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Chap 2-1 BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik Statistika Bisnis.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Chap 2-1 BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik Statistika Bisnis."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chap 2-1 BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik Statistika Bisnis

2 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-2 Tujuan Kuliah Pada Bab ini Anda diharapkan mempelajari:  Membangun tabel dan grafik untuk data kategori (categorical data)  Membangun tabel dan grafik untuk data numerik  Prinsip-prinsip yang tepat dalam menyajikan data

3 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-3 Menyajikan Data  Data yang telah kita dapat biasanya tidak mudah untuk langsung digunakan dalam pengambilan keputusan  Beberapa tipe penyajian data dibutuhkan, yaitu:  Tabel  Grafik  Teknik-teknik menyajikan data yang akan di bahas disini adalah:  Bar charts and pie charts  Pareto diagram  Ordered array  Stem-and-leaf display  Frequency distributions, histograms and polygons  Cumulative distributions and ogives  Contingency tables  Scatter diagrams

4 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-4 Tabel and Grafik untuk Categorical Data Categorical Data Graphing Data Pie Charts Pareto Diagram Bar Charts Tabulating Data Summary Table

5 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-5 CONTOH  Kita melakukan investasi sebagai berikut: (in thousands $) Stocks 46.5, Bonds 32, CD 15.5, Savings 16 Buat summary table (tabel rekapitulasi) dan grafik bar/pie berdasarkan frekuensi setiap kategori

6 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-6 The Summary Table (Tabel Rekapitulasi) Total Rekapitulasi data berdasarkan kategori Contoh: Portofolio Investasi

7 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-7 Bar and Pie Charts  Bar charts and Pie charts digunakan untuk categorical data  Tinggi dari dari bar atau size dari irisan pie memperlihatkan frekuensi dari setiap kategori

8 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-8 Bar Chart Example Investment Amount Percentage Type (in thousands $) (%) Stocks 46.5 42.27 Bonds 32.0 29.09 CD 15.5 14.09 Savings 16.0 14.55 Total 110.0 100.0 Current Investment Portfolio

9 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-9 Pie Chart Example Percentages are rounded to the nearest percent Current Investment Portfolio Savings 15% CD 14% Bonds 29% Stocks 42% Investment Amount Percentage Type (in thousands $) (%) Stocks 46.5 42.27 Bonds 32.0 29.09 CD 15.5 14.09 Savings 16.0 14.55 Total 110.0 100.0

10 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-10 Bar dan Pie Chart  Apa perbedaan bar dan pie chart?  Bar chart digunakan untuk melihat kategori data mana yang terbesar/terkecil  Pie chart digunakan untuk melihat proporsi dari setiap kategori dibanding keseluruhan

11 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-11 Pareto Diagram  Digunakan untuk menggambarkan categorical data (nominal scale)  Pareto diagram digunakan pada grafik yang sama bar chart dengan menambahkan kumulatif frekwensi  Untuk memisahkan “vital few” dari “trivial many”

12 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-12 Pareto Diagram Tipe Investasi Jumlah (in thousands $) Percentage (%) Stocks46.542.27 Bonds3229.09 CD15.514.09 Savings16. 014.55 Total110100

13 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-13 Pareto Diagram Example cumulative % invested (line graph) % invested in each category (bar graph) Current Investment Portfolio

14 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-14 Organizing Numerical Data Numerical Data Ordered Array Stem-and-Leaf Display HistogramPolygonOgive Frequency Distributions and Cumulative Distributions

15 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-15 The Ordered Array mengurutkan data kedalam tingkatan:  Memperlihatkan jarak (min to max)  Menghasilkan signal tentang variasi yang terdapat dalam data  Bisa mengidentifikasi pencilan/outliers (unusual observations)  tapi apabila data sangat banyak, the ordered array susah untuk digunakan

16 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-16  Data mentah yang terkumpul: 24, 26, 24, 21, 27, 27, 30, 41, 32, 38  Urutkan data memakai teknik ordered array dari yang terkecil ke terbesar:  Range: (continued) The Ordered Array

17 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-17 Stem-and-Leaf Diagram  Cara yang mudah untuk melihat distribusi data METODA: Memisahkan data menjadi yang termasuk ke dalam leading digits (the stem) and the trailing digits (the leaves)

18 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-18 CONTOH  Here, use the 10’s digit for the stem unit: Data in ordered array: 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41  21 is shown as  38 is shown as  41 is shown as Stem Leaf 2 1 3 8 4 1

19 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-19 CONTOH  Completed stem-and-leaf diagram: StemLeaves 21 30 41 (continued) Data in ordered array: 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

20 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-20 Using other stem units  Using the 100’s digit as the stem:  Round off the 10’s digit to form the leaves  613 would become 6  776 would become 7 ...  1224 becomes 12 Stem Leaf

21 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-21 Apakah frequency distribution?  Frequency distribution adalah list atau tabel …  Berisikan grup-grup dari kelas (class groupings) (range/jarak berada diantara data) … Tabulating Numerical Data: Frequency Distributions

