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1 Mengapa Video Conference ? April 2012 Wihnanto Nugroho.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Mengapa Video Conference ? April 2012 Wihnanto Nugroho."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Mengapa Video Conference ? April 2012 Wihnanto Nugroho

2 Agenda Training 13:30 13:50 14:15 14:35 15:00 15:20 15:30 15:40 15:50 16:00 16:20 Pengenalan Network H323 Gatekeeper dan SIP Proxy MCU Break Streaming dan Archiement H.323 Endpoints Kodisi Ruangan dan Lingkungan Video Conference Etika Kebiasaan saat Video Conference Penggunaan di Pemerintahan dan Departemen Kuis dan Tanya Jawab

3 3 Pengenalan

4 4 Sesi Apa dan Bagaimana ?  Sesi ini adalah hanya sebagai masukan dari Anda tentang pengalaman dan pertanyaan apapun  Tidak ada pertanyaan yang salah ataupun memalukan !

5 5 Apakah Video Conference ?  A real-time data video, pertukaran informasi dua atau lebih secara geografis lokasi menggunakan data audio, video dan aplikasi video.  Ini bukan web conferencing, video chat, casting web, atau streaming

6 6 Perbedaan Teknologi  Standards-based: – H.320: videoconferencing dengan media ISDN lines – H.321: videoconferencing media ADSL – H.323: videoconferencing dengan media kompresi packet-based IP – SIP: multimedia multicast transmissions via IP  Saat ini digunakan lebih dalam Voice over transmisi IP, tetapi perlahan-lahan bergerak ke dalam dunia videoconference

7 7 Perbedaan Teknologi  Not Standards-based: – Access Grid (AG) – Virtual Room VideoConferencing System (VRVS) – DVTS - SCCP - TIP  Beberapa teknologi telah membuat atau menciptakan interoperabilitas dengan H.323

8 8 Conferencing vs. Broadcasting Conferencing  Live Video  Seperti panggilan telepon  Two-way / dua arah  Memanggil dan memutuskan panggilan Broadcasting  Live atau on demand  Serti Televisi, ada Channel  One-way / searah  Tune-in atau URL  Streaming  Webcasting

9 9 Standards  International Telecommunications Union ( ITU ) melakukan ratifikasi dan standarisasi dalam berkomunikasi dan membuat kesinambungan antar teknologi seperti; H323  Berbagai macam pihak dan vendor melakukan kajian standarisasi dan dimengikuti panduan bagaimana mengembangkan teknologi tersebut.

10 10 H.320 ISDN vs. H.323 IP H.320 ISDN  Harus terhubung ke PSTN  Biaya yang besar untuk setiap line  Sambungan berbayar  Tidak semua Provider menyediakan layanan ini dan tidak semua tempat H.323 IP  Dengan media IP baik Internet atau VPN  Fix cost dari biaya ISP  Mudah untuk di aplikasikan dan mudah untuk di maanfaatkan dengan jalur data

11 11 H.323 Standard  H.323 adalah acuan stadarisasi untuk pengelompokan dan pengaturan teknologi – Audio  G.711, G.722, G.722.1, G.723.1, G.728, G.729 – Video  H.264, H.263, H.261 – Data  H.239, T.120 – Tambahan : Call Control, Directories, Transversal Call

12 12 Jenis Video Algorithms  H.261 adalah protokol standar paling lama di gunakan – Aloritma paling lama dari tahun 1990 dan biasanya di gunakan ISDN/ H.320  H.263 adalah protokol dikembangan untuk koneksi video via line telephone – Dimulia tahun 1995 dan dikembangkan untuk video asymetris  H.264 dikenal dengan MPEG-4 – Dimulai dari pengembangan broadcast awal 2003

13 13 Bagaimana ini menjadi penting ?  Setiap algoritma codec video memberikan pengembangan yang lebih baik dari pengolahan kompresi dan dan kualitas  Setiap codec baru memberikan kualitas video yang lebih baik pada kecepatan rendah, Ini berarti bahwa 768 kbps panggilan menggunakan video H.261 tampak sebagai baik sebagai 384 kbps panggilan menggunakan video H.264  Hal ini dapat membuat tampilan berbasis satelit konferensi video sama baiknya dengan teresterial ( FO atau Radio )

14 14 Video Tambahan H.239  H.239 adalah standar protocol untuk melakukan pengiriman 2 source video yang berbeda “duo-video” atau “people+content”  Memungkinkan gambar VGA di transmisikan melalui videoconference dengan resolusi 1024x768

