan untuk menggambarkan categorical data (nominal scale)  Pareto diagram digunakan pada grafik yang sama bar chart dengan menambahkan kumulatif frekwensi  Untuk memisahkan “vital few” dari “trivial many”

12 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-12 Pareto Diagram Tipe Investasi Jumlah (in thousands $) Percentage (%) Stocks Bonds CD Savings Total110100

13 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-13 Pareto Diagram Example cumulative % invested (line graph) % invested in each category (bar graph) Current Investment Portfolio

14 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-14 Organizing Numerical Data Numerical Data Ordered Array Stem-and-Leaf Display HistogramPolygonOgive Frequency Distributions and Cumulative Distributions

15 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-15 The Ordered Array mengurutkan data kedalam tingkatan:  Memperlihatkan jarak (min to max)  Menghasilkan signal tentang variasi yang terdapat dalam data  Bisa mengidentifikasi pencilan/outliers (unusual observations)  tapi apabila data sangat banyak, the ordered array susah untuk digunakan

16 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-16  Data mentah yang terkumpul: 24, 26, 24, 21, 27, 27, 30, 41, 32, 38  Urutkan data memakai teknik ordered array dari yang terkecil ke terbesar:  Range: (continued) The Ordered Array

17 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-17 Stem-and-Leaf Diagram  Cara yang mudah untuk melihat distribusi data METODA: Memisahkan data menjadi yang termasuk ke dalam leading digits (the stem) and the trailing digits (the leaves)

18 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-18 CONTOH  Here, use the 10’s digit for the stem unit: Data in ordered array: 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41  21 is shown as  38 is shown as  41 is shown as Stem Leaf

19 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-19 CONTOH  Completed stem-and-leaf diagram: StemLeaves (continued) Data in ordered array: 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

20 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-20 Using other stem units  Using the 100’s digit as the stem:  Round off the 10’s digit to form the leaves  613 would become 6  776 would become 7 ...  1224 becomes 12 Stem Leaf

21 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-21 Apakah frequency distribution?  Frequency distribution adalah list atau tabel …  Berisikan grup-grup dari kelas (class groupings) (range/jarak berada diantara data) … Tabulating Numerical Data: Frequency Distributions

22 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-22 Mengapa Memakai Frequency Distribution?  Suatu cara untuk menyusun/summarize numerical data  Menyusun/meringkas data mentah menjadi sesuatu yang lebih berguna dan mudah dibaca...  Menyediakan suatu distribusi data yang bisa diinterpretasikan

23 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-23 Class Intervals and Class Boundaries  Setiap grup kelas/class grouping mempunyai lebar/jarak yang sama  Menentukan lebar dari setiap kelas dengan  Biasanya sedikitnya 5 kelas tapi tidak lebih dari 15 kelas (Cara menentukan jumlah kelas : K = 1 + 3,3 log N  Batas setiap kelas tidak overlap  Akhiri lebar kelas sehingga semua data masuk ke dalam kelas

24 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-24 Contoh Frequency Distribution Contoh: Suatu manufaktur penyekatan secara acak memilih 20 musim dingin dan mencatat termperatur tertinggi perhari sbb: 24, 35, 17, 21, 24, 37, 26, 46, 58, 30, 32, 13, 12, 38, 41, 43, 44, 27, 53, 27

25 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-25  Urutkan data: 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58  Range: = 46  Pilih jumlah kelas: 5 (biasanya antara 5 and 15)  Masukan lebar kelas/class interval (width): 10 (46/5 )  Tentukan batas setiap kelas (limits): 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60  Masukkan nilai tengah setiap kelas/class midpoints: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55  Buat tabel distribusi frekwensi Contoh Frequency Distribution (continued)

26 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-26 Contoh Frequency Distribution Class Frequency 10 but less than but less than but less than but less than but less than 60 Total Relative Frequency Percentage Data in ordered array: 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58 (continued)

27 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-27 Tabulating Numerical Data: Cumulative Frequency Class 10 but less than but less than but less than but less than but less than Total Percentage Cumulative Percentage Data in ordered array: 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58 Frequency Cumulative Frequency

28 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-28 Graphing Numerical Data: The Histogram  Grafik yang dibuat dari frequency distribution disebut histogram  Batas setiap kelas dan class midpoints diperlihatkan pada horizontal axis  Vertical axis digunakan untuk memperlihatkan frequency, relative frequency, or percentage

29 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-29 Class Midpoints Histogram (No gaps between bars) Class 10 but less than but less than but less than but less than but less than Frequency Class Midpoint

30 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-30 Graphing Numerical Data: The Frequency Polygon Class Midpoints Class 10 but less than but less than but less than but less than but less than Frequency Class Midpoint (In a percentage polygon the vertical axis would be defined to show the percentage of observations per class)

31 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-31 Graphing Cumulative Frequencies: The Ogive (Cumulative % Polygon) Class Boundaries (Not Midpoints) Class Less than but less than but less than but less than but less than but less than Cumulative Percentage Lower class boundary

32 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-32 Bar chart dan Histogram Apa perbedaan bar chart dan histogram?  Bar chart dipakai untuk beberapa catergorical variabel  Histogram dipakai untuk satu variabel numerik  Polygon digunakan untuk lebih dari satu variabel numerik

33 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-33  Scatter Diagrams digunakan untuk menguji kemungkinan adanya hubungan antara dua variabel numerik  The Scatter Diagram:  Satu variabel diukur di vertical axis, dan variabel lain di horizontal axis Scatter Diagrams

34 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-34 Contoh Scatter Diagram Volume per day Cost per day

35 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-35 Contoh Scatter Diagram (Time Series Plot Year Number of Franchises

36 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-36 Ringkasan  Apa aja yang dipelajari di bab ini:  Bar charts, pie charts, and Pareto diagrams  Ordered array and stem-and-leaf display  Frequency distributions, histograms and polygons  Cumulative distributions and ogives  Contingency tables and side-by-side bar charts  Scatter diagrams and time series plots

37 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-37 SOAL  Data berikut mewakili biaya listrik selama Juli 2006 untuk sebuah sampel acak dari 30 kamar apartemen di kota besar: a. Bangun sebuah frekwensi dan persentase distribusi (Sekalian dengan cummulative percentagenya)

38 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-38 SOAL b. Bangun histogram dan percentage polygon c. Bangun grafik cummulative polygon distribution d. Pada bulan apa aja biaya listrik terkonsentrasi?

39 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-39 Bab 3  Central tedency  Mean  Median  Mode  Geometric mean

40 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-40 Terima Kasih


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