22 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-22 Mengapa Memakai Frequency Distribution?  Suatu cara untuk menyusun/summarize numerical data  Menyusun/meringkas data mentah menjadi sesuatu yang lebih berguna dan mudah dibaca...  Menyediakan suatu distribusi data yang bisa diinterpretasikan

23 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-23 Class Intervals and Class Boundaries  Setiap grup kelas/class grouping mempunyai lebar/jarak yang sama  Menentukan lebar dari setiap kelas dengan  Biasanya sedikitnya 5 kelas tapi tidak lebih dari 15 kelas (Cara menentukan jumlah kelas : K = 1 + 3,3 log N  Batas setiap kelas tidak overlap  Akhiri lebar kelas sehingga semua data masuk ke dalam kelas

24 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-24 Contoh Frequency Distribution Contoh: Suatu manufaktur penyekatan secara acak memilih 20 musim dingin dan mencatat termperatur tertinggi perhari sbb: 24, 35, 17, 21, 24, 37, 26, 46, 58, 30, 32, 13, 12, 38, 41, 43, 44, 27, 53, 27

25 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-25  Urutkan data: 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58  Range: 58 - 12 = 46  Pilih jumlah kelas: 5 (biasanya antara 5 and 15)  Masukan lebar kelas/class interval (width): 10 (46/5 )  Tentukan batas setiap kelas (limits): 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60  Masukkan nilai tengah setiap kelas/class midpoints: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55  Buat tabel distribusi frekwensi Contoh Frequency Distribution (continued)

26 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-26 Contoh Frequency Distribution Class Frequency 10 but less than 20 20 but less than 30 30 but less than 40 40 but less than 50 50 but less than 60 Total Relative Frequency Percentage Data in ordered array: 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58 (continued)

27 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-27 Tabulating Numerical Data: Cumulative Frequency Class 10 but less than 20 3 15 3 20 but less than 30 6 30 9 30 but less than 40 5 25 14 40 but less than 50 4 20 18 50 but less than 60 2 10 20 Total 20 100 Percentage Cumulative Percentage Data in ordered array: 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58 Frequency Cumulative Frequency

28 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-28 Graphing Numerical Data: The Histogram  Grafik yang dibuat dari frequency distribution disebut histogram  Batas setiap kelas dan class midpoints diperlihatkan pada horizontal axis  Vertical axis digunakan untuk memperlihatkan frequency, relative frequency, or percentage

29 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-29 Class Midpoints Histogram (No gaps between bars) Class 10 but less than 20 15 3 20 but less than 30 25 6 30 but less than 40 35 5 40 but less than 50 45 4 50 but less than 60 55 2 Frequency Class Midpoint

30 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-30 Graphing Numerical Data: The Frequency Polygon Class Midpoints Class 10 but less than 20 15 3 20 but less than 30 25 6 30 but less than 40 35 5 40 but less than 50 45 4 50 but less than 60 55 2 Frequency Class Midpoint (In a percentage polygon the vertical axis would be defined to show the percentage of observations per class)

31 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-31 Graphing Cumulative Frequencies: The Ogive (Cumulative % Polygon) Class Boundaries (Not Midpoints) Class Less than 10 0 0 10 but less than 20 10 15 20 but less than 30 20 45 30 but less than 40 30 70 40 but less than 50 40 90 50 but less than 60 50 100 Cumulative Percentage Lower class boundary

32 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-32 Bar chart dan Histogram Apa perbedaan bar chart dan histogram?  Bar chart dipakai untuk beberapa catergorical variabel  Histogram dipakai untuk satu variabel numerik  Polygon digunakan untuk lebih dari satu variabel numerik

33 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-33  Scatter Diagrams digunakan untuk menguji kemungkinan adanya hubungan antara dua variabel numerik  The Scatter Diagram:  Satu variabel diukur di vertical axis, dan variabel lain di horizontal axis Scatter Diagrams

34 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-34 Contoh Scatter Diagram Volume per day Cost per day 23131 24120 26140 29151 33160 38167 41185 42170 50188 55195 60200

35 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-35 Contoh Scatter Diagram (Time Series Plot Year Number of Franchises 199643 199754 199860 199973 200082 200195 2002107 200399 200495

36 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-36 Ringkasan  Apa aja yang dipelajari di bab ini:  Bar charts, pie charts, and Pareto diagrams  Ordered array and stem-and-leaf display  Frequency distributions, histograms and polygons  Cumulative distributions and ogives  Contingency tables and side-by-side bar charts  Scatter diagrams and time series plots

37 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-37 SOAL  Data berikut mewakili biaya listrik selama Juli 2006 untuk sebuah sampel acak dari 30 kamar apartemen di kota besar: 96 171 202 178 147 102 153 197 127 82 157 185 90 116 172 111 148 213 130 165 141 149 206 175 123 128 144 168 109 167 a. Bangun sebuah frekwensi dan persentase distribusi (Sekalian dengan cummulative percentagenya)

38 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-38 SOAL b. Bangun histogram dan percentage polygon c. Bangun grafik cummulative polygon distribution d. Pada bulan apa aja biaya listrik terkonsentrasi?

39 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-39 Bab 3  Central tedency  Mean  Median  Mode  Geometric mean

40 Business Statistics, A First Course (4e) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chap 2-40 Terima Kasih


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