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Diabstraksikan dan dihimpun : Nur WPM, Ardy W.S. dan Soemarno, pslp-ppsub 2012.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Diabstraksikan dan dihimpun : Nur WPM, Ardy W.S. dan Soemarno, pslp-ppsub 2012."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Diabstraksikan dan dihimpun : Nur WPM, Ardy W.S. dan Soemarno, pslp-ppsub 2012

2 REAL ESTATE Real estate adalah istilah legal yang mencakup lahan beserta sarana perbaikannya, seperti bangunan, pagar, sumur dan perbaikan tapak lainnya yang menetap di lokasi – tidak bergerak. In some situations the term "real estate" refers to the land and fixtures together, as distinguished from "real property", referring to ownership of land and appurtenances, including anything of a permanent nature such as structures, trees, minerals, and the interest, benefits, and inherent rights thereof. Real property is typically considered to be Immovable property The terms real estate and real property are used primarily in common law, while civil law jurisdictions refer instead to immovable property.

3 KAWASAN PERUMAHAN = Residential real estate Diunduh dari: Salah satu bagian Taman Indie Riverview Resto di kawasan perumahan Kota Araya, Malang

4 Residential real estate Major physical categories include: Attached / multi-unit dwellings ApartmentApartment - An individual unit in a multi-unit building. The boundaries of the apartment are generally defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Often seen in multi-story apartment buildings.apartment buildings Multi-family houseMulti-family house - Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced houseTerraced house (a.k.a. townhouse or rowhouse) - A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. CondominiumCondominium - Building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds are owned and shared jointly. There are townhouse or rowhouse style condominiums as well. CooperativeCooperative (a.k.a. "co-op) - A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multiunit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit.

5 Residential real estate Major physical categories include: Semi-detached dwellings : Duplex - Two units with one shared wall. Single-family detached home Portable dwellings : Mobile homes - Potentially a full-time residence which can be (might not in practice be) movable on wheels. HouseboatsHouseboats - A floating home TentsTents - Usually very temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material.

6 CONDOMINIUM A condominium, or condo, is the form of housing tenure and other real property where a specified part of a piece of real estate (usually of an apartment house) is individually owned while use of and access to common facilities in the piece such as hallways, heating system, elevators, exterior areas is executed under legal rights associated with the individual ownership and controlled by the association of owners that jointly represent ownership of the whole piece. Colloquially, the term is often used to refer to the unit itself in place of the word "apartment". “Condominium” dapat didefinisikan secara sederhana sebagai suatu "apartment" yang dimiliki oleh penghuninya, bukan “sewa”.

7 CONDOMINIUM A condominium is a collection of individual home units along with the land upon which they sit. Individual home ownership within a condominium is construed as ownership of only the air space confining the boundaries of the home. The boundaries of that space are specified by a legal document known as a Declaration, filed of record with the local governing authority. Typically these boundaries will include the drywall surrounding a room, allowing the homeowner to make some interior modifications without impacting the common area. Anything outside this boundary is held in an undivided ownership interest by a corporation established at the time of the condominium’s creation. The corporation holds this property in trust on behalf of the homeowners as a group–-it may not have ownership itself.

8 CONDOMINIUM A condominium consists of multi-unit dwellings (i.e., an apartment or a development) where each unit is individually owned and the common areas, such as hallways and recreational facilities, are jointly owned (usually as "tenants in common") by all the unit owners in the building. A condominium also consists of bylaws that all the home owners are supposed to follow such as indoor noise control. It is also possible for condominiums to consist of single family dwellings: so- called "detached condominiums" where homeowners do not maintain the exteriors of the dwellings, yards, etc. or "site condominiums" where the owner has more control and possible ownership (as in a "whole lot" or "lot line" condominium) over the exterior appearance. These structures are preferred by some planned neighborhoods and gated communities.

