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Basic Elements of the Strategic Management Process 2.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Basic Elements of the Strategic Management Process 2."— Transcript presentasi:

1

2 Basic Elements of the Strategic Management Process 2

3 Strategic Management Model 3

4 GSM Frame work 4

5 Environmental Variables 5 Societal Environment Economic Forces Technological Forces Political-Legal Forces Sociocultural Forces Internal Environment Structure Culture Resources Shareholders Governments Customers Creditors Communities Competitors Employees/ Labor Unions Suppliers Special Interest Groups Trade Associations Task Environment (Industry) Societal Environment Composed of general forces in environment Task Environment Groups in environment that directly affect or are affected by the organization’s operations (Often called industry)

6 Macro environment - PEST Analysis 6. Dalam suatu lingkungan usaha, banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi bagaimana bisnis itu beroperasi. Terkadang faktor-faktor tersebut berada diluar kendali bisnis itu sendiri, artinya internal organisasi tidak dapat berbuat banyak terhadap faktor tersebut. Padahal pengetahuan terhadap faktor tersebut sangatlah penting terutama ketika hendak mengembangkan bisnis atau perencanaan strategi. Salah satu cara untuk mengetahui suasana makro lingkungan bisnis organisasi adalah dengan melakukan business environment scanning, yakni melihat secara makro seperti halnya helicopter view terhadap keseluruhan faktor yang mempengaruh. Teknik analisa ini dinamakan PEST analysis atau sekarang sudah berkembang menjadi PESTLE analysis.

7 7 PEST Analysis Political Political factors, are how and to what degree a government intervenes in the economy. Specifically, political factors include areas such as tax policy, labor law, environmental law, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. Political factors may also include goods and services which the government wants to provide or be provided (merit goods) and those that the government does not want to be provided (demerit goodsor merit bads). Furthermore, governments have great influence on the health, education, and infrastructure of a nation. Economic Economic factors include economic growth, interest rate, exchange rate and the inflation rate. These factors have major impacts on how businesses operate and make decisions. For example, interest rates affect a firm's cost of capitaland therefore to what extent a business grows and expands. Exchange rates affect the costs of exporting goods and the supply and price of imported goods in an economy

8 8 PEST Analysis Social Social factors include the cultural aspects and include health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safety. Trends in social factors affect the demand for a company's products and how that company operates. For example, an aging population may imply a smaller and less- willing workforce (thus increasing the cost of labor). Furthermore, companies may change various management strategies to adapt to these social trends (such as recruiting older workers). Technological Technological factors include ecological and environmental aspects, such as R&D activity, automation, technology incentives and the rate of technological changes. They can determine barriers to entry, minimum efficient production level and influence outsourcing decisions. Furthermore, technological shifts can affect costs, quality, and lead to innovation.

9 9 PEST Analysis

10 Industrial Environment – Porter’s 5 Forces 10 Analisa Lingkungan Industri PORTER 5 FORCES

11 Porter’s 5 Forces 11 Analisa Lingkungan Industri PORTER 5 FORCES Pendatang baru industri Produk pengganti pembeli pemasok

12 Porter’s 5 Forces 12 Porter's five forces is a framework for the industry analysis and business strategy development. It draws to derive five forces that determine the competitive intensity and therefore attractiveness of a market. Attractiveness in this context refers to the overall industry profitability. Three of Porter's five forces refer to competition from external sources. The remainder are internal threats. It is useful to use Porter's five forces in conjunction with SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats).

13 13 Five Forces Model Porter adalah strategi bisnis yang digunakan untuk melakukan analisis dari sebuah struktur industri. Analisis tersebut dibuat berdasarkan 5 kekuatan kompetitif yaitu: 1. Masuknya Kompetitor. Bagaimana Cara yang mudah atau sulit untuk kompetitor baru untuk mulai bersaing industri yang sudah ada 2. Ancaman Produk atau Jasa pengganti. Cara mudah masuknya produk atau jasa yang dapat menjadi alternatif dari produk atau jasa yang sudah ada, khususnya yang dibuat dengan biaya lebih murah. 3. Daya tawar dari pembeli. Bagaimana kuatnya posisi pembeli. Pembeli mempunyai kekuatan utk menentukan kemana dia akan melakukan transaksi. 4. Daya tawar dari supplier. Bagaimana kuatnya posisi penjual. Apakah ada banyak supplier atau hanya beberapa supplier saja, bisa jadi mereka memonopoli supply barang. 5. Persaingan di antara pemain yang sudah ada. Bagaimana kuatnya persaingan diantara pemain yang sudah ada.Apaka ada pemain yang sangat dominan atau semuanya sama. Kadang ditambahkan kekuatan kompetitif yang ke-enam yaitu: Porter’s 5 Forces

14 ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING 14

15 SWOT Analysis 15 Analisa Lingkungan Internal & Eksternal SWOT

16 SWOT Analysis 16 Analisa SWOT adalah identifikasi berbagai faktor secara sistematis untuk merumuskan strategi perusahaan. Analisa ini didasarkan pada logika yang dapat memaksimalkan kekuatan (Strengths) dan peluang (Opportunities), namun secara bersamaan dapat meminimalkan kelemahan (Weaknesses) dan ancaman (Threats).

17 SWOT Analysis 17 Strengths A firm's strengths are its resources and capabilities that can be used as a basis for developing a competitive advantage. Examples of such strengths include:  patents  strong brand names  good reputation among customers  cost advantages from proprietary know-how  exclusive access to high grade natural resources  favorable access to distribution networks Weaknesses The absence of certain strengths may be viewed as a weakness. For example, each of the following may be considered weaknesses:  lack of patent protection  a weak brand name  poor reputation among customers  high cost structure  lack of access to the best natural resources  lack of access to key distribution channels

18 SWOT Analysis 18 Opportunities The external environmental analysis may reveal certain new opportunities for profit and growth. Some examples of such opportunities include:  an unfulfilled customer need  arrival of new technologies  loosening of regulations  removal of international trade barriers Threats Changes in the external environmental also may present threats to the firm. Some examples of such threats include:  shifts in consumer tastes away from the firm's products  emergence of substitute products  new regulations  increased trade barriers

19 Environmental Variables 19

20 Environmental Variables 20


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