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Organisasi Komputer Dosen Pembimbing : Muhammad Adri S.Pd,MT Handbook : Computer Organization and architecture 5 th Edition – Prentice Hall by William.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Organisasi Komputer Dosen Pembimbing : Muhammad Adri S.Pd,MT Handbook : Computer Organization and architecture 5 th Edition – Prentice Hall by William."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Organisasi Komputer Dosen Pembimbing : Muhammad Adri S.Pd,MT Handbook : Computer Organization and architecture 5 th Edition – Prentice Hall by William Stalling Materi 3 Bus-Bus Sistem

2 Konsep Program Sistem hardware tidak fleksibel Tujuan umum hardware untuk melakukan tugas-tugas yang berbeda, dengan jalan memberikan koresksi sinyal kontrol Dengan mengubah hubungan (re- wiring),berarti memberikan set sinyal kontrol baru

3 Apa itu program? Suatu urutan langkah-langkah kerja Untuk tiap langkah, suatu operasi aritmatik atau logika dilakukan Untuk tiap operasi, dibutuhkan pengaturan sinyal kontrol yang berbeda

4 Fungsi Unit Kontrol Biasanya setiap operasi mempunyai kode yang unik Misal ADD, MOVE Suatu bagian hardware menerima kode dan mengirimkan sinyal kontrol We have a computer!

5 Komponen - komponen Unit Kontrol dan ALU merupakan bagian yang terdapat dalam CPU (Central Processing Unit) Data and instruksi perlu dimasukkan ke dalam sistem untuk mendapatkan suatu keluaran Input/output Media penyimpanan sementara (temporary storage) kode and hasil proses diperlukan Memori utama

6 Komponen Komputer : Top Level View

7 Putaran instruksi Dua langkah: Fetch Execute

8 Putaran Fetch Program Counter (PC) menyimpan alamat instruksi berikutnya untuk di fetch Prosessor mem-fetch-kan instruksi dari lokasi memori yang ditunjuk oleh PC Peningkatan PC Instruksi dikirim ke Instruction Register (IR) Prosessor menginterpretasikan instruksi dan melakukan aksi yang diperlukan

9 Putaran Eksekusi Processor-memory Data ditransfer antara CPU dan memori utama Processor I/O Data ditransfer antara CPU dan modul I/O Data processing Beberapa operasi aritmatik dan logika terhadap data Control Mengatur urutan-urutan operasi Misalnya jump Kombinasi proses di atas

10 Contoh Eksekusi Program

11 Putaran Instruksi - State Diagram

12 Interupsi Mekanisme oleh modul-modul lainnya (mis. I/O) untuk mengubah urutan normal proses yang berlangsung Program Misal : overflow, division by zero Timer Dihasilkan oleh internal processor timer Digunakan dalam pre-emptive multi-tasking I/O Dari pengontrol I/O Hardware failure Misalnya bit paritas memori error

13 Program Flow Control

14 Lingkaran Interrupt Ditambahkan ke dalam putaran instruksi Prosessor mencek adanya interrupt Diindikasikan oleh suatu interrupt signal Jika tidak ada interrupt, fetch instruksi berikutnya Jika interrupt ditunda: Sedang mengksekusi program Save context Seting PC untuk memulai alamat interrupt handler routine Proses interrupt Kembalikan context dan lanjtkan program yang di interrupt

15 Putaran Instruction (dengan Interrupts) - State Diagram

16 Multiple Interrupts Disable interrupts Processor will ignore further interrupts whilst processing one interrupt Interrupts remain pending and are checked after first interrupt has been processed Interrupts handled in sequence as they occur Define priorities Low priority interrupts can be interrupted by higher priority interrupts When higher priority interrupt has been processed, processor returns to previous interrupt

17 Multiple Interrupts - Sequential

18 Multiple Interrupts - Nested

19 Connecting All the units must be connected Different type of connection for different type of unit Memory Input/Output CPU

20 Memory Connection Receives and sends data Receives addresses (of locations) Receives control signals Read Write Timing

21 Input/Output Connection(1) Similar to memory from computer’s viewpoint Output Receive data from computer Send data to peripheral Input Receive data from peripheral Send data to computer

22 Input/Output Connection(2) Receive control signals from computer Send control signals to peripherals e.g. spin disk Receive addresses from computer e.g. port number to identify peripheral Send interrupt signals (control)

23 CPU Connection Reads instruction and data Writes out data (after processing) Sends control signals to other units Receives (& acts on) interrupts

24 Buses There are a number of possible interconnection systems Single and multiple BUS structures are most common e.g. Control/Address/Data bus (PC) e.g. Unibus (DEC-PDP)

25 What is a Bus? A communication pathway connecting two or more devices Usually broadcast Often grouped A number of channels in one bus e.g. 32 bit data bus is 32 separate single bit channels Power lines may not be shown

26 Data Bus Carries data Remember that there is no difference between “data” and “instruction” at this level Width is a key determinant of performance 8, 16, 32, 64 bit

27 Address bus Identify the source or destination of data e.g. CPU needs to read an instruction (data) from a given location in memory Bus width determines maximum memory capacity of system e.g has 16 bit address bus giving 64k address space

28 Control Bus Control and timing information Memory read/write signal Interrupt request Clock signals

29 Bus Interconnection Scheme

30 Big and Yellow? What do buses look like? Parallel lines on circuit boards Ribbon cables Strip connectors on mother boards •e.g. PCI Sets of wires

31 Single Bus Problems Lots of devices on one bus leads to: Propagation delays •Long data paths mean that co-ordination of bus use can adversely affect performance •If aggregate data transfer approaches bus capacity Most systems use multiple buses to overcome these problems

32 Traditional (ISA) (with cache)

33 High Performance Bus

34 Bus Types Dedicated Separate data & address lines Multiplexed Shared lines Address valid or data valid control line Advantage - fewer lines Disadvantages •More complex control •Ultimate performance

35 Bus Arbitration More than one module controlling the bus e.g. CPU and DMA controller Only one module may control bus at one time Arbitration may be centralised or distributed

36 Centralised Arbitration Single hardware device controlling bus access Bus Controller Arbiter May be part of CPU or separate

37 Distributed Arbitration Each module may claim the bus Control logic on all modules

38 Timing Co-ordination of events on bus Synchronous Events determined by clock signals Control Bus includes clock line A single 1-0 is a bus cycle All devices can read clock line Usually sync on leading edge Usually a single cycle for an event

39 Synchronous Timing Diagram

40 Asynchronous Timing Diagram

41 PCI Bus Peripheral Component Interconnection Intel released to public domain 32 or 64 bit 50 lines

42 PCI Bus Lines (required) Systems lines Including clock and reset Address & Data 32 time mux lines for address/data Interrupt & validate lines Interface Control Arbitration Not shared Direct connection to PCI bus arbiter Error lines

43 PCI Bus Lines (Optional) Interrupt lines Not shared Cache support 64-bit Bus Extension Additional 32 lines Time multiplexed 2 lines to enable devices to agree to use 64-bit transfer JTAG/Boundary Scan For testing procedures

44 PCI Commands Transaction between initiator (master) and target Master claims bus Determine type of transaction e.g. I/O read/write Address phase One or more data phases

45 PCI Read Timing Diagram

46 PCI Bus Arbitration

47 Foreground Reading Stallings, chapter 3 (all of it) In fact, read the whole site!


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