15 15 Komponen Unit Sistem H.323  Network – backbone dari panggilan H.323  H323 Gatekeepers dan SIP Proxy – Pengendali dan pengaturan sinyal perangkat endpoint H.323  Multipoint Control Units (MCU) – Perangkat network yang memungkinkan melakukan sesi video secara bersamaan

16 16 Komponen Unit Sistem H.323  Terminals/Endpoints – Perangkat H.323 Video Conference  Streaming dan Archiement – Pengembangan untuk media satu arah konten gambar dan suara

17 17 Network dan Bandwith Backbone Quality for Successfull Conferencing

18 18 Pengkabelan dan Akses Kabel  Biasanya menggunakan kabel unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) : •CAT 3 [old] supports 10 Mbps Ethernet (10base-T) •CAT 5 [modern] supports 10base-T, 100 Mbps (100base- TX) and 5e supports 1000 Mbps (1000base-T) Ethernet •CAT 6 [new] supports CAT 5 applications +

19 19 Pengkabelan dan Akses Kabel  Kualitas dan penggunaan berpengaruh terhadap transmisi– pastikan kebutuhan kabel UTP anda!  Penting untuk memperhatikan • Jangan menggunakan kabel sub-CAT 5 untuk kecepatan diatas 100 Mbps • Silver Satin CAT 5 untuk Telephone bukan Video.

20 20 Ethernet LAN  Bandwidths di LAN adalah 10 / 100 / 1000 Mbps  Full- dan Half-Duplex – Half-duplex: mengirimkan dan menerima pada pair jalur yang sama, peralatan hanya dapat mengirim atau menerima pada satu waktu, dan harus mempehatikan coalision dan paket-paket dari perangkat lain. – Full-duplex: mengirimkan dan menerima pada pair jalur yang sama, peralatan hanya dapat mengirim atau menerima pada waktu yang berbeda, peralatan dapat mengirim dan menerima secara simultan dan tidak perlu memperhatikan paket data.

21 21 Ethernet LAN – full-duplex is not consistently implemented on old 10 Mbps Ethernet equipment – test before your conference to be sure it works. – 100 Mbps supports half- and full-duplex. – Modern devicescan auto-sense speed and duplex.

22 22 LAN: Switches vs. Hubs  Hubs (repeaters) sifatnya hanya memperkuat sinyal.  Repeater mengirimkan (mengulangi) paket yang datang pada satu port ke port lain. coalision terjadi, dan sehingga hanya dapat beroperasi dalam modus half-duplex.  Bandwidth dibagi di antara semua perangkat dan coalision transmisi menyebabkan jitter.

23 23 LAN: Switches vs. Hubs  Switch adalah perangkat yang berdasarkan pengalamatan yang terhubung, dan mengirimkan paket secara langsung dan hanya untuk target titik akhir.  Karena hanya 2 endpoint dapat berbicara (tidak ada colaision), mereka berdua bisa berbicara pada waktu yang sama (full duplex).  Menyediakan bandwidth yang lebih konsisten dan latency (jitter rendah). Switch lebih diutamakan untuk videoconference

24 24 LAN: Kesalahan Ethernet Duplex  Salah satu penyebab paling umum dari masalah performa pada link Ethernet 10/100Mb adalah ketika satu port pada link beroperasi pada half-duplex sedangkan port lainnya beroperasi pada full-duplex.

25 25 LAN: Kesalahan Ethernet Duplex  Jika salah satu ujung sambungan diatur untuk auto-negosiasi dan gagal melihat auto- negosiasi di ujung lain, standar mengharuskan akhir otomatis bernegosiasi mengatur dirinya sendiri ke default half-duplex. Jika perangkat lain ditetapkan untuk full duplex, kualitas video akan turun

26 26 LAN: Kesalahan Ethernet Duplex  Yakinkan untuk sistem Video Conference memiliki ketidakteraturan yang memungkinkan r memilih kecepatan full dan half- duplex menjadi AUTO, Pastikan Anda memiliki kecepatan ethernet saat ini yakni 100m atau 1000m.

27 27 LAN: Kesalahan Ethernet Duplex

28 28 LAN: Kesalahan Ethernet Duplex  Rekomendasi: – Jangan menggunakan HUB untuk system videoconferencing. – Jika kabel dalam gedung adalah CAT 5 atau lebih baik, maka port switch mengatur dan perangkat untuk 100/full, kecepatan ini lebih didukung oleh switch dan perangkat.

29 29 Router  Menyediakan sambungan ke WAN atau Internet.