9 APARTMENT An apartment (in American English) or flat (in British English) is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only part of a building. housing Such a building may be called an apartment building or apartment house, especially if it consists of many apartments for rent. Apartments may be owned by an owner/occupier or rented by tenants (two types of housing tenure). Apartment in Bali

10 Apartment types and characteristics Apartments can be classified into several types. In North America the typical terms are a studio or bachelor apartment (efficiency or bedsit in the UK).studiobedsit These all tend to be the smallest apartments with the cheapest rents in a given area. These kinds of apartment usually consist mainly of a large room which is the living, dining, and bedroom combined. There are usually kitchen facilities as part of this central room, but the bathroom is its own smaller separate room.bathroom Pengertian Apartemen 1.Apartemen adalah ruang atau sekelompok ruang kamar yang dimaksudkan sebagai pemukiman (tempat tinggal); biasanya salah satu dari banyak kelompok yang sama di dalam gedung yang sama. 2.Apartemen adalah suatu kelompok ruang yang mempunyai kelompok unit yang sama dirancang khusus untuk hunian. 3.Apartemen adalah semua unit hunian tempat tinggal keluarga kecuali sebuah rumah tinggal berdiri sendiri sabagai satu keluarga. 4.Apartemen adalah bangunan yang terdiri dari tiga unit atau lebih rumah tinggal di dalamnya dan merupakan suatu kehidupan bersama pada lingkungan tanah terbatas, dan masing-masing unit hunian itu dapat dimiliki atau dibangunan terpisah. 5.Apartemen adalah kamar atau beberapa kamar atau ruangan yang diperuntukkan sebagai tempat tinggal, terdapat di dalamnya suatu bangunan yang biasanya mempunyai kamar atau ruangan-ruangan lain semacam itu. APARTEMEN DIUNDUH DARI: apartemen.html

11 Villa hidyatullahVilla hidyatullah merupakan sebuah yayasan amal bakti santri pondok pesanteren Hidayatullah. Berdiri sejak akhir dekade tahun 90 an. Pada mulanya Villa yang terletak di jalan Indragiri VI desa Sumberejo, Kota Batu Jawa Timur ini didedikasikan sebagai wadah menuntut ilmu umat yang ingin memperdalam ilmu agama dan dakwah. Namun seiring dengan perkembangan dan keinginan kemandirian yayasan, maka masuk era tahun 2000 awal, salah seorang santri dengan dukungan jamaah Hidayatullah berinisiatif untuk mengembangkan lokasi Diklat hidayatullah menjadi sebuah sarana open public yang memberikan fasilitas kondusif bagi pengembangan SDM yang berpadu dengan rihlah atau rekreasi. VILA APARTEMEN Diunduh dari sumber: …… 1/11/2012

12 GARDEN APARTMENT A garden apartment complex consists of low-rise apartment buildings built with landscaped grounds surrounding them. The apartment buildings are often arranged around courtyards that are open at one end. A garden apartment has some characteristics of a townhouse: each apartment has its own building entrance, or just a few apartments share a small foyer or stairwell at each building entrance. Unlike a townhouse, each apartment occupies only one level.

13 Modern garden apartment buildings are never more than three stories high, since they typically don't have elevators/lifts. However, the first "garden apartment" buildings in the United States, developed in the early 20th century, were five stories high. Some garden apartment buildings place a one-car garage under each apartment. The grounds are more landscaped than for other modestly scaled apartments. GARDEN APARTMENT A garden apartment is a living unit located at ground level on property that is usually landscaped. Although the term garden apartment is often used loosely to describe any first floor apartment such as one in a high rise or basement, a true garden apartment has no household above it. Garden apartments are not vertically stacked, but rather horizontally spread out in an open area that may have a courtyard. Garden apartments are found all over the world. Attractive garden apartments have well cared-for grounds with flowers and trees. The owners of the apartment property are responsible for the upkeep of the outdoor areas. If an area for dogs is included, then tenants are responsible for cleaning up after their pets. Some garden apartments may include a small yard, but most have a patio. A garden apartment patio can be a nice place to have a barbecue or outdoor meal or just enjoy some fresh air if the grounds are well maintained. Diunduh dari sumber: growing_greener/ p…… 1/11/2012 Diunduh dari sumber: apartment.htm …… 1/11/2012

