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Manajemen Proyek Perangkat Lunak Sem Genap 2010/2011 Elisati Hulu Introduction to Software Project Management.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Manajemen Proyek Perangkat Lunak Sem Genap 2010/2011 Elisati Hulu Introduction to Software Project Management."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Manajemen Proyek Perangkat Lunak Sem Genap 2010/2011 Elisati Hulu Introduction to Software Project Management

2 Mekanisme Tender  Customer/client/pemberi pekerjaan menyusun TOR/KAK/RFP  Pengumuman lelang / tender proyek, di koran Nasional (iklan kolom)  Pendaftaran calon peserta tender (mengecek persyaratan administrasi, misalnya bidang pekerjaan yang tercantum di SIUPP calon)  Pemasukan proposal tender oleh peserta  Penilaian dan seleksi proposal pemenang.  Pengumuman pemenang.  Penerbitan SPK (Surat Perintah Kerja)/SP3  Pelaksanaan Proyek

3 Mekanisme Pelaksanaan Proyek  Pemenang menyerahkan laporan pendahuluan (isi utama: paket-paket pekerjaan, organisasi pelaksana proyek, penugasan personil, penjadwalan).  Pelaksanaan paket-paket pekerjaan.  Penyerahan laporan-laporan sesuai jadwal.  Presentasi2 dan demo2.  Evaluasi hasil kerja oleh Client dan pembayaran.

4 Terminologi (1)  Project  [Dictionary] : a piece of planned work or an activity which is completed over a period of time and intended to achieve a particular aim  a specific plan  [IT Project Management: Kathy Schwalbe]: sebuah usaha keras yang diambil untuk menciptakan suatu produk, layanan atau hasil yang unik  unique purpose  temporary  require resources, often from various areas  should have a primary sponsor and/or customer  involve uncertainty

5 Attributes of projects  A project:  Has a unique purpose  Is temporary  Is developed using progressive elaboration  Requires resources, often from various areas  Should have a primary customer or sponsor  The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project  Involves uncertainty

6 Terminologi (2)  Karakteristik yang membedakan proyek  Non-routine task are involved  Planning is required  Specific objectives are to be met or a specific product is to be created  The project has a pre-determined time span  Work is carried out for someone other than yourself  Work involves several specialisms  Work is carried out in several phases  The resources that are available for use on the project are constrained  The project is large or complex

7 Project and Program Managers  Project managers work with project sponsors, a project team, and other people involved in a project to meet project goals  Program: group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually  Program managers oversee programs and often act as bosses for project managers

8 Software Projects vs others types of project  Invisibility: progress is not immediately visible  Complexity: software products contain more complexity than other engineered artefacts  Conformity: software developers have to conform to the requirements of human clients. It it not just that individuals can be inconsistent, “organizational stupidity”  Flexibility: high degree of change

9 Example of IT Projects  A help desk or technical worker replaces ten laptops for a small department  A small software development team adds a new feature to an internal software application for the finance department  A college campus upgrades its technology infrastructure to provide wireless Internet access across the whole campus  A cross-functional task force in a company decides what Voice-over-Internet-Protocol (VoIP) system to purchase and how it will be implemented  A company develops a new system to increase sales force productivity  The automobile industry develops a Web site to streamline procurement  A government group develops a system to track child immunizations

10 Top Ten Technology Projects in 2006  VoIP  Outsourcing  Data networking  Customer relationship management  Collaboration  Supply chain management  Desktop upgrades  Application performance management  Business analytics  Compliance tracking

11 Terminologi (3)  Project Management  [Deborah,..] is a planning, organizing, controlling and directing of company resources (i.e., money, materials, time and people) for a relatively short- term objective. It is established to accomplish a set of specific goals and objectives by utilizing a fluid, system approach to management, by having functional personnel or specialist assigned to a specific project

12 What is Project Management?  Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements” (PMBOK® Guide, Third Edition, 2004, p. 8)  Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project scope, time, and cost goals

13 Apa itu MP?  Fungsi tradisional MP: planning, organizing, directing, controlling, staffing.  Fungsi MK sekarang: ….. (lihat gambar berikut)

14 Fungsi MP (sekarang)  Organizing: WBS, struktur organisasi, rela- resp-auth, kualitas individu, alokasi sumber daya.  Planning: situasi, hasil yang diinginkan, kegiatan-kegiatan, perumusan strategi, checkpoints dan standard.  Controlling: pengukuran, evaluasi, penyesuasian, dokumentasi, umpan-balik.  Directing: staf yang berkualitas, berkomitmen tinggi, delegasi, komunikasi, koordinasi kegiatan yang sedang berjalan.


16 Nine Project Management Knowledge Areas  Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop  Four core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality)  Four facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management  One knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas  All knowledge areas are important!

17 Project Management Framework

18 Project Management Knowledge Area  Project scope management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project succesfully  Project time management includes estimating how long it will take to complete the work, developing an acceptable project schedule, and ensuring timely completion of project  Project cost management consist of preparing and managing the budget for the project  Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied need for which it was undertaken

19 Cont’d  Project human resources management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project  Project communications management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information  Project risk management includes identifying, analyzing and responding to risk related to the project  Project procument management involves acquiring or procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization

20 Project Stakeholders  Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities  Stakeholders include:  The project sponsor  The project manager  The project team  Support staff  Customers  Users  Suppliers  Opponents to the project

21 Mengapa MP?  Inti: meningkatkan keuntungan dan bertahan di tengah persaingan bisnis (bagi perusahaan/organisasi).  Proyek: efisien, tepat waktu, pemilihan personil kompeten (tepat).

22 Project management provides adv  Better control of financial, physical and human resources  Improved customer relations  Shorter development times  Lower costs  Higher quality and increased reliability  Higher profit margins  Improved productivity  Better internal coordination  Higher worker morale

23 Misi MP:

24 The Triple Constraint of Project Management Successful project management means meeting all three goals (scope, time, and cost) – and satisfying the project’s sponsor!

25 Mengapa MP gagal (1) :  Lack of project focal point.  Pilihan organisasi buruk.  Proyek di “tangan” manajer saja.  “Keikutsertaan” anggota tim kurang.  Perencanaan buruk  Otoritas manajer proyek tidak memadai.  Manajer proyek tidak kompeten.

26 Mengapa MP gagal (2) :  Tim tidak disiapkan untuk bekerja dalam tim.  Komunikasi buruk.  Tim tidak dapat “berbaur” dengan baik (tim tidak kompak).  Misi proyek tidak didefinisikan dengan jelas.  Tujuan (objectives) tidak disepakati tim dan hasil akhir tidak jelas.  Ketidakmampuan untuk mengestimasi tanggal pencapaian target.

27 Mengapa MP gagal (3) :  Tidak ada “milestone” yang jelas, kendali/kontrol lemah.  Perencanaan instalasi dan terminasi proyek buruk.  Dokumentasi teknis dan pengguna buruk.

28 Project success factors  Executive support  User involvement  Experienced project manager  Clear bussiness objectives  Minimized scope  Standard software infrastructure  Firm basic requirements  Formal methodologu  Reliable estimates  Ohter criteria, such as small milestones, proper planning, competent staff, and ownership

29 Tugas 1  Cari contoh proyek IT related  Deskripsi proyek itu  Struktur Organisasi + job desc

30 Tugas Minggu Depan  Mengumpulkan contoh project (IT/Software Related) dan struktur organisasi (including job description dari personil)

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