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Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 1 TEKNOLOGI WIRELESS.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 1 TEKNOLOGI WIRELESS."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 1 TEKNOLOGI WIRELESS

2 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 2 Wireless Communication Transmisi suara dan data menggunakan gelombang elektromagnetik menuju ruang bebas Gelombang elektromagnetik Kecepatan Cahaya (c = 3x10 8 m/s) Memiliki Frekuensi (f) dan Panjang Gelombang ( ) c = f x Penggunaan frekuensi lebih tinggi umumnya medium meredam lebih besar

3 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 3 Spektrum Frekuensi IRUVX-Rays Cosmic Rays Radio Spectrum 1MHz ==100m 100MHz ==1m 10GHz ==1cm < 30 KHz VLF KHz LF 300KHz – 3MHz MF 3 MHz – 30MHz HF 30MHz – 300MHz VHF 300 MHz – 3GHz UHF 3-30GHz SHF > 30 GHz EHF Micro wave Visible light

4 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 4 Contoh : Panjang Gelombang GSM : – Frekuensi ~= 900 Mhz – Panjang Gelombang ~= 33cm PCS – Frekuensi ~= 1.8 Ghz – Panjang Gelombang ~= 17.5 cm Bluetooth: – Frekuensi ~= 2.4Gz – Panjang Gelombang ~= 12.5cm

5 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 5 Frequency Carrier/Kanal – Informasi yang dikirim menuju receiver dilewatkan pada band frekuensi tertentu Disebut sebagai kanal (channel) – Tiap kanal memiliki bandwidth yang tetap (dalam KHz) dan kapasitas (bit-rate) – Band frekuensi yang berbeda (atau kanal) dapat digunakan untuk mentransmisikan informasi secara paralel dan independen (konsep multiple access)

6 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 6 Example – Assume a spectrum of 90KHz is allocated over a base frequency b for communication between stations A and B – Assume each channel occupies 30KHz – There are 3 channels – Each channel is simplex (Transmission occurs in one way) – For full duplex communication: Use two different channels (front and reverse channels) Use time division in a channel Channel 1 (b - b+30) Channel 2 (b+30 - b+60) Channel 3 (b+60 - b+90) Station A Station B

7 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 7 Simplex Communication Normally, on a channel, a station can transmit only in one way. This is called simplex transmision To enable two-way communication (called full- duplex communication) We can use Frequency Division Multiplexing We can use Time Division Multiplexing

8 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 8 Duplex Communication - FDD FDD: Frequency Division Duplex Base Station B Mobile Terminal M Forward Channel Reverse Channel Forward Channel and Reverse Channel use different frequency bands

9 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 9 Duplex Communication - TDD TDD: Time Division Duplex Base Station B Mobile Terminal M A singe frequency channel is used. The channel is divided into time slots. Mobile station and base station transmits on the time slots alternately MBMBMB

10 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 10 Example - Frequency Spectrum Allocation in U.S. Cellular Radio Service … … … … MHz MHz Reverse ChannelForward Channel Channel NumberCenter Frequency (MHz) Reverse Channel 1 <=N <= <= N <= 1023 Forward Channel 1 <=N <= <= N <= N (N-1023) N (N-1023) (Channels are unused) Channel bandwidth is 45 MHz

11 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 11 What is Mobility ? Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming the user terminals are static No change of location during a call/connection A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location Mobility and portability – Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline – Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online

12 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 12 Degrees of Mobility Walking Users Low speed Small roaming area Usually uses high-bandwith/low-latency access Vehicles High speeds Large roaming area Usually uses low-bandwidth/high-latency access Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones)

13 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 13 What is Mobility ? Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming the user terminals are static No change of location during a call/connection A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location Mobility and portability – Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline – Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online

14 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 14 Degrees of Mobility Walking Users Low speed Small roaming area Usually uses high-bandwith/low-latency access Vehicles High speeds Large roaming area Usually uses low-bandwidth/high-latency access Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones)

15 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 15 The Need for Wireless/Mobile Networking Demand for Ubiquitous Computing – Anywhere, anytime computing and communication You don’t have to go to the lab to check your – Pushing the computers more into background Focus on the task and life, not on the computer Use computers seamlessly to help you and to make your life more easier – Computers should be location aware Adapt to the current location, discover services

