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What is a Chief Technology Officer (CTO)  His job as one of creating value and acting as an agent of change within the firm  His job not as one of development.

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Presentasi berjudul: "What is a Chief Technology Officer (CTO)  His job as one of creating value and acting as an agent of change within the firm  His job not as one of development."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 What is a Chief Technology Officer (CTO)  His job as one of creating value and acting as an agent of change within the firm  His job not as one of development of technology

3 Technology Definition 1. The branch of knowledge that deal with industrial arts, applied science, or engineering. 2. The terminology of an art or science; or 3. A technological process invention, method, or the like and some of the ways in which a social group provides themselves with the material objects of their civilization.

4 Technology definition  Technology is the practical implemetation of learning and knowledge by individuals and organizations to aid human endeavor.  Technology is the knowledge, products, processes, tools, and systems used in the creation of goods or in the provision of services.

5 Management of Technology Is defined as linking “engineering, science, and management disciplines to plan, develop, and implement technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational objectives of an organization.”

6 Levels of Development

7 LEVEL OF KNOELEDGE

8 3 Variabel Kunci untuk mendorong DAYA SAING 1. Strategic Leadership, bahwa perusahaan diarahkan pada jalur yang benar dalam hal produk, pasar dan semacamnya. 2. A motivated and committed workforce, mencari budaya kerja “high performance” 3. Effective use of technology, untuk mendorong outcome organisasi yang efektif dan bersaing.

9 Sub-bidang manajemen teknologi:  Strategi teknologi  Pengembangan kemampuan teknologikal  Manajemen inovasi  Prakiraan teknologikal  Rintangan-rintangan adopsi teknologi  Fleksibilitas Teknologi dan manufaktur  E-Business

10 7 kualitas yang menentukan keberhasilan teknologi dalam industri 1. Functional performance (Kinerja fungsional). 2. Acquisition costs (Harga Beli). 3. Easy of use characteristics (Sifat mudah pakai). 4. Operating Costs (Biaya Operasi). 5. Reliability (KeHandalan) 6. Serviceability (Bisa digunakan) 7. Compatibility (Kompatibel)

11 Technology: Definition and Characteristic

12 Teknologi Menurut Webster’s Dictionary didefinisikan menurut 3 cara: 1. Cabang Ilmu Pengetahuan yang berkenaan dengan seni industrial, sain terapan, atau rekayasa (engineering), 2. Terminologi seni dan sain, 3. Proses, invensi, metoda atau sejenisnya.

13 Jadi Kata TECHNOLOGY mempunyai berbagai arti, mulai dari berbagai jenis produk sampai berbagai disiplin ilmu dan rekayasa.

14 Embedded in the definition is the notion of knowledge  The key to economic progress has been the advance in knowledge created by human beings over the centuries  Knowledge lies at the heart of economic progress.  We will anchor our definition of technology in knowledge.

15 Level of Development 1. Individuals develop ideas, theories, or perspectives that are known only to them or their colleagues or the group to which they belong. The tacit knowledge may be derived from their experiences, experimentation, or imagination. 2. The second level consists of tacit knowledge that is verified and codified through a scientific process of experimentation. As a result of scientific verification and codification, the knowledge becomes available to a large number of people. 3. Finally, there is a level of development where the knowledge is put to use—physically embodied in products, services, or procedure.

16 Intuitive/Tacit CodifyVerify Science Formalized Knowledge Develop Physically Embodied Product and Process Ide, teori, perspektif, yg hanya diketahui hanya oleh mereka atau koleganya Diverifikasi dan kodifikasi melalui proses ilmiah Tacit Knowledge diformalkan dan disajikan dlm bahasa yg dpt dikomunikasikan

17 Technology as Socially Constructed 1. Opportunity. Technology development takes place when human beings perceive an opportunity for improvement due to either intrinsic or economic reasons. 2. Appropriability. In many cases, where the technolgy development is due to economic motives, individuals will pursue development only to the extent that there is a reasonable assurance that the fruits of their labor will flow back to the developers. 3. Transferability. Technology or knowledge transfer is not smooth; knowledge is sticky. When human beings communicate, there is no perfect correspondence between the message that the sender intends and the one understood by the receiver. 4. Resources. Tehcnology development consumes resources. The most obvious resources involved are money, time, and people. In addition, other reources— collateral assets—may be needed to exploit at technology opportunity.

18 s R&D Management Mgt of Innovation Technology Strategy Value-Based Management Era of Plentiful ResourcesEra of Accountablitity New venture division Linking to business Broader vision Of technology Allocation of Funds to projects Innovation management Different Organizational arrangement Outsourching Tools to assess value Scientific & Engineers Internal markets Leadership R&D ManagerChief Technology Officer Evolution Of Managemet Of Technology

19 Definisi Manajemen Teknologi Management of technology links engineering, science, and management disciplines to plan, to develop, and to implement technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational goals of an organization Manajemen teknologi menghubungkan rekayasa, ilmu dan manajemen untuk merencanakan, mengembangkan dan menerapkan kemampuan teknologikal untuk membentuk dan merealisasikan sasaran strategic dan operatinal suatu organisasi.

20 3 Ide dari definisi tersebut 1. Penekanan manajemen teknologi pada pencapaian tujuan organisasi. Kita akan melihat value creation bagi investor sebagai tujuan utama manajemen teknologi dalam korporasi. 2. Manajemen teknologi memfokuskan pada pengembangan kemampuan teknologikal dan implementasinya atau penerapannya pada produk dan proses. 3. Manajemen teknologi dalam korporasi dihubungkan dengan kegiatan manajemen lainnya seperti marketing dan manufacturing.