14 Villa Batu Malang Diunduh dari sumber: …… 1/11/2012 Informasi lengkap mengenai villa Batu Malang bisa anda lihat disini. Dengan hawa yang sejuk ditambah dengan suasana yang tenang dan nyaman menjadikan kota Batu Malang sebagai salah satu penyedia villa untuk beristirahat dari rutinitas sehari hari. Dengan fasilitas yang lengkap layaknya Hotel Surabaya semakin banyak turis mancanegara dan domestik yang menjadikan Batu Malang menjadi salah satu alternatif untuk menghabiskan waktu liburan. Aneka villa di Batu Malang sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan harga yang terjangkau. Vila Batu Malang berada di kawasan asri dengan pemandangan alam yang luar biasa. Anda juga bisa melihat keindahan kota Malang dan sekitarnya dari atas Villa. Harga sewa villa di kawasan ini bervariatif, mulai dari Rp 150.000 per kamar Playground Alternatif Wahana Wisata Dan Edukasi Murah

15 Konversi lahan sawah menjadi perumahan, terjadi di kawasan pinggiran kota Faktor Penyebab Konversi Lahan Sawah Menurut Pasandaran (2006), paling tidak ada tiga faktor, baik sendiri-sendiri maupun bersama-sama yang menentukan konversi lahan sawah, yaitu: 1.Kelangkaan sumberdaya lahan dan air 2.Dinamika pembangunan 3.Peningkatan jumlah penduduk.

16 Pembangunan kawasan pusat pasar di pinggiran kota dilakukan dengan mengkonversi lahan sawah irigasi yang produktif. “Land development “ mengorbankan jasa-jasa lingkungan dari ekosistem sawah Foto. smno-2011 Menurut Irawan (2005), konversi lahan pertanian pada dasarnya terjadi akibat adanya persaingan pemanfaatan lahan pertanian dengan non- pertanian. Sedangkan persaingan pemanfaatan lahan muncul akibat adanya tiga fenomena ekonomi dan sosial yaitu : a)keterbatasan sumberdaya lahan, b)pertumbuhan penduduk, dan c)pertumbuhan ekonomi.

17 Integrated Land Development Project - ILD to improve land use and water management efficiency in the basin Integrated land development is a key of sustainable resource management and should be tested in a pilot project. Sebagai ekosistem alam, DAS merupakan unit hidrologi (tata air) yang berperan sebagai integrator dan indikator terbaik untuk pengelolaan DAS.

18 Lessons In Sustainable Land Development Increased rates of deforestation, unsustainable agricultural land use, and severe soil degradation are creating widespread poverty and environmental degradation in developing countries. Each day; the world loses about 125 square miles of its forests. That’s 34.5 million acres or 14 million hectares every year Most of this takes place in the developing countries of the humid tropics. Reforestation efforts are limited to only about 10% of the total area and most efforts are not promising. Penyebab Global Warming: Deforestasi, terutama hutan tropis untuk kayu, pulp, dan lahan pertanian. Penggunaan hutan untuk bahan bakar (baik kayu dan arang) merupakan salah satu penyebab deforestasi. Di seluruh dunia pemakaian produk kayu dan kertas semakin meningkat, kebutuhan akan lahan ternak semakin meningkat untuk pemasok daging dan susu, dan penggunaan lahan hutan tropis untuk komoditas seperti perkebunan kelapa sawit menjadi penyebab utama terhadap deforestasi dunia. Penebangan hutan akan mengakibatkan pelepasan karbon dalam jumlah besar ke atmosfir.

