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1 Operating System Concepts Organisasi Komputer 1  John Paul Vergara.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Operating System Concepts Organisasi Komputer 1  John Paul Vergara."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Operating System Concepts Organisasi Komputer 1  John Paul Vergara

2 2 Operating System Concepts  Abacus  Kalkulator personal yang pertama  Memperkenalkan posisi angka dalam perhitungan  Muhammad ibn Musa Al'Khowarizmi  Abad ke 12  Menuliskan suatu proses yang diikuti keterangan tentang tujuannya – merupakan cikal bakan cara penulisan program  Memperkenalkan algoritma Sejarah Komputer Pra-1600

3 3 Operating System Concepts  John Napier (1612)  Mathematician, mengembangkan logaritma  Membuat mesin perkalian  William Oughtred (1622)  Menemukan slide rule  Berbasis pada Algoritma Napier  Digunakan para scientists & engineers sampai pertengahan th 1900 Era Mekanis ( ) Sejarah Komputer

4 4 Operating System Concepts  Wilhelm Schickhard (1623)  Astronom dan mathematician  Menjelaskan cara kerja suatu mesin yang secara otomatis dapat melakukan operasi penjumlahan, pengurangan, perkalian dan pembagian  Blaise Pascal (1642)  Mathematician  Memproduksi suatu mesin hitung secara masal  Hanya dapat melakukan operasi penjumlahan dan pengurangan Sejarah Komputer Era Mekanis ( )

5 5 Operating System Concepts Sejarah Komputer Era Mekanis ( ) Pascal’s Calculator 1642 (Pascalin)

6 6 Operating System Concepts  Gottfried Liebniz (1673)  Mathematician  Mengembangkan Mesin Pascal  Penjumlahan, pengurangan, perkalian dan pembagian  Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1801)  Mesin tenun Jacquard  Menggunakan punched cards untuk pola tenunnya Sejarah Komputer Era Mekanis ( )

7 7 Operating System Concepts  Charles Babbage (1822)  Mathematician, “Bapak Komputer Modern”  Menginginkan akurasi dalam perhitungan  Membuat mesin pengurang  Membuat tabel komputasi matematik  Membuat mesin analisis  Melakukan berbagai operasi penghitungan  Menemukan punch card  Menciptakan struktur modern dari : I/O, storage, ALU  Operasi penjumlahan dalam 1 detik, perkalian dalam 1 menit  George Boole (1847)  Melakukan analisa matematik logik Sejarah Komputer Era Mekanis ( )

8 8 Operating System Concepts  John Atanasoff (1937)  Electronic Computer pertama  Binary Arithmetic  Menggunakan kapasitor utk Electronic Memory  Belum beroperasi secara sempurna  Mendapatkan hak paten utk Electronic Digital Computer  Howard Aiken (1943)  Men design Harvard Mark I  Electro-Mechanical  Mengimplementasikan Babbage’s machine  Dikembangkan oleh IBM Sejarah Komputer

9 9 Operating System Concepts  Enigma -- WWII  German Encryption System  Digunakan utk melakukan enkripsi pesan yang akan dikirim ke kapal selam  COLOSSUS (1943)  Top Secret British Code Breaker  Alan Turing – Designed & Programmed  Dirahasiakan selama 30 tahun setelah perang dunia  Electronic Computer System pertama yang sangat fungsional Sejarah Komputer

10 10 Operating System Concepts ENIAC - background  Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer  Eckert and Mauchly  University of Pennsylvania  Trajectory tables for weapons (Dpt menganalisa lintasan peluru)  Started 1943  Finished 1946  Too late for war effort  Used until 1955

11 11 Operating System Concepts ENIAC - details  Decimal (not binary)  20 accumulators of 10 digits  Programmed manually by switches  18,000 vacuum tubes  30 tons  15,000 square feet  140 kW power consumption  5,000 additions per second

12 12 Operating System Concepts von Neumann/Turing  Konsep penyimpanan program  Programs dan data disimpan dalam Main memory  Operasi pada ALU menggunakan data biner  Menterjemahkan instruksi dari memory kemudian melaksanakannya dalam Control unit  Peralatan Input dan output dioperasikan oleh control unit  Dikembangkan di Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies  IAS  Selesai pada th 1952