21 Redefinisi Manajemen Teknologi Management of technology focuses on the principles of strategy and organization involved in technology choise guided by the purpose of creating value for investor Manajemen teknologi memfokuskan pada prinsip- prinsip strategi dan organisasi yang terdapat dalam pemilihan teknologi yang dipandu dengan tujuan menciptakan nilai bagi investor.

22 Value-Driven Organization And Management Organization And Management Technology Choices Technology Choices Technology Strategy Technology Strategy What Purpose How Managemet Of Technology

23 2 PERSPEKTIF DLM MGT: A. Market Base View B. Resource Base View  Market Base View : Management konsentrasi pada lingkungan industri perusahaan tersebut, posisi relatifnya dibanding para pesaing, dan bagaimana memuaskan pelanggan.  Resource Base View : Ketika lingkungan berubah, perusahaan yang merupakan kumpulan resources dan capabilities, boleh jadi sebuah basis yg stabil utk mendefinisikan identitasnya. Secara umum, perubahan dengan laju yang lebih besar pada lingkungan perusahaan, maka internal resources dan capabilities akan memberikan dasar khusus untuk pengambilan keputusan jangka panjang.

24 Market Based and Resources Based View DimensionMarket BasedResource Based Drivers of strategyCustomer and competitors Unique resources DerivativesResourcesMarket opportunities Strategy profilePositionalCore competencies Appropriate contextsMature marketsDynamic markets

25 4 Key Koncept 1. The Firm as a Value Chain The Firm as a Value Chain 2. Industries as Competitive Domain Industries as Competitive Domain 3. Forms of Technological Change Forms of Technological Change 4. Value Creation and Competitive Advantage Value Creation and Competitive Advantage

26 Firm as a Value Chain  Setiap perusahaan adalah sekumpulan dari aktivitas untuk DESIGN, PRODUCE, MARKET, DEVELOP, SUPPORT.  Semua kegiatan ini dapat digambarkan sebagai VALUE CHAIN (Rantai Nilai).

27 Value chain terdiri 2 kegiatan: 1. PRIMARY ACTIVITY. Terdiri dari 5 aktivitas generik: inbound logistic, operation, outbound logistic, marketing dan service 2. SUPPORT ACITIVITY. Dapat dibagi menjadi 4 aktivitas generik: procurement, technology development, human resources management, dan firm infrastructure.

28 Value Chain Firm Infrastructure Human Resources Management Technology Development Procurement Inbound Logistics Operation Outbound Logistics Marketing And Sales Services Margin

29 Industries as Competitive Domain  Industri merupakan sekelompok perusahaan yang menawarkan barang atau jasa yang sama kepada customer.  Industri tersebut merupakan wilayah di mana perusahaan-perusahaan incumbent melakukan persaingan.  Jadi industri merupakan competitive domain

30 Klasifikasi Industri Berdasarkan: Key Competitive Resources 1. Capacity. Pada industri capacity driven capital investment fisik relativ besar dibanding biaya atau nilai tambahnya. Contoh: industri baja. 2. Customers. Pada industri customer-driven, investasi di brand atau customer merupakan bagian besar dari biaya atau nilai tambah. Contoh: industri bir. 3. Knowledge. Pada industri knowledge-driven, investasi R&D cenderung merupakan bagian besar dari biaya atau nilai tambah. Contoh: industri kimia.

31 Klasifikasi Industri Capacity DrivenCustomer DrivenKnowledge driven Food processingFood productsElectical equipment TextilesCustomer chemical productsSpecialty chemicals Basic metalsHousehold durablesTransport equipment Stone, clay productGlass, ceramic productsScientific equipment Basic chemicalsSoftware Pulp and paper

32 Forms of Technological Change

33 Process Technology  Merupakan teknik memproduksi dan memasarkan barang atau jasa.  Process Technology meliputi work method, equipment, distribution, dan logistic.  Oleh karena itu, process technology melekat pada VALUE CHAIN.

34 Product Technology  Merupakan elemen teknologi yang melekat pada barang atau jasa yg dihasilkan suatu perusahaan. Contoh: Mobil BBG dan Mobil Elektrik merupakan product technology dalam industri mobil.  Perubahan dalam product technology menambah fitur baru atau memberikan substitusi yang lebih baik atas produk yang ada sekarang.

35 JADI ….  PROCESS TECHNOLOGY refer to the way an organiation conducts its business, whereas product technology refers to the output of an organization.  Distinction between process and product technologuy depends on the nature of the firm.  What is often a product technology for one firm may very well be a process technology for another firm.

36 Mangapa membedakan Process Technology dan Product Technology? 1. Dibandingkan perubahan teknologi produk, perubahan teknologi proses kurang visible (nampak) dalam marketplace. 2. Baik perubahan teknologi proses maupun teknologi produk punya implikasi pada kinerja ekonomis. Pada banyak kasus, perubahan teknologi proses membuatnya feasible untuk mengurangi biaya dan waktu siklusnya, serta memperbaiki kualitas produknya. 3. Teknologi produk membantu perusahaan bersaing untuk pelanggan, perubahan teknologi produk membantu perusahaan redefine cakupan produk/pasar mereka.

37 Value Creation and Competitive Advantage KompetitiveAdvantageKompetitiveAdvantage Higher rate of profit Higher rate of profit Customer Value Creation Creation


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