19 Lessons In Sustainable Land Development Every year, the equivalent of 40 billion tons of carbon dioxide enters the global atmosphere, the result of the ever-increasing use of fossil fuels. This increase in atmospheric carbon, in combination with the loss of forests has combined to make global climate change worse.

20 Lessons In Sustainable Land Development The adoption of sustainable agriculture is often proposed as a solution to these problems. Sustainable agriculture is concerned with agricultural practices that are economically viable, meet human needs for food, are environmentally friendly, and improve quality of life. Agroforestry is one such land use practice that maintains sustainability at its core. Diunduh dari sumber: http://tulisan-… 1/11/2012 Maksimalisasi Tutupan Hijau Lahan dengan Agroforestry Agroforestry : penggunaan lahan, dimana tanaman keras berkayu (pepohonan, perdu, palem, bambu, dsb) ditanam secara bersamaan dalam unit lahan yang sama dengan tanaman pertanian dan/atau ternak, dengan tujuan tertentu, dalam bentuk pengaturan ruang atau urutan waktu, dan didalamnya terdapat interaksi ekologi dan ekonomi di antara berbagai komponen yang bersangkutan.

21 Lessons In Sustainable Land Development Deforestation is a major unsustainable land use practice. Yet little is being done to address its economic, environmental and ecological impact. Clear-cut logging, uncontrolled brush and forest fires, and traditional slash and burn agricultural techniques have damaged the environment as well as the agricultural resource base. Additionally, every year, reforestation efforts that intend to help communities are actually assisting in planting the wrong types of tree species, resulting in long term damage. This concerns all of us, especially the families who rely on trees for the basic necessities of life: fuel, water, food, building materials, and the air we breathe. Diunduh dari sumber:… 1/11/2012 Penggundulan Hutan Manusia selalu menebang pohon tanpa mempertimbangkan keseimbangan alam. Penebangan secara sembarangan meliputi kegiatan penebangan, pengangkutan dan penjualan kayu yang tidak sah dan tidak mendapat izin dari otoritas setempat. Hal ini berakibat buruk untuk hutan dan juga lingkungan hidup: tanah longsor, banjir, dan juga kekurangan oksigen.

22 Lessons In Sustainable Land Development Deforestation is a major unsustainable land use practice. Yet little is being done to address its economic, environmental and ecological impact. Clear-cut logging, uncontrolled brush and forest fires, and traditional slash and burn agricultural techniques have damaged the environment as well as the agricultural resource base. Additionally, every year, reforestation efforts that intend to help communities are actually assisting in planting the wrong types of tree species, resulting in long term damage. This concerns all of us, especially the families who rely on trees for the basic necessities of life: fuel, water, food, building materials, and the air we breathe. Diunduh dari sumber:… 1/11/2012 MOJOKERTO, 22/7- KAYU BAKAR. Dua orang pencari kayu bakar, sedang mendorong sepeda yang berisi kayu bakar dari sisa penebangan di Resort Pemangku Hutan (RPH) Dawarblandong, Mojokerto, Jatim. Kayu bakar tersebut dijual ketingkat pengepul di Kabupaten Mojokerto dengan harga Rp. 30.000 per sekali angkut. FOTO ANTARA/Syaiful Arif/ed/hp/09

23 CUTTING TREES NOT BAD Cutting trees is NOT a bad thing. Trees are an important resource for everyone on earth. The problem is when people cut trees but do not replant them. Trees are cut for many reasons. Industries based on construction and making items such as furniture (beds, tables) are- always in need of valuable hardwood trees. Diunduh dari:

24 Lessons In Sustainable Land Development CUTTING TREES NOT BAD Wood (sometimes in the form of charcoal) is the major source of cooking fuel for over half of the world (FAO 1999). Because populations and industries in every country are growing, there is always a growing pressure on forest resources. Slash-and-burn agriculture, characterized by periodic burning of the land both to get rid of weeds and to use the ash as fertilizer, is also contributing to the rapid loss of the world’s forests. Diunduh dari sumber: ….. 1/11/2012

