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© 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 1 Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and.

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Presentasi berjudul: "© 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 1 Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and."— Transcript presentasi:

1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 1 Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell

2 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 2 Chapter 7 Systems Development

3 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 3 Learning Objectives ► Recognize the systems approach as the basic framework for solving problems of all kinds. ► Know how to apply the systems approach to solving systems problems. ► Understand that the systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a methodology – a recommended way to develop systems.

4 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 4 Learning Objectives (Cont’d) ► Be familiar with the main SDLC approaches – the traditional waterfall cycle, prototyping, rapid application development, phased development, and business process redesign. ► Know the basics of modeling processes with data flow diagrams and use cases. ► Understand how systems development projects are managed in a top-down fashion. ► Be familiar with the basic processes of estimating project cost.

5 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 5 The Systems Approach ► John Dewey identified three series of judgments involved in adequately resolving a controversy 1. Recognize the controversy 2. Weigh alternative claims 3. Form a judgment ► During the late 1960s/early 1970s, interest in systematic problem solving strengthened ► Systems approach — a series of problem-solving steps that ensure the problem is first understood, alternative solutions are considered, and the selected solution works.

6 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 6 Series of Steps ► Preparation effort prepares the problem solver by providing a systems orientation.  Business areas, level of management, resource flows ► Definition effort consists of identifying the problem to be solved & then understanding it. ► Solution effort involves identifying alternative solutions, evaluating them, selecting the one that appears best, implementing that solution, & following up to ensure that the problem is solved.

7 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 7 Figure 7.1 Phases & Steps of Systems Approach

8 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 8 Figure 7.2 Each Business Area is a System

9 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 9 Definition Effort Terminology ► Problem trigger is a signal that things are going better or worse than planned. ► Symptom is a condition that is produced by the problem & is usually more obivious than the root cause of the problem. ► Problem is a condition or event that is harmful or potentially or beneficial or potentially beneficial to the firm.

10 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 10 Figure 7.3 Analyze System Parts in Sequence

11 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 11 Select the Best Solution ► Analysis – a systematic evaluation of options. ► Judgment – the mental process of a single manager. ► Bargaining – negotiations between several managers.

12 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 12 Systems Development Lifecycle ► Methodology adalah cara yang dianjurkan untuk melakukan sesuatu ► Systems development lifecycle (SDLC) adalah penerapan dari pendekatan sistem ke dalam proses pembangunan sistem informasi ► Tahapan Traditional SDLC :  Planning  Analysis  Design  Implementation  Use.

13 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 13 Figure 7.4 Circular Pattern of the System Life Cycle

14 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 14 Prototyping ► Prototype adalah versi awal (potensial) dari sistem yg memberi developer dan pengguna gambaran bagaimana sistem dlm bentuk lengkapnya akan bekerja ► Prototyping adalah proses untuk menghasilkan prototype ► Paling cocok untuk sistem kecil

15 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 15 Evolutionary Prototype ► Evolutionary prototype adalah prototype yang terus-menerus diperbaiki sampai semua fungsi yang diperlukan user dipenuhi. Langkah2-nya mencakup:  Identifikasi kebutuhan user  Membangun prototype  Menentukan apakah prototype bisa diterima  Gunakan prototype tsb

16 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 16 Figure 7.5 Development of Evolutionary Prototype

17 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 17 Requirements Prototype ► Requirements prototype dibangun sebagai sarana untuk mendefinisikan kebutuhan fungsional dr sistem baru ketika user tidak bisa menyampaikan dengan pasti apa yang mereka butuhkan ► Awali dg Langkah2 Evolutionary Prototype kmdian langkah selanjutnya adalah:  Lakukan koding sistem baru  Lakukan test sistem baru  Tentukan apakah sistem baru bisa diterima  Gunakan sistem

18 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 18 Figure 7.6 Development of Requirements Prototype

19 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 19 Hal2 yg menarik dari Prototyping ► Komunikasi antara developer dengan user meningkat ► Developer dapat berkerja lebih baik dalam menentukan kebutuhan user. ► User memainkan peran yang lebih aktif dalam pembangunan sistem ► Developer dan pengguna menghabiskan waktu dan usaha lebih sedikit dalam pembangunan sistem ► Implementasi menjadi jauh lebih mudah karena user tahu apa yang diharapkan.

20 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 20 Potensi kegagalan Prototyping ► Keinginan untuk cpt menghasilkan protype mungkin akan menghasilkan definisi masalah yang kurang bagus ► Pengguna mgkin menjadi terlalu bersemangat thd prototype yang bisa membawa kepada harapan yang tidak realistis thd sistem baru ► Evolutionary prototypes mungkin tdk efisien

21 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 21 Rapid Application Development ► Rapid Application Development (RAD), is a term coined by James Martin. It refers to a development life cycle intended to produce systems quickly without sacrificing quality. ► Information engineering is the name that Martin gives to his overall approach to system development, which treats it as a firm-wide activity. ► Enterprise is used to describe the entire firm. ► Essential to RAD is management, people, methodologies, & tools. ► Best suited for large systems.

22 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 22 Figure 7.7 Rapid Application Development

23 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 23 Phased Development ► Phased development adalah pendekatan pembangunan sistem informasi yang terdiri dari 6 tahapan:  Preliminary investigation  Analysis  Design  Preliminary construction  System test  Installation. ► Cocok untuk sistem dengan semua ukuran.