30 30 WAN Segments ServiceSpeedSample Uses T11.5 Mbpsremote building; extension center DS345 Mbpsinter-city ; Internet (I1) connection OC3155 Mbpsinter-city ; I1 & Internet2 connection OC12622 MbpsI1 backbones; Internet2 connection OC GbpsI1 and Internet2 backbones 1&10 Gigabit1 or 10 Gbps advanced inter-city connections utilizing FO

31 31 Internet2 Global Indonesia Backbone

32 32 Transportasi Data di Network  Tipe transport protocol: – IP  TCP  UDP

33 33 Transportasi Data di Network  Unicast:one-to-one  Multicast:one-to-many  Broadcast:one-to-every

34 34 Unicast  Transport data pada umumnya  Aplikasi umum: mail, web browsing, file transfer, etc.

35 35 IP Multicast  Trasnmisi one to many  Contoh aplikasi : – Streaming  Hati-hati: tingginya tingkat tranport multicast dapat mempengaruhi kinerja konferensi video.

36 36 Broadcast  Sistem transport on to every  Digunakan oleh protokol jaringan termasuk ARP, NetBIOS, dan DNS.  Semua perangkat pada jaringan harus memproses setiap paket siaran; tingkat tinggi siaran dapat mengalihkan kapasitas pengolahan.  Jika domain broadcast yang terlalu besar atau luar biasa aktif, aktivitas yang dibutuhkan pada titik akhir untuk menangani siaran bisa mengurangi kinerja.

37 37 Multicast and Unicast Video Broadcasting

38 38 Firewalls  Firewall adalah sistem node jaringan yang bertindak untuk melakukan pengamanan dan kebijakan kontrol akses antara dua jaringan, misalnya, antara intranet departemen dan Internet l.  Digunakan untuk mengamankan sumber daya TI terhadap serangan eksternal dan pembobolan.  Lapisan jaringan firewall biasanya membuat keputusan mereka berdasarkan nomor port dan sumber / tujuan alamat.  Aplikasi-lapisan firewall bertindak sebagai proxy.

39 39 Firewalls  H.323 menggunakan ports IP: – Statis - assigned port TCP dan 1731 untuk call setup dan call kontrol. – Dynamically-assigned port UDP di range 1024 – untuk data video dan audio.  Firewall tidak mengizinkan port tidak dibatasi.

40 40 Firewalls – Solutions untuk H.323  Biarkan port yang tidak terbatas untuk range port tertentu, yang dikenal seperti HTTP, SMTP, POP, harus di filter dari eksternal IP alamat.  Gunakan fitur dari beberapa klien videoconference untuk membatasi port dinamis untuk port yang lebih spesifik.[OK, tapi pekerjaan admin tambahan]  Gunakan proxy aplikasi H.323.[Solusi Terbaik] Gunakan firewall yang bisa membukan port pada panggilan H.323, set port statis untuk sinyal dan kontrol dan membuka port untuk audio / video (port dinamis) sesuai kebutuhan.

41 41 NAT (Network Address Translation)  Memungkinkan beberapa berbasis IP di LAN dan berada di belakang NAT untuk berbagi satu alamat IP jaringan eksternal.  Kegunaan: • Mengurangi kekurangan alamat IP • Keamanan - mengaburkan pandangan jaringan dari luar / internet • Fleksibel administrasi jaringan

42 42 NAT (Network Address Translation)  Adminstrator jaringan akan kesulitan menggunakan H.323 di belakang NAT.  Beberapa unit videoconferencing terminals menyediakan fitur mendukung translate NAT.  Pilih terminal yang mendukung fitur Firewall / NAT traversal sebagai solusi untuk perangkat

43 43 Solusi untuk NAT  Pilih Terminal memiliki Firewall / NAT traversal solusi dibangun untuk perangkat mereka, meskipun ini adalah proprietary vendor tertentu solusi  Fitur “Fix Port" hanya bekerja pada point-to- point call bisa di jadikan alternatif.  H , 18, 19 adalah berbasis standar solusi yang disahkan ITU menjadi H.323 untuk memudahkan akses via Firewall dan NAT Traversal

44 44 H /18/19 Firewall Traversal  Bekerja dengan mebuat pin-holes pada jalur Firewall dan seolah olah H323 video call bisa menembus firewall anda baik untuk masuk dan keluar ke Internet  Menggunakan port range tertentu yang bekerja secara dinamis

45 45 Latency  Latency adalah waktu yang diperlukan untuk paket yang melintasi jaringan dari sumber ke tujuan.  Komponen yang bagian dari latency : – Propagasi delay: waktu yang diperlukan untuk melintasi jarak dari garis transmisi.