13 13 Operating System Concepts Structure dr von Nuemann Machine Main Memory Arithmetic and Logic Unit Program Control Unit Input Output Equipment

14 14 Operating System Concepts Structure of IAS - detail Main Memory Arithmetic and Logic Unit Program Control Unit Input Output Equipment MBR Arithmetic & Logic Circuits MQAccumulator MAR Control Circuits IBR IR PC Address Instructions & Data Central Processing Unit

15 15 Operating System Concepts IBM  Menggunakan Punch Cards  the 701  Scientific calculations  the 702  Business applications  Mengembangkan type 700/7000 series

16 16 Operating System Concepts Transistors  Menggantikan tabung hampa  Ukuran Kecil  Harga Murah  Panas yang dihasilkan kecil  Solid State device  Dibuat dari bahan Silicon  Ditemukan pada th 1947 di Bell Labs  William Shockley.

17 17 Operating System Concepts Transistor Based Computers  Mesin Generasi kedua  NCR & RCA  IBM 7000  DEC  Produced PDP-1

18 18 Operating System Concepts Microelectronics  “small electronics”  Komputer disusun dari gerbang, memory dan interkoneksi  Semiconductor  e.g. silicon wafer

19 19 Operating System Concepts Generations of Computer  Vacuum tube  Transistor  Small scale integration on  Up to 100 devices on a chip  Medium scale integration - to 1971  100-3,000 devices on a chip  Large scale integration  3, ,000 devices on a chip  Very large scale integration to date  100, ,000,000 devices on a chip  Ultra large scale integration  Over 100,000,000 devices on a chip

20 20 Operating System Concepts Moore’s Law  Increased density of components on chip  Gordon Moore - cofounder of Intel  Number of transistors on a chip will double every year  Since 1970’s development has slowed a little  Number of transistors doubles every 18 months  Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged  Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance  Smaller size gives increased flexibility  Reduced power and cooling requirements  Fewer interconnections increases reliability

21 21 Operating System Concepts Growth in CPU Transistor Count

22 22 Operating System Concepts IBM 360 series  1964  Replaced (& not compatible with) 7000 series  First planned “family” of computers  Similar or identical instruction sets  Similar or identical O/S  Increasing speed  Increasing number of I/O ports (i.e. more terminals)  Increased memory size  Increased cost  Multiplexed switch structure

23 23 Operating System Concepts DEC PDP-8  1964  First minicomputer (after miniskirt!)  Did not need air conditioned room  Small enough to sit on a lab bench  $16,000  $100k+ for IBM 360  Embedded applications & OEM  BUS STRUCTURE

24 24 Operating System Concepts DEC - PDP-8 Bus Structure OMNIBUS Console Controller CPU Main Memory I/O Module I/O Module

25 25 Operating System Concepts Semiconductor Memory  1970  Fairchild  Size of a single core  i.e. 1 bit of magnetic core storage  Holds 256 bits  Non-destructive read  Much faster than core  Capacity approximately doubles each year

26 26 Operating System Concepts Intel   First microprocessor  All CPU components on a single chip  4 bit  Followed in 1972 by 8008  8 bit  Both designed for specific applications   Intel’s first general purpose microprocessor

27 27 Operating System Concepts DRAM and Processor Characteristics

28 28 Operating System Concepts Trends in DRAM use

29 29 Operating System Concepts

30 30 Operating System Concepts Introduksi  Apa yang disebut System Operasi?  Mainframe Systems  Desktop Systems  Multiprocessor Systems  Distributed Systems  Clustered System  Real -Time Systems  Handheld Systems  Computing Environments

31 31 Operating System Concepts Apa yang disebut Sistem Operasi?  Sederetan instruksi (program) yang menghubungkan antara user dengan Komputer dan melakukan kontrol terhadap sistem Komputer  Tujuan Operating system :  Menjalankan programs dan membuat penyelesaian masalah secara mudah.  Membuat computer system berjalan secara baik.  Membuat pemakaian computer hardware secara efisien.

