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Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 2 Thinking Like an Economist Berpikir secara ekonomi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 2 Thinking Like an Economist Berpikir secara ekonomi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 2 Thinking Like an Economist Berpikir secara ekonomi

2 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Thinking Like an Economist (berfikir secara ekonomi) Every field of study has its own terminology (Setiap bidang studi memiliki terminologi sendiri Mathematics integrals  axioms  vector spaces Psychology ego  id  cognitive dissonance Law promissory  estoppel  torts  venues Economics supply  opportunity cost  elasticity  consumer surplus  demand  comparative advantage  deadweight loss Setiap bidang studi memiliki terminologi sendiri (Setiap Kepemilikan Modal Metode studi memiliki terminologi Sendiri matematika integral   aksioma ruang vektor psikologi ego   id kognitif disonansi hukum promes   estoppel gugatan  tempat ekonomi pasokan  opportunity cost   elastisitas surplus konsumen   permintaan keunggulan komparatif kerugian bobot mati 

3 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Thinking Like an Economist Economics trains you to.... Think in terms of alternatives. Evaluate the cost of individual and social choices. Examine and understand how certain events and issues are related. Ekonomi melatih Anda untuk.... Pikirkan dalam hal alternatif. Mengevaluasi biaya pilihan individu dan sosial. Memeriksa dan memahami bagaimana peristiwa tertentu dan isu-isu terkait.

4 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning THE ECONOMIST AS A SCIENTIST The economic way of thinking... Involves thinking analytically and objectively. Makes use Cara berpikir ekonomi... Melibatkan berpikir analitis dan obyektif. Memanfaatkan metode ilmiah.of the scientific method.

5 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning The Scientific Method: Observation, Theory, and More Observation Uses abstract models to help explain how a complex, real world operates. Develops theories, collects, and analyzes data to evaluate the theories. Menggunakan model abstrak untuk membantu menjelaskan bagaimana dunia, kompleks real beroperasi.? Membangun teori, mengumpulkan, dan menganalisis data untuk mengevaluasi teori.

6 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning The Role of Assumptions Economists make assumptions in order to make the world easier to understand. The art in scientific thinking is deciding which assumptions to make. Economists use different assumptions to answer different que Para ekonom membuat asumsi untuk membuat dunia lebih mudah dipahami. Seni dalam pemikiran ilmiah memutuskan untuk membuat asumsi. Para ekonom menggunakan asumsi yang berbeda untuk menjawab pertanyaan yang berbeda. stions.

7 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Economic Models Economists use models to simplify reality in order to improve our understanding of the world Two of the most basic economic models include: The Circular Flow Diagram The Production Possibilities Frontier Para ekonom menggunakan model untuk menyederhanakan realitas dalam rangka meningkatkan pemahaman kita tentang dunia Dua dari model ekonomi yang paling dasar meliputi: Diagram Arus Edaran Produksi Kemungkinan Frontier

8 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Our First Model: The Circular-Flow Diagram The circular-flow diagram is a visual model of the economy that shows how dollars flow through markets among households and firms. Diagram lingkaran-aliran adalah model visual perekonomian yang menunjukkan bagaimana dolar mengalir melalui pasar kalangan rumah tangga dan perusahaan.

9 Figure 1 The Circular Flow Copyright © 2004 South-Western Spending Goods and services bought Revenue Goods and services sold Labor, land, and capital Income = Flow of inputs and outputs = Flow of dollars Factors of production Wages, rent, and profit FIRMS Produce and sell goods and services Hire and use factors of production Buy and consume goods and services Own and sell factors of production HOUSEHOLDS Households sell Firms buy MARKETS FOR FACTORS OF PRODUCTION Firms sell Households buy MARKETS FOR GOODS AND SERVICES

10 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Our First Model: The Cirulcar-Flow Diagram Firms Produce and sell goods and services Hire and use factors of production Households Buy and consume goods and services Own and sell factors of production Terjemahan perusahaan Memproduksi dan menjual barang dan jasa Mempekerjakan dan menggunakan faktor- faktor produksi rumah tangga Membeli dan mengkonsumsi barang dan jasa Pemilik dan menjual faktor produksi

11 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Our First Model: The Circular-Flow Diagram Markets for Goods and Services Firms sell Households buy Markets for Factors of Production Households sell Firms buy Pasar untuk brang dan jasa perusahaan menjual rumah tangga membeli Pasar untuk Faktor Produksi Rumah tangga menjual perusahaan membeli

12 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Our First Model: The Circular-Flow Diagram Factors of Production Inputs used to produce goods and services Land, labor, and capital Faktor Produksi Input yang digunakan untuk memproduksi barang dan jasa Lahan, tenaga kerja, dan modal

13 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Our Second Model: The Production Possibilities Frontier The production possibilities frontier is a graph that shows the combinations of output that the economy can possibly produce given the available factors of production and the available production technology. Perbatasan kemungkinan produksi adalah grafik yang menunjukkan kombinasi output bahwa ekonomi mungkin dapat menghasilkan mengingat