46 46 Latency  Transmisi delay: waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk sumber untuk menempatkan sebuah paket pada jaringan. Aturan untuk perangkat jaringan umum: <1ms. Untuk H.323 ini termasuk waktu untuk encode / decode video  Store-and-forward delay: panjang kumulatif dari waktu yang diperlukan perangkat internetworking sepanjang jalan untuk menerima, mengolah, dan mengirim ulang paket, variabel, dan tergantung pada beban jaringan.

47 47 Latency  Delay satu arah dari:  ms menyediakan interaktivitas yang sangat baik  ms OK  ms adalah buruk  Lebih 400 ms tidak dapat diterima  Delay satelit dalam kisaran “up 700 ms", tapi Anda akan menemukan bahwa Anda terbiasa dengan delay dengan teknologi lipsycn ( singkronisasi gerak dan suara )

48 48 Jitter  Jitter adalah variasi dalam latency dari waktu ke waktu.  Jika titik akhir berada di switched LAN, maka sumber utama jitter adalah variasi dalam waktu pengiriman data, yang dihasilkan dari beban jaringan.  Media tranport jaringan dipengaruhi oleh tingginya tingkat jitter. Jika sebuah paket tiba terlambat, maka akan dibuang tanpa digunakan.

49 49 Jitter  Perangkat konferensi video dapat menempatkan paket dalam buffer dan membaca mereka keluar dengan waktu yang tepat, tapi penyangga menambahkan latensi untuk konferensi.  Sebagai contoh, Perangkat Video Conference dapat memperbaiki sampai sekitar 75 ms jitter. Di atas itu, paket-paket akan tiba terlambat terlalu digunakan.

50 50 Packet Loss  Packet loss biasanya karena link padat dan coalisi di router. – 1% paling bisa diterima – 5% menjadi patokan untuk toleransi – >5% tidak dapat menghasilkan frame gambar yang bagus dan penurunan kualitas

51 51 QoS (Quality of Service)  Sebuah metode pemberian beberapa paket prioritas yang lebih tinggi daripada yang lain.  Berguna di lebih dimanfaatkan intranet - link WAN.  Perhatian! Konfigurasi pada router yang salah bisa mengakibatkan penurunan kulitas traffic data dan video, misalnya, packet loss meningkatkan jitter, dan data melambat tetapi video conference kulitasnya masih kurang.

52 52 QoS (Quality of Service)  Caranya: Beberapa terminal konferensi video dapat mengatur bit IP precedence. Gunakan bahwa untuk menandai dan antrian prioritas pada WAN.  Atau: Gunakan Proxy H.323 untuk konsolidasi lalu lintas ke sebuah alamat, router daftar akses untuk menandai, dan antrian prioritas pada WAN.

53 53 Indentifikasi Problem  Scenario – Terdapat 2 cabang departemen dan kantor dimana kulitas video conference sangat buruk – Setiap user didukung oleh kelompok yang berbeda dari insinyur videoconference. – Setiap departemen didukung oleh kelompok yang berbeda dari admin jaringan.

54 54 Indentifikasi Problem  Problem – Bagaimana pengguna mendapatkan tepat waktu, dan kualitas video yang diterima? – Bagaimana penyelesaian masalah jaringan terkoordinasi?

55 55 Indentifikasi Problem  Hambatan Bagian, jadwal, dan prioritas yang tidak memiliki komuniaksi.  Tidak ada satu engineer memiliki pemahaman yang lengkap dari seluruh jaringan jalan.  Tidak ada engineer atau admin jaringan yang bisa mendapatkan akses ke semua node jaringan (router, switch) sepanjang jalan untuk memeriksa masalah.

56 56 Solusi Problem  Solutions – Menjelaskan semua akar masalah untuk jaringan dan video conference di semua departemen. – Menetapkan komunikasi yang handal, dan memaksimalkan pemanfaatan alat. – Mengadakan pertemuan teratur; membawa semua admin jaringan dan admin video conference bersama di satu tempat dan waktu untuk berbagi informasi. – Memiliki dokumentasi jaringan yang baik untuk semua jaringan. – Latih dan gunakan admin video conference dalam untuk memahami masalah jaringan dan alat

57 57 H323 Gatekeeper dan SIP Proxy Bringing control to your multimedia traffic

58 58 What is a gatekeeper?  Physically it is a server that can be located anywhere on the network  Functionally very similar to a DNS server that does Address lookup  Adds some control functionality  Creates an “H.323 zone”

59 59 H.323 Zone  Definition – A single gatekeeper and all of the end points (clients, MCUs, and gateways) that register with the gatekeeper.  Typically is a community – E.g. University or organization

60 60 Gatekeepers Provide:  Admission Control  Call Authorization  Address Translations  Bandwidth Management  Zone Management  Call Signal Routing  Management Functions

