approaches to ethnic conflict primordialist instrumentalist constructivist institutionalist
michael e. brown apa itu konflik etnis? apa itu kelompok etnis? apa itu konflik internal? apa itu perang sipil? kapan konflik internal dapat dikatakan sebagai perang sipil? apa itu konflik regional? cara pandang yang ada terhadap konflik regional simplistik dan mekanistik – apa maksudnya? apa akibat sebuah konflik internal terhadap tetangganya? apa saja respon yang dapat diberikan negara tetangga?
michael e. brown faktor struktural : –weak states –intrastate security concerns –ethnic geography faktor politik: –discriminatory political institutions –exclusionary national ideologies –intergroup politics –elite politics faktor ekonomi/sosial: –economic problems –discriminatory economic systems –economic development and modernisation faktor kultural/persepsi: –patterns of cultural discrimination –problematic group histories
michael e. brown “we know a lot of things that are true about civil violence, but we do not know when they are going to be true” catalytic / triggering /proximate causes: –internally driven – elite level –internally driven – mass level –externally driven – elite level –externally driven – mass level
michael e. brown “no fault history” domestic elites driven by: –ideological struggles –criminal assaults on state sovereignty –power struggles why do followers follow? –existence of antagonistic group histories –economic problems
ted robert gurr ethnopolitical groups –national peoples –minority peoples konflik etnopolitik adalah konsekuensi dari modernisasi: –berkembangnya negara modern –berkembangnya sistem ekonomi global –revolusi komunikasi
ted robert gurr why minorities rebel? salience of ethnocultural identity –how much difference it makes in people’s lives –dissimilarities among groups –group psychology of comparative advantage/disadvantage –open conflict incentives for action –collective disadvantages –loss of political autonomy –repression –frames for ethnopolitical action dynamics of protracted conflict capacity for action –territorial concentration –preexisting organisation –formation of coalition –authenticity of leadership
janice gross stein enemy image –need for identity –dynamics of group behavior identity and conflict –identitas personal dan sosial sering bertentangan –orang cenderung multi identitas –ada yang lebih kompetitif/kooperatif mengapa? –identitas bukan given, melainkan: dipilih oleh ybs dipaksakan oleh pemegang otoritas hasil konstruksi sosial –konflik ada ketika aneka identitas dalam diri saling bertentangan
selective perception & psychologic stereotyping: simplifying cognitive categories referring to groups of people tunnel vision: tendency to concentrate upon a few specific aspects of the conflict environment separation: defending the ‘enemy image’ against contamination (not crediting other’s good actions, avoiding the communicator) bolstering: seeking out evidence to support a position already taken to justify it to self & others polarisation: widening the gap, highlighting the differences among parties -> lessening the ability to emphatise, universalise one’s own frame of reference
selective recall repression: unconscious process by which nonconforming information which usually redounds to one’s own or one’s party’s discredit, or contradicts the simple, black & white cognitive structure is not remembered suppression: similar to repression, but occurs at the conscious level, and with the knowledge and intention of the individual concerned
group identification dehumanisation: regarding others as less than human identification: leads to related processes which allow a ‘good’ member to enhance his own group’s value rationalisation: retain one’s image of his group … unconscious process of explaining the behavior that is unacceptable by either assigning logical reasons or excusing it projection: projecting to others the characteristics & traits in oneself of which one feels most ashamed and wishes to deny -> self-fulfilling prophecy displacement: redirecting feelings of hostility on to some available 3 rd parties
self images images of an extended self: individuals identify not merely with a set of other similar individuals but with symbolic objects which come to represent the set, as much as the individuals in it virile & moral self images: tendencies to respond forcefully & aggressively to perceived threats … actions against adversaries are always interpreted as being principled & lacking in evil intent or ultimate effects intruder self images: alien intruder, alien agitator, traitors in our midst
adversary images black-top images: bad leaders, good citizens unified enemy image: bad leaders, bad citizens
interdependence of self/other images selective perception & interpretation: parties attach differing interpretations to actions or statements by themselves, their adversaries, or relevant 3 rd parties mirror images: mutually uncomplimentary images of one another, in which the details of one tend to be the reverse of the details in the image held by the enemy maintaining interdependent images
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