25 Lessons In Sustainable Land Development CUTTING TREES NOT BAD Brush and forest fires not only inhibit the regeneration of tree seedlings (though some grasses, trees and shrubs have evolved the ability to regenerate after fires), they also destroy what little organic matter remains in the soil. Fires are often caused by smoking and cigarettes, unskilled beeking techniques, and uncontrolled burning of fields for cultivation and grazing. Planting Location A properly planted and maintained tree will grow faster and live longer. Optimum planting time is early spring after the ground is thawed and before the tree begins to actively develop foliage. This is the time to plant bare root trees. Sumber: ks/forestry/planting.htm

26 SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE In the global program of Trees for the Future, we provide seeds of multi- purpose, fast-growing (MPFG) trees. In order to extend the program into many climatic zones, and to make it more beneficial to the participants, we are constantly looking for promising species, but we approach this with a great of care when making recommendations. Sengon kami yang ditanam 3 tahun yang lalu,akhirnya kami jual, untuk biaya mengembangkan kebun ini. Harga borongan, Rp.50.000/tanaman, ada 800 tanaman. Ada yang diameter 25 cm dan ada yang diameter 15 cm.

27 SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE Eucalyptus trees grow rapidly into true trees at a wide range of elevations, soils, and climatic conditions. They sustainably produce fuelwood and timber suitable for many local construction needs, and they produce oil used in some medications and other products, But eucalyptus trees do not lend themselves to sustainable land management systems (Lisanework and Michelson, 1993). Eucalyptus Trees Plantations are not meant to support a complex ecosystem. A successful plantation species has to grow fast, have adequate wood properties and be resistant to disease when grown as a monoculture. The eucalyptus can also become needy of room and produce extra vegetation and dominate areas where they are not welcome. Eucalyptus trees and hybrids of eucalyptus usually have a high productivity. Diunduh dari:

28 SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE Farmers quickly discovered that eucalyptus trees are causing problems with their roots by taking all available water and nutrients from neighboring trees and crops, and also their leaves, which blanket the ground, inhibiting new growth. Eucalyptus trees inhibit the growth of other vegetation, exposing soils to erosion, and causing lakes and ground water to disappear with their aggressive roots.. More than 4 billion Eucalyptus trees of over 150 species grow in the different climates of Brazil.. paulistana-brazilian-giant.html

29 SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE Pine trees which are planted throughout much of the world for their valuable timber present a similar problem. Beneath pine trees, you will rarely find a productive understory; you tend to find a blanket of acidic needles that inhibit the growth of everything. The needles are also a great fuel for forest fires. Pine trees do have their benefits, but like eucalyptus trees, they do not lend themselves to sustainable land management systems. These trees can leave soils in much worse condition than when they were planted. Allelopathic Effects of Pinus halepensis Needles on Turfgrasses and Biosensor Plants Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Garyfalia Economou and Christos Avgoulas HortScience February 2005 vol. 40 no. 1 246-250. Fresh, senesced, and decaying pine needles from Pinus halepensis were evaluated for their allelopathic potential on Festuca arundinacea, Cynodon dactylon and the biosensor plants Avena sativa and Lemna minor through in vivo and in vitro studies. The in vivo study was performed in growth chambers, using 6, 12, and 18 g of pine needle tissue mixed with screened perlite as a substrate. The effects of the different pine needle types were evaluated by determining the total root length, total root surface, root dry weight, total shoot length, total shoot surface, and shoot dry weight. The in vitro study was performed in Petri dishes where seeds from each species were subjected to an increasing concentration of pine needle extract. The extracts were obtained from pine needle ground tissue that was diluted with water and either shacked at room temperature or placed in water bath at 40 °C for 24 h. The evaluation of the allelopathic potential was performed with the determination of radicle length. The allelopathic potential of the pine needle tissues was confirmed with bioassays using oat (A. sativa) and duckweed (L. minor). The results strongly suggested the allelopathic potential of the pine needle tissue, being more pronounced in the fresh, moderate in the senesced, and low in the decaying pine needles. The allelopathic substances were species- specific, and the inhibition resistance of the species tested followed the order F. arundinacea > C. dactylon > A. sativa. The inhibition of the L. minor suggested that the water soluble phytotoxic compounds were inhibitors of Photosystem II.