16 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 16 Pengertian Nirkabel Sistem Komunikasi menggunakan frekuensi/spektrum radio, yang memungkinkan transmisi (pengiriman/penerimaan) informasi (suara, data, gambar, video) tanpa koneksi fisik Dibedakan dari sistem transmisi yang memerlukan koneksi fisik, seperti kabel/kawat tembaga atau fiber optik Bersifat tetap (fixed) atau bergerak (mobile) Dibatasi oleh ketersediaan spektrum (pita frekuensi), karena adanya interferensi (saling mengganggu) jika digunakan bersama

17 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 17 Komunikasi Nirkabel Dapat dilakukan “dimana saja” (mobile) Bisa bersifat lebih personal Dibatasi oleh sifat antarmuka terminal: – Layar kecil (ponsel) sampai menengah (laptop) – Tombol terbatas – Daya terbatas

18 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 18 Pemanfaatan Teknologi Nirkabel Layanan Bersifat tetap (fixed): – Penggunaan sekitar rumah (Cordless-DECT) – Sambungan lokal (Wireless Local Loop-WLL) – Bluetooth: jarak pendek, kecepatan rendah – WiFi: jarang menengah, kecepatan cukup tinggi – WIMAX: jarak jauh, kecepatan tinggi – Satellite: jangkauan luas, kecepatan menengah – RFID: jangkauan sangat kecil Layanan Bersifat bergerak (mobile): – Limited Mobility (Flexi) – Cellular (GSM, CDMA, 3G) – Satellite (GMPCS)

19 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 19 Berbagai Teknologi Nirkabel Degree of mobility Standing Walking Driving User data rate 10Mbps IEEE a,d 1100 HSDPA IEEE e WLAN (IEEE x) GSM GPRS DECT EDGE FlashOFDM (802.20) Systems beyond 3G > BlueTooth UMTS CDMA EV-DO EV-DV UMTS

20 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 20 Standard Nirkabel IEEE UWB, Bluetooth Wi-Media, BTSIG, MBOA WAN MAN LAN PAN ETSI HiperPAN IEEE Wi-Fi Alliance ETSI-BRAN HiperLAN2 IEEE d WiMAX ETSI HiperMAN & HIPERACCESS IEEE IEEE e 3GPP (GPRS/UMTS) 3GPP2 (1X--/CDMA2000) GSMA, OMA Sensors IEEE (Zigbee Alliance) RFID (AutoID Center) IEEE , IEEE RAN IEEE (BAN) BAN: Body Area Network

21 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 21 Maximum transmission rateTrmax - Mbps Year st Generation Analog voice 2 nd Generation Digital voice & Low rate data 3 rd Generation ~ G+ PDC,GSM,PHS, etc. 2G PDC,GSM,PHS, etc. 3G W-CDMA, Cdma2000, etc. 3G+ HSDPA, cdma2000(3X), etc. 4G 1995 WLAN a,HiSWANa, HIPERLAN2, etc. Bluetooth, etc. UWB, etc. WLAN n, etc. WLAN++ Generation (Cellular) Mobile Local Nomadic 4 th Generation ALL-IP Broadband Ubiquitous & Seamless Voice & High speed data Multimedia WiMAX System Evolution Scenario

22 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 22 GSM Evolution UMTS Up to 2 Mbps or 384 in mobility GSM HSCSD Up to 38,4 kbps GSM CS Up to 9,6 Kbps GSM GPRS Up to 115 kbps 2G 2.5G 3G Operators prefer choose direct going to GPRS technology rather than going to GSM HSCSD technology because no HSCSD handset availability and short time stage EDGE

23 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 23 CDMA Standards Evolution CDMA2000 PCN/Mobile IP Interworking function CDMA2000 cdmaOne All IP IS-95A CDMA Voice, packet- 9.6/14.4 Kbps IS-95B CDMA Voice, packet- 64 Kbps IS X 144 Kbps 600 Kbps peak IS XEV-DO 600 Kbps; 2.4 Kbps peak IS XEV-DV 2-5 Mbps peak Source: CDMA2000-A world view

24 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 24 IMT-2000 (Family of Standards) IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread IMT-2000 CDMA Multi Carrier IMT-2000 CDMA TDD IMT-2000 TDMA Single Carrier IMT-2000 FDMA/ TDMA IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces WCDMA (UMTS) CDMATDMA FDMA UWC-136/ EDGE DECTUTRA TDD And TD-SCDMA CDMA2000 1X and 3X

25 Modul 1 - Teknologi Wireless 25 Berbagai Jenis Content & Aplikasi


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