61 61 Typical Gatekeeper Components  Gatekeeper Core Functionality  Web Server Management  SNMP Services

62 62 Basic Operation  Endpoints register with gatekeeper – This is a one time administrative task  Endpoint asks gatekeeper for permission to place call to another endpoint  Endpoint signals call with other endpoint  Endpoints exchange media directly  Endpoints disconnect, notify gatekeeper

63 63 Technical Description  Uses TCP port 1720, UDP Port 1719, 1718 – 1720 for Q.931 call control – 1719 H.225 Registration, Admission, and Status messages (RAS) – 1718 GK discovery  Deals with H.225, H.245, Q.931 – H.225: RAS as above but also call control and call setup messages – H.245: Media control and Transport signaling

64 64 Gatekeeper Functionality  Services: – Setup for point-to-point calls – Provides access to multipoint conferences and gateways  Neighbor Gatekeepers: – Provides inter-zone communication  Network Topology: – Allow administrator to employ traffic shaping

65 65 Gatekeeper Functionality  Endpoints: – Live list of registered users  Call Control: – Live list of active calls – Handy when you consider doing upgrades

66 66 Client Authorization  Open Gatekeepers – anyone can register  Predefined Endpoints  LDAP Authenticated Endpoints

67 67 Configuration Considerations  Neighbors – Can neighbor with everyone individually – Join a dialing plan  Choose a registration mode – Open, predefined, authenticated  Choose a routing mode – Direct, Call Setup, Call Setup and Call Control (negotiation)

68 68 Gatekeeper to Gatekeeper Communication  Like with telephones, it is possible to “call out” of your local system if your system is connected to the “outside world”  Initialy we used neighbor tables and individual exit codes for each gatekeeper that we had defined in our gatekeepers  As more and more organizations installed gatekeepers, neighbor tables became larger and more difficult to manage

69 69 Gatekeeper to Gatekeeper Communication  Then the Trans European Research and Education Networking Association (TERENA) came up with a plan to use a hierarchy of gatekeepers  Zone prefixes and extension numbers are defined by the national managing agent - usually the National Research Network (NRN) in that country  ViDe also joined in the adoption of this plan

70 70 E164 Space  Based upon the ITU-T e.164 telephone number assigned to the current subscriber of a range of telephone numbers  For example, if a university held through , then that university would be eligible for the GDS prefix That university could assign the remaining two digits to endpoints  Aside from maintaining direct inward dial (DID) capability for endpoints, there is no reason to limit endpoint numbering to two digits

71 71 SIP Proxy Getting two different technologies to talk to each other

72 72 SIP Proxy  Take one technology and make it work with another – SIP to IP (SIP to H.323) – Any combination of the above technologies

73 73 SIP Proxy  Standalone box  Special card for blade-style H323 Gatekeeper dan SIP Proxy  Build it yourself  Dual function endpoint

74 74 Stand Alone SIP Proxy  Typically a rack mount box with inputs for different types of lines (ATM, E1, IP)  Web interface for administration

75 SIP Proxy The addition of SIP to the framework for the future of enterprise video conferencing – Leveraging existing IETF open standards – Ensuring higher levels of interoperability with third parties – Maintaining a sophisticated feature set that is consistent and compatible with today’s H.323 video solution Highlights include:  H.323-SIP inter-working, with a common subset of telephony features  Call admission control and video enablement policies  Bandwidth management – Priority video callers – Cumulative pools for audio and video – Call rate negotiation  Video Conferencing (scheduled and ad-hoc) 75

76 76 Multipoint Control Units (MCUs) Bringing many together at once

77 77 Multipoint Control Units: Hardware vs Software  Hardware • Dedicated, real-time operating system • Generally work well • RADVISION • Polycom • Tandberg • Codian • LifeSize  Software • Most based on Windows or Unix OS on a server • Processor speed catching up to make them more reliable

78 78 MCU Control Functions  Defining a conference – Ongoing conference or scheduled – Connection Speed – Number of connections allowed – Voice Switched (VS) or – Continuous Presence (CP)  Many different layouts  Operating a conference – Dial In versus Dial Out

79 79 MCU Control Functions  Monitoring a conference – Check to be sure it is fully attended – Mute unruly participants  Monitoring an MCU – MCU Status reports  Cascading MCUs – MCUs calling MCUs for really big conferences

80 80 MCUs available in the market  RADVISION ViaIP (Legacy?) – Up to 100 ports at 384k VS – Powerful, reliable; ECS Gatekeeper – Gatekeeper required for dial in, but not dial out  Radvision Scopia – Chassis-based system or stand alone box – HD capabilities – Scopia Desktop  Tandberg