30 SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE In any program of Trees for the Future, it encourage communities to plant multipurpose fast growing trees that not only produce useful products within a short time, but also encourage the growth of field crops, vegetables, and other vegetation around them. Aneka jenis tanaman sela dapat ditanam di antara barisan tegakan sengon hingga umur 4 tahun,2

31 WATER AND SOIL Chemical fertilizers and insecticides are unsustainable, temporary solutions that rarely improve the quality of the soil. Pesticides often kill many of the insects and microbes in soils that are needed for natural processes. There are, in fact, many beneficial insects that eat many of the pest insects, but most insecticides kill everything indiscriminately. Furthermore, insecticides get concentrated from smaller insects to the larger animals that eat them, ultimately poisoning the entire food chain. Alternatives to pesticide use entail (1) giving crops the strength they need to resist infestation by adding nutrients and organic matter to the soil, and (2) using Integrated Pest Management techniques that ward off and kill insects.

32 WATER AND SOIL Fertilizers also cause long term damage, and are often inadequate in their nutrient composition. Soil need rich organic matter in the form of humus, compost, manure, etc. Commercial fertilizers, often in the form of NPK pellets, contain just nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. These are three of the major nutrients, but there are also plenty of other nutrients – such as manganese, iron, boron, zinc, and copper – that chemical fertilizers tend not to contain. Furthermore, rains can immediately leach these chemical fertilizers down through the soil, contaminating groundwater and forcing farmers to apply more fertilizer every year.

33 SOIL AND FERTILIZER Green manures are sustainable alternatives to chemical fertilizers. Agricultural crops which received green manure of Gliricidia sepium (kakawate) yielded 9.5 tons per hectare of corn in Oromia, Ethiopia. A similar yield was obtained from plots which received green manure of ipil-ipil and Leucaena diversifalia, but a significantly ‘reduced yield was obtained from plots receiving recommended levels of chemical fertilizer. This implies that the use of multipurpose fast growing agroforestry species as a green manure can boost grain production over levels obtained from chemical fertilizer. Additionally, the multipurpose species provide the farmer with fruit, fuelwood, fodder and construction wood.

34 JENIS-JENIS TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH (LCC) DI PERKEBUNAN Penutup tanah memberikan berbagai keuntungan yaitu meningkatkan kesuburan tanah, melindungi permukaan tanah dari bahaya erosi, memperbaiki sifat-sifat tanah akibat pembakaran, mendorong pertumbuhan tanaman, menekan serangan penyakit jamur akar, dan menekan biaya pengendalian gulma.

35 The effects of potential land development on agricultural land prices We conduct a national-scale analysis of the determinants of agricultural land values. The empirical model of agricultural land prices is estimated with a cross- section on approximately three thousand counties in the contiguous US. The results provide evidence that option values associated with irreversible and uncertain land development are capitalized into current farmland values. For each county, we decompose the current agricultural land value into components measuring rents from agricultural production and rents from future land development. Foto. Marno-2011

36 Agricultural Land Values and the Value of Rights to Future Land Development Effects of future land development on current agricultural land values. From a theoretical model of land markets, we derive a reduced-form expression for agricultural land values in terms of observable variables. The estimated model, together with a spatial interpolation algorithm, is used to generate a surface of estimated development rights values for Orange County. This approach overcomes several problems that arise with the use of standard appraisal methods to value conservation easements. Pembangunan jalan telah meningkatkan harga lahan sawah di sekitarnya dan mendorong konversinya menjadi penggunaan lain Foto. Marno-2010

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