24 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 24 Figure 7.8 Stages of Phases Development

25 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 25 Module Phases ► System dibagi ke dalam modul2 besar seperti:  Pembuat Laporan;  Database;  Web interface. ► Jumlah modul bervariasi dari 1 sampai 12 atau lebih ► Tahapan2 dilakukan secara terpisah untuk masing2 modul

26 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 26 Figure 7.9 Module Phase of Systems Development

27 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 27 Business Process Redesign ► Reengineering or Business process redesign (BPR) adlh proses mengerjakan ulang sistem.  Sistem mencakup baik sistem yang memproses data perusahaan dan sistem yang melakukan fungsi dasar seperti pengeboran minyak. ► BPR mempengaruhi operasi IT perusahaan dg 2 jalan:  Membantu dlm desain ulang sistem informasi lama  Dgunakan dalam desain ulang sistem informasi untuk mendukung operasi besar perusahaan ► Biasanya dimulai pada tingkat manajemen strategis

28 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 28 Figure 7.10 Top-Down Initiation of BPR Projects

29 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 29 Strategic Initiation of BPR ► Reverse engineering is the process of analyzing an existing system to:  identify its elements & their interrelationships;  Create documentation at a higher level of abstraction than currently exists. ► Functionality is the job that it performs. ► Reengineering is the complete redesign of a system with the objective of changing its functionality. ► Forward engineering is given to the process of following the SDLC in the normal manner while engaging in BPR.

30 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 30 BPR Components ► BPR components can be applied separately or in combination. ► Functional quality is a measure of what the system does. ► Technical quality is a measure of how well it does it.

31 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 31 Figure 7.11 BPR Component Selection

32 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 32 Methodologies in Perspective ► Traditional SDLC is an application of the systems approach to the problem of system development; contains all elements. ► Prototyping is an abbrev. form focusing on the definition & satisfaction of user needs. ► RAD is an alternative approach to the design & implementation phases of SDLC. ► Phased development uses traditional SDLC & applies it in a modular fashion.

33 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 33 System Development Tools ► Process modeling was first done with flowcharts.  ISO standards  Use of 20+ symbols ► Data flow diagrams (DFD) is a graphic representation of a system that uses four symbol shapes to illustrate how data flows through interconnected processes.. ► DFDs are excellent for modeling processes at a summary level.

34 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 34 Data Flow Diagram Symbols ► Terminator describes an environmental element, such as a person, organization, or another system.  Environmental elements exist outside the boundary of the system. ► Process is something than transforms input into output. ► Data flow consists of a group of logically related data elements that travel from one point or process to another; can diverge and converge. ► Data storage is a repository of data. ► Connector contains the number of the process that provides the data flow.

35 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 35 Figure 7.12 DFD of a Sales Commission System

36 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 36 Leveled Data Flow Diagrams ► Leveled DFDs is used to describe the hierarchy of diagrams, ranging from context to lowest-level n diagram. ► Figure 0 diagram identifies the major processes of a system.  Use additional DFDs to achieve documentation at both a more summarized & a more detailed level. ► Context diagram is a diagram that documents the system at a more summarized level.  Positions the system in a environmental context. ► Figure n diagram is a diagram that provides more detail.  n represents the # of processes on the next higher level.  Documents a single process of a DFD in greater detail.

37 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 37 Figure 7.13 Context Diagram of a Sales Commission System

38 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 38 Figure 7.14 Figure 4 Diagram of a Sales Commission System

39 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 39 Use Cases ► Use case is a narrative description in an outline form of the dialog that occurs between a primary & secondary system. ► Continuous narrative format with each action numbered sequentially. ► Ping-pong format consists of two narratives & the numbering indicates how the tasks alternate between the primary & secondary systems. ► Alternative events are actions that are not normally expected to occur; alphabetic letters are appended to step numbers.

40 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 40 Figure 7.15 A Use Case

41 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 41 Figure 7.16 Use Case Guidelines

42 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 42 Project Management ► Steering committee is a committee with the purpose of providing ongoing guidance, direction, & control of all systems projects. ► MIS steering committee purpose is directing the use of the firm’s computing resources.  It establishes policies.  It provides fiscal control.  It resolves conflict.

43 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 43 Figure 7.17 Managers of a System Life Cycle Arranged in a Hierarchy

44 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 44 Project Leadership ► Project team includes all of the persons who participate in the development of an information system. ► Team leader (project leader) provides direction throughout the life of the project.

45 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 45 Project Management Mechanism ► Basis for project management is the project plan. ► Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart that includes a bar for each task to be performed; bars arranged in time sequence. ► Network diagram (CPM diagram, PERT chart) is a drawing that identifies activities & links them with arrows to show the sequence in which they are to be performed. ► Narrative reports are in the form of weekly written reports by project leader, communicates project information to MIS steering committee.

46 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 46 Figure 7.18 A Gantt Chart

47 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 47 Figure 7.19 A Network Diagram

48 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 48 Project Cost-Estimating ► Cost-estimating inputs  Work breakdown structure (WBS)  Resource requirements, resource rates  Activity duration estimates  Historical information ► Cost-estimating tools & techniques  Bottom-up estimating  Computerized estimating  Mathematical models ► Cost-estimating outputs  Supporting details  Cost-management plan

49 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 49 Table 7.1 Components of Cost- Estimating Process

50 © 2007 by Prentice HallManagement Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 50 Table 7.2 Example of Project Cost


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