81 81 MCUs Available in the Market  Polycom MGC (used to be Accord)  Codian – MCU 4200 (SD) – MCU 4500 (HD)

82 82 RADVISION SCOPIA MCU  Newest MCU offerings from RADVISION  Blade-style technology in multiple chassis form factors  The combination of blades in the system will determine the capacity in standard and high definition  Built in web server for configuration

83 83 Polycom MGC  3 Flavors, 25, 50 and 100  Capacity varies by configuration  Support for H.264  Can support ISDN, IP and ATM  Separate Software control  Priced by configuration  Built-in reservation capability

84 84 Tandberg MCU  16 users, 3 simultaneous conferences  Support for H.264  Embedded Encryption  Supports ISDN and IP  Embedded web server for control and configuration  Small 1U form factor, 19” Rack-mountable

85 85 Codian MCU 4200  6, 12, 20, 30 and 40 port Standard Definition  12, 20, 30, and 40 port High Definition  Embedded web server for control and configuration  Built-in streaming available for conferences  Direct IP-based dialing and Gatekeeper-based dialing – For IP-based dialing you need to take Far end camera control or use DTMF tones  Small 1U form factor, 19” Rack-mountable

86 86 HD MCUs  Radvision, Codian, Tandberg and Polycom all have HD support on their MCUs  Some will require new hardware or software to run HD  Definition of “HD” videoconferencing depends on the manufacturer, usually 720p with 30 fps (720p = 1280 x 720 pixels)  The Commons Polycom MCU is HD-capable

87 87 Commons MCU Testbed  Three MCUs are available for testing and discussion – RADVISION viaIP – Polycom MGC 100 – Codian 4240  The Commons will support remote or onsite (you come to Ohio) testing  Useful for assisting in evaluations for your own purchases

88 Delivering content to those without H.323 or for later review Streaming and Archival Gabe Moulton 88

89 Streaming  The one-way delivery of digital content from a streaming server to a streaming client in a continuous, paced, and controlled flow  Alleviates the need to download an entire media clip as a file – Live events don’t exist as a file yet – Allows playing to start before download is completed 89

90 Streaming a Videoconference  Streaming a videoconference makes it possible for any number of people to view a conference – either live or recorded for on- demand access  Viewers use desktop computers with standard media players such as Real, Windows Media, or QuickTime 90

91 What Can I Do With Streaming?  Key individuals participate by videoconference – A larger audience views the live stream  Save the proceedings of a meeting  Make a class or lecture available on-demand for later student review 91

92 How to Stream a Videoconference  All-in-one solutions  Videoconferencing endpoints with built-in H.26x/G.7xx multicast streaming  Combination of videoconferencing terminal and standard streaming encoder 92

93 All-In-One Box  Can exist anywhere on the network  Repackage the H.323 content into a stream that can be interpreted by QT, Real, or WMP  DO NOT optimize for streaming  Examples: – STARBAK VCG – Virtual Rooms Videoconference Service (VRVS) – Codian MCU or IPVCR—has H.239 support 93

94 Terminals with Built-In Streaming  Some high-end terminals such as – Polycom FX – Tandberg 880  Can multicast the H.26x/G.7xx audio and video in QT, Real and/or WMP  No ability to record for VOD  Can be a burden on the local network of the device 94

95 Combo Endpoint and Encoder  Two standard devices… – H.323 videoconference endpoint – Streaming encoder  Are interconnected – A/V out of H.323 endpoint into A/V input of encoder  Encoder can be just about anything – Real, Windows Media, QuickTime; or MPEG-1,-2,-4; unicast or multicast  Video can be recorded and stored for VOD on server 95

96 Combo Endpoint and Encoder  Combo Endpoint and Encoder can be complex to manage  Have to schedule and manage the encoder – Videoconference scheduling systems don’t support viewing the pair of devices as a single logical device  MediaSite has a device that can be combined with an endpoint that can capture both the VC and H.239 if that is part of the conference. 96

97 Streaming Quality  Combo Endpoint and Encoder uses optimized-for-streaming encoding formats  Both All-In-One Box and Endpoints with Built- In streaming repackage video and audio which is not optimized for streaming 97

98 An end-user’s view of videoconferencing H.323 Terminal Endpoints 98

99 Four basic types of endpoints  Room systems  Desktop systems  Software-based systems  Telepresence Systems 99

100 Room Systems  Most will need a display device – Monitor, projector, etc  Mostly set-top boxes  Some can be rack-mounted  Some take multiple inputs for video – Multiple cameras – VGA/Scan converter – Document camera 100