32 32 Operating System Concepts Komponen Sistem Komputer 1.Hardware – (CPU, memory, I/O devices). 2.Sistem Operasi – melakukan kontrol dan mengkoordinir penggunaan hardware diantara beberapa aplikasi dan beberapa jenis user. 3.Program Aplikasi -- (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). 4.Users (pengguna, periferal, komputer lain).

33 33 Operating System Concepts Central Processing Unit Computer Hardware

34 34 Operating System Concepts CPU Chip Detail Computer Hardware

35 35 Operating System Concepts A Motherboard Computer Hardware

36 36 Operating System Concepts Schematic Diagram of a Personal Computer Computer Hardware

37 37 Operating System Concepts The ENIAC Computer Hardware

38 38 Operating System Concepts Sistem Jaringan

39 39 Operating System Concepts Definisi Sistem Operasi  Resource allocator – mengatur dan mengalokasikan sumber daya.  Control program – melakukan kontrol terhadap user program dan operasi I/O.  Kernel.

40 40 Operating System Concepts Mainframe Systems  Mengurangi waktu setup dengan melakukan batching pada proses yang sejenis  Automatic job sequencing – melakukan kontrol secara otomatis dari satu proses ke proses yang lain.  Resident monitor  initial control in monitor  control transfers to job  when job completes control transfers pack to monitor

41 41 Operating System Concepts Memory Layout for a Simple System

42 42 Operating System Concepts Multiprogrammed Systems Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them.

43 43 Operating System Concepts Fitur yang diperlukan pada proses Multiprogramming  I/O routine –disediakan oleh sistem.  Memory management – pengalokasian memory oleh sistem untuk beberapa proses.  CPU scheduling –.  Alokasi peralatan / Periferal.

44 44 Operating System Concepts Desktop Systems  Personal computers  I/O devices – keyboards, mice, display screens, small printers.  User convenience.  Can adopt technology developed for larger operating system.  May run several different types of operating systems (Windows, MacOS, UNIX, Linux)

45 45 Operating System Concepts Parallel Systems  Multiprocessor systems with more than on CPU in close communication.  Tightly coupled system – processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory.  Advantages of parallel system:  Increased throughput  Economical  Increased reliability  graceful degradation  fail-soft systems

46 46 Operating System Concepts Parallel Systems (Cont.)  Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)  Each processor runs and identical copy of the operating system.  Many processes can run at once without performance deterioration.  Most modern operating systems support SMP  Asymmetric multiprocessing  Each processor is assigned a specific task; master processor schedules and allocated work to slave processors.  More common in extremely large systems

47 47 Operating System Concepts Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture

48 48 Operating System Concepts Distributed Systems  Distribute the computation among several physical processors.  Loosely coupled system – each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as high- speed buses or telephone lines.  Advantages of distributed systems.  Resources Sharing  Computation speed up – load sharing  Reliability  Communications

49 49 Operating System Concepts Distributed Systems (cont)  Requires networking infrastructure.  Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN)  May be either client-server or peer-to-peer systems.

50 50 Operating System Concepts General Structure of Client-Server

51 51 Operating System Concepts Clustered Systems  Clustering allows two or more systems to share storage.  Provides high reliability.  Asymmetric clustering: one server runs the application while other servers standby.  Symmetric clustering: all N hosts are running the application.

52 52 Operating System Concepts Real-Time Systems  Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems.  Well-defined fixed-time constraints.  Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time.

53 53 Operating System Concepts Real-Time Systems (Cont.)  Hard real-time:  Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM)  Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general-purpose operating systems.  Soft real-time  Limited utility in industrial control of robotics  Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating-system features.

54 54 Operating System Concepts Handheld Systems  Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)  Cellular telephones  Issues:  Limited memory  Slow processors  Small display screens.

55 55 Operating System Concepts Migration of Operating-System Concepts and Features

56 56 Operating System Concepts Computing Environments  Traditional computing  Web-Based Computing  Embedded Computing


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