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1 Documentation Techniques. 2 Introduction The chapter discusses the following three documentation tools: 1. Document flowcharts 2. Computer system flowcharts.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Documentation Techniques. 2 Introduction The chapter discusses the following three documentation tools: 1. Document flowcharts 2. Computer system flowcharts."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Documentation Techniques

2 2 Introduction The chapter discusses the following three documentation tools: 1. Document flowcharts 2. Computer system flowcharts 3. Program flowcharts

3 3 Flowcharts A flowchart is an analytical technique used to describe some aspect of an information system in a clear, concise, and logical manner. Flowcharts use a standard set of symbols to pictorially describe transaction processing procedures.

4 4 Flowchart Symbols Flowcharting symbols can be divided into the following four categories: 1 Input/output symbols 2 Processing symbols 3 Storage symbols 4 Flow and miscellaneous symbols

5 5 Flowcharting Symbols: Some Input Output Symbols Document Online keying Display Input/output; Journal/ledger Symbol Name

6 6 Flowchart Symbols: Some Processing Symbols Manual operations Computer processing Auxiliary operation SymbolName

7 7 Flowchart Symbols: Some Storage Symbols Magnetic disk Magnetic tape SymbolName

8 8 Flowchart Symbols: Some Flow and Miscellaneous Symbols On-page connector Off-page connector Terminal Decision Document or processing flow SymbolName

9 9 What are Document Flowcharts? A document flowchart illustrates the flow of documents and information between areas of responsibility within an organization. A document flowchart is particularly useful in analyzing the adequacy of control procedures. Flowcharts that describe and evaluate internal controls are often referred to as internal control flowcharts.

10 10 Document Flowcharts Flowcharts are pictorial representations of transaction processing systems that portray flows of some type A Document Flowchart emphasizes the hardcopy inputs and outputs and their flows through organizational units Auditors and accountants may use document flowcharts when analyzing a current system for weaknesses in controls and reports

11 11 Common Document Flowcharting Symbols - I Punched Card Keying operation DocumentMultiple copies of a specific document Floppy Disk Manual Operation Connector between two points on a flowchart Journal or ledger

12 12 Permanent file of documents Information flow Document flow Annotation for additional explanation Envelope Adding machine tape used for batch control Common Document Flowcharting Symbols - II

13 13 A Sample Document Flowchart Requesting DepartmentCentral Supplies Department Goods Requisition Form A 12 File A Goods Requisition Form 1

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17 17 What are System Flowcharts? System flowcharts depict the relationship among the input, processing, and output of an AIS. A system flowchart begins by identifying both the inputs that enter the system and their origins. The input is followed by the processing portion of the flowchart.

18 18 System Flowcharts System Flowcharts depict the flows of data and processing steps in an AIS They use symbols that are industry conventions standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Flowcharting symbols are grouped as input- output symbols, processing symbols, storage symbols, data and information flow symbols, and miscellaneous symbols

19 19 System Flowchart Symbols Input/Output Manual Input Keying Operation Display Punch Card Can also be output. These are rarely used nowadays. Document Also output as reports General Purpose Input-Output File Used when type of media is unknown or for manual card files, ledgers, batch logs, etc.

20 20 System Flowcharting Symbols Processing Manual Operation Processing Collate Sorting Auxiliary Operation Also known as off-line process

21 21 System Flowcharting Symbols Storage Punched Card Punched Paper Tape Magnetic Tape Input/Output Document Magnetic Disk Online Storage Off-line Storage

22 22 Systems Flowcharting Symbols Connectors Start/Stop Terminal Can also be an external entity A A On-page connector Off-page Connector Logic Flow Telecommunication Link

23 23 Termination Can also be an external entity Communication Link Data Preparation System Flowcharting Symbols Miscellaneous - I

24 24 Annotation for additional explanation Bridge for crossing flows Batch total - any total Goods; e.g., inventory shipment System Flowcharting Symbols Miscellaneous - II

25 25 What are Computer System Flowcharts? The resulting new information is the output component. System flowcharts are an important tool of system analysis, design, and evaluation.

26 Contoh System Flowchart 26

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29 29 What are Computer System Flowcharts? Process Output Input Storage

30 30 What are Program Flowcharts? A program flowchart describes the specific logic to perform a process shown on a systems flowchart. A flow line connects the symbols and indicates the sequence of operations. The processing symbol represents a data movement or arithmetic calculation.

31 31 What are Program Flowcharts? Input data If a condition is met No Yes Perform calculation Update record

32 32 What are Program Flowcharts? The input/output symbol represents either reading of input or writing of output. The decision symbol represents a comparison of one or more variables and the transfer of flow to alternative logic paths. All points where the flow begins or ends are represented by the terminal symbol.

33 33 Flowchart for Processing Credit Orders Enter sales order Approved for credit? Reject order Inventory available? Back- order Fill order Stop Start No Yes No

34 34 Differences Between DFDs and Flowcharts DFDs emphasize the flow of data and what is happening in a system, whereas a flowchart emphasizes the flow of documents or records containing data. A DFD represents the logical flow of data, whereas a flowchart represents the physical flow of data.

35 35 Differences Between DFDs and Flowcharts Flowcharts are used primarily to document existing systems. DFDs, in contrast, are primarily used in the design of new systems and do not concern themselves with the physical devices used to process, store, and transform data.

36 36 Differences Between DFDs and Flowcharts DFDs make use of only four symbols. Flowcharts use many symbols and thus can show more detail.

37 Sample case 37 Context Diagram

38 38 DFD level 0

39 39 Document Flowchart

40 Pedoman menggambar flowchart Bagan alir sebaiknya digambar dari atas ke bawah dan mulai dari bagian kiri dari suatu halaman. Kegiatan di dalam bagan alir harus ditunjukkan dengan jelas. Harus ditunjukkan dari mana kegiatan akan dimulai dan dimana akan berakhirnya. Masing-masing kegiatan di dalam bagan alir sebaiknya digunakan suatu kata yang mewakili suatu pekerjaan, misalnya: "Persiapkan" dokumen, "Hitung" gaji Masing-masing kegiatan di dalam bagan alir harus di dalam urutan yang semestinya. Kegiatan yang terpotong dan akan disambung di tempat lain harus ditunjukkan dengan jelas menggunakan simbol penghubung. Gunakanlah simbol-simbol bagan alir yang standar 40

41 Exercise 1 41 DFD Level 0 DFD Level 1

42 Exercise 1 42 DFD Level 0 DFD Level 1

43 Exercise 2 - Gambarkan Document flowchart Prosedur pendaftaran member pada “BUGAR Sport Center” adalah sebagai berikut: Calon member mengisi formulir pendaftaran dan memilih tipe member, kemudian menyerahkan formulir yang telah diisi ke bagian pelayanan. Setelah itu bagian pelayanan melakukan pengecekan terhadap form yang telah diisi, apabila datanya tidak lengkap maka form akan dikembalikan kepada member untuk dilengkapi, apabila data yang diisi pada form tersebut sudah lengkap maka calon member membayar biaya registrasi. Kemudian bagian pelayanan mencatat data member dan tipe member yang dipilih untuk dibuatkan kartu anggota berikut kwitansi pembayarannya. Kartu anggota dan kwitansi pembayaran akan diberikan kepada calon member. 43


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