101 Room Systems  All come with an intuitive GUI Interface  Almost all use remote controls or some other external interface  Most have one or more external microphone  Most hide the “administrative” features from the end user – Many will password protect the administrative interface to avoid users changing settings 101

102 Room System Examples  Polycom – VSX line – HDX line  Tandberg – Set-top Series – Edge Series  LifeSize – No support for H.261 video  VTEL IPanel 102

103 Desktop Endpoints  Have built-in processors to handle some of the video encoding  Most will rely on your PC’s monitor or will have a built-in monitor – Some with the built in monitor can take the place of your current monitor or be used for dual screen  Best to use only if you have one to three people at your site  Very few have external inputs for VGA, external cameras, etc. 103

104 Desktop Endpoints  Many have “strong arm” focusing which can be difficult to get the focus exactly correct  Becoming less popular and expensive compared to software endpoints on today’s faster processors  Most desktop endpoints with built in monitor are aimed at the “Executive” level 104

105 Desktop Endpoint Examples  Polycom – VSX 3000 – V700 – HDX 4000  Cisco Tandberg

106 Software Endpoints  Most work only with Windows OS  Rely on your monitor for displaying video  Use USB or Firewire webcam for capturing video – A decent USB webcam will cost about $100  Most software packages run in the $150 per endpoint range and offer a free trial period download 106

107 Example Software Endpoints  Polycom PVX –  Xmeeting – ge.net/ ge.net/ – Runs on Mac OSX  RADVISION eConf –  Tandberg Movi – /products/pc_videoconfer encing.jsp 107

108 Telepresence Setups (H.323)  Multiple systems working together – Polycom – Tandberg – Lifesize  Specific room setup  Illusion of one single room 108

109 Getting you and your space ready for videoconferencing Environmental Considerations 109

110 Setting Up for a Videoconference  Clothing  Lighting  Back Drop  Audio setup  Large Conference Room considerations 110

111 Clothing  Solid color shirts  “Busy” outfits blur when on camera  Simpler patterns aid the video compression 111

112 Lighting  Soft white frontal light  Standard overhead lights can cast shadows— especially if the user wears glasses  Think of TV studio lighting  Camera can not focus in low light—keep this in mind if you use a projector 112

113 Backdrop  No hard lines or complicated patterns  Can use a dry erase board, but be aware of glare  Solid darker color is ideal – Avoid red backgrounds they can be hard on the viewing site  Give audience one thing to focus on—YOU  Good idea—use a sign to indicate your location 113

114 Bad Backdrop 114

115 Good Backdrop 115

116 Audio Setup  Keep the microphone away from where the speakers are located – This can cause audio loop back  Test audio levels ahead of time – Make a test call – Use built-in features of the endpoint to test 116

117 Audio Setup  Make sure microphones are away from extraneous noise generators – Air conditioners – Laptop/Projector fans  May need to add echo canceling hardware – This is less common as endpoints become MUCH better at handling audio 117

118 Large Room Considerations  Position the camera to see the primary speaker and audience – May want to add additional cameras  Good lighting  Designate locations for Q&A with microphones  Avoid panning the camera too much – Use endpoint “presets” 118

119 Other Considerations  Plasma burn-in – Many endpoint use icons while in a call – These icons can lead to burn-in on the plasma screen  Projectors – Newer, brighter projectors (3000+ lumens) are plenty bright to have room lights on during videoconferences 119

120 Make every conference an enjoyable one Videoconferencing Etiquette 120

121 Plan Your Videoconference  Send the agenda and handouts in advance  Allow a few minutes for call setup and shut down time  Stick to the time limits  Unplug room telephone or turn off the ringer 121

122 Be Considerate  “Can you hear me, can you hear me?”  Remember to mute your microphone when you are not talking to the group  Use a location banner and name tags in case you are not on a first-name basis with the others in your conference  Take turns speaking and allow time for audio delay 122

123 Be Considerate  Don’t Multi-task on camera  Be aware of possible audio distractions if your microphone is not muted – Coughing – Paper rattling – AC units, Laptop and projector fans  Don’t bring food unless all sites will be eating 123

124 Tips for Getting Started  Provide an overview workshop for new users to learn basics – Share rules of etiquette – Get experience using the remote control – The importance of muting 124

125 Tips for Getting Started  Publish and distribute print materials or create a website describing basic equipment use and listing the site coordinator’s contact information  Emphasize simple practices like having a clear meeting agenda, muting the microphone, and how to use the remote control 125

