Presentasi berjudul: "Manajemen Proyek Perangkat Lunak Sem Genap 2010/2011 Elisati Hulu Introduction to Software Project Management."— Transcript presentasi:
Manajemen Proyek Perangkat Lunak Sem Genap 2010/2011 Elisati Hulu Introduction to Software Project Management
Mekanisme Tender Customer/client/pemberi pekerjaan menyusun TOR/KAK/RFP Pengumuman lelang / tender proyek, di koran Nasional (iklan kolom) Pendaftaran calon peserta tender (mengecek persyaratan administrasi, misalnya bidang pekerjaan yang tercantum di SIUPP calon) Pemasukan proposal tender oleh peserta Penilaian dan seleksi proposal pemenang. Pengumuman pemenang. Penerbitan SPK (Surat Perintah Kerja)/SP3 Pelaksanaan Proyek
Mekanisme Pelaksanaan Proyek Pemenang menyerahkan laporan pendahuluan (isi utama: paket-paket pekerjaan, organisasi pelaksana proyek, penugasan personil, penjadwalan). Pelaksanaan paket-paket pekerjaan. Penyerahan laporan-laporan sesuai jadwal. Presentasi2 dan demo2. Evaluasi hasil kerja oleh Client dan pembayaran.
Terminologi (1) Project [Dictionary] : a piece of planned work or an activity which is completed over a period of time and intended to achieve a particular aim a specific plan [IT Project Management: Kathy Schwalbe]: sebuah usaha keras yang diambil untuk menciptakan suatu produk, layanan atau hasil yang unik unique purpose temporary require resources, often from various areas should have a primary sponsor and/or customer involve uncertainty
Attributes of projects A project: Has a unique purpose Is temporary Is developed using progressive elaboration Requires resources, often from various areas Should have a primary customer or sponsor The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project Involves uncertainty
Terminologi (2) Karakteristik yang membedakan proyek Non-routine task are involved Planning is required Specific objectives are to be met or a specific product is to be created The project has a pre-determined time span Work is carried out for someone other than yourself Work involves several specialisms Work is carried out in several phases The resources that are available for use on the project are constrained The project is large or complex
Project and Program Managers Project managers work with project sponsors, a project team, and other people involved in a project to meet project goals Program: group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually Program managers oversee programs and often act as bosses for project managers
Software Projects vs others types of project Invisibility: progress is not immediately visible Complexity: software products contain more complexity than other engineered artefacts Conformity: software developers have to conform to the requirements of human clients. It it not just that individuals can be inconsistent, “organizational stupidity” Flexibility: high degree of change
Example of IT Projects A help desk or technical worker replaces ten laptops for a small department A small software development team adds a new feature to an internal software application for the finance department A college campus upgrades its technology infrastructure to provide wireless Internet access across the whole campus A cross-functional task force in a company decides what Voice-over-Internet-Protocol (VoIP) system to purchase and how it will be implemented A company develops a new system to increase sales force productivity The automobile industry develops a Web site to streamline procurement A government group develops a system to track child immunizations
Top Ten Technology Projects in 2006 VoIP Outsourcing Data networking Customer relationship management Collaboration Supply chain management Desktop upgrades Application performance management Business analytics Compliance tracking
Terminologi (3) Project Management [Deborah,..] is a planning, organizing, controlling and directing of company resources (i.e., money, materials, time and people) for a relatively short- term objective. It is established to accomplish a set of specific goals and objectives by utilizing a fluid, system approach to management, by having functional personnel or specialist assigned to a specific project
What is Project Management? Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements” (PMBOK® Guide, Third Edition, 2004, p. 8) Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project scope, time, and cost goals
Apa itu MP? Fungsi tradisional MP: planning, organizing, directing, controlling, staffing. Fungsi MK sekarang: ….. (lihat gambar berikut)
Fungsi MP (sekarang) Organizing: WBS, struktur organisasi, rela- resp-auth, kualitas individu, alokasi sumber daya. Planning: situasi, hasil yang diinginkan, kegiatan-kegiatan, perumusan strategi, checkpoints dan standard. Controlling: pengukuran, evaluasi, penyesuasian, dokumentasi, umpan-balik. Directing: staf yang berkualitas, berkomitmen tinggi, delegasi, komunikasi, koordinasi kegiatan yang sedang berjalan.
Nine Project Management Knowledge Areas Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop Four core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality) Four facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management One knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas All knowledge areas are important!
Project Management Framework
Project Management Knowledge Area Project scope management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project succesfully Project time management includes estimating how long it will take to complete the work, developing an acceptable project schedule, and ensuring timely completion of project Project cost management consist of preparing and managing the budget for the project Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied need for which it was undertaken
Cont’d Project human resources management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project Project communications management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information Project risk management includes identifying, analyzing and responding to risk related to the project Project procument management involves acquiring or procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization
Project Stakeholders Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities Stakeholders include: The project sponsor The project manager The project team Support staff Customers Users Suppliers Opponents to the project
Mengapa MP? Inti: meningkatkan keuntungan dan bertahan di tengah persaingan bisnis (bagi perusahaan/organisasi). Proyek: efisien, tepat waktu, pemilihan personil kompeten (tepat).
Project management provides adv Better control of financial, physical and human resources Improved customer relations Shorter development times Lower costs Higher quality and increased reliability Higher profit margins Improved productivity Better internal coordination Higher worker morale
The Triple Constraint of Project Management Successful project management means meeting all three goals (scope, time, and cost) – and satisfying the project’s sponsor!
Mengapa MP gagal (1) : Lack of project focal point. Pilihan organisasi buruk. Proyek di “tangan” manajer saja. “Keikutsertaan” anggota tim kurang. Perencanaan buruk Otoritas manajer proyek tidak memadai. Manajer proyek tidak kompeten.
Mengapa MP gagal (2) : Tim tidak disiapkan untuk bekerja dalam tim. Komunikasi buruk. Tim tidak dapat “berbaur” dengan baik (tim tidak kompak). Misi proyek tidak didefinisikan dengan jelas. Tujuan (objectives) tidak disepakati tim dan hasil akhir tidak jelas. Ketidakmampuan untuk mengestimasi tanggal pencapaian target.
Mengapa MP gagal (3) : Tidak ada “milestone” yang jelas, kendali/kontrol lemah. Perencanaan instalasi dan terminasi proyek buruk. Dokumentasi teknis dan pengguna buruk.
Project success factors Executive support User involvement Experienced project manager Clear bussiness objectives Minimized scope Standard software infrastructure Firm basic requirements Formal methodologu Reliable estimates Ohter criteria, such as small milestones, proper planning, competent staff, and ownership
Tugas 1 Cari contoh proyek IT related Deskripsi proyek itu Struktur Organisasi + job desc
Tugas Minggu Depan Mengumpulkan contoh project (IT/Software Related) dan struktur organisasi (including job description dari personil)