126 Test, test, test  Test with every location thoroughly – Testing will help address equipment and networking issues in advance  Testing provides experience and creates a positive end experience  Murphy’s Law: If something can go wrong, it will 126

127 Why We Test  A student had a thesis defense  Moved from the planned, tested location just prior to a videoconference – Original testing went fine – Far site moved their unit just moments before the conference was to begin – Nervous presenter waited while new problems were corrected 127

128 128 Site Coordinator Duties Bob Dixon What is expected of you

129 129 Be Your Organization’s Videoconferencing Liaison  Work with the people in your group to assist with scheduling and testing  Establish relationship with your users and best practices for your group  Work with other site coordinators at other organizations  Work with users in conferences you schedule to be sure they can connect  Make nice with your organization’s network administrators – They can be your best friend in making H.323 really work for your organization

130 130 Troubleshooting Point to Point Videoconferences  Make sure the network is up to the task – Eliminate Firewall or NAT as troublemaker  Make sure both endpoints are turned on and have valid IP addresses – Some endpoints have built-in hub and if the Ethernet cable is plugged in here, it will not work – Most will give an indication that they have a valid IP address, but they can be wrong – Make sure you have link lights

131 131 Troubleshooting Multipoint Conferences  Number 1 support call: “I can’t get into the conference”  Make sure all sites have followed the directions  Make sure you have the time and date correct  Make sure all sites are registered to a GDS Gatekeeper  Double check your speed and what you dialed

132 132 Follow Directions  Commons Dialing Directions come with a date and time (with time zone) reminder and directions similar to this example: 1. Register with a GDS Gatekeeper, if you need to borrow space go here: 2. Make sure you are connecting at 384 kbps 3. Dial (no spaces) 4. Call xxxx for technical support

133 133 Timing is everything  Time zone confusion can be problematic  Don’t be surprised if your Tuesday conference is empty on Wednesday, or simply won’t let you in!

134 134 Registering with a Gatekeeper  Many new users have never done this  Typically an administrative chore and requires administrative access to the endpoint’s settings  This does take a few minutes and can require some rebooting, so be prepared  If your campus is already GDS, make a note of that on the cheat sheet in VC room

135 135 How to register with the Commons Gatekeeper 1. In your videoconferencing endpoint unit, navigate to the H.323 settings menu 2. Enter your address as your endpoint’s H.323 Name  This gives administrators some idea of who is registering and from where

136 136 How to register with the Commons Gatekeeper (cont.) 3. Assign yourself an E.164 number in this format  your 10 digit phone number  If your phone number is (111) , your GDS number would be  Your endpoint's system may need to be rebooted.

137 137 How to register with the Commons Gatekeeper (cont.) 4. Navigate back to the H.323/Gatekeeper setting 5. Enter the following IP address:  Again, your endpoint may need to be rebooted 6. Congratulations! You should now be registered with the Internet2 Commons Gatekeeper

138 138 Check your speed!  Some MCUs will not let you in if you dial at an incorrect speed  Some will only give you partial connection – Only audio – Only video – Frozen image  Faster is not always the best way to go!

139 139 Check your digits!  One added or missing number may put you in a completely different place  Some MCUs have predefined meeting “rooms” where a mistyped dial string will cause failure to connect  You do not enter the spaces in a GDS dial string, the spaces are for readability like the parenthesis and dashes in telephone numbers

140 140 Do you have a Firewall or NAT?  Firewall + H.323 = Bad  NAT + H.323 = Bad  Firewall + NAT + H.323 = Bad

141 141 Still can’t get in?  Some endpoints require you to specify for them to dial by IP or LAN  Is your endpoint ISDN or ATM? – You will need a gateway to convert your signal to IP and back  Check to make sure the Ethernet cable is plugged into the right place – Some of the older Polycoms have an Ethernet jack AND a hub port

142 142 Okay, now I’m in but it looks terrible!  Do you have enough bandwidth? – A dedicated T1 for video might not be enough – Say you have 4 endpoints all videoconferencing at 384 kbps – 4 * 384 kbps = 1536 kbps which is your WHOLE T1 and that doesn’t allow room for overhead – Network congestion can cause a poor videoconferencing experience  Did you check your duplex settings – Duplex mismatch is the “silent killer” of videoconferencing

143 143 Another word on etiquette  Remember to mute your microphone  Try to stay in the frame of the video for the other end’s pleasure – There’s nothing more distracting that looking at the top of someone’s head or out their window  Cut down on visual and audio distractions in the room – Air conditioners, fans, and poor mic placement – Busy backgrounds and clothing

144 144 And never forget…  Test  TEST!!!

145 145 Thank you We expect our inbox to be flooded with Site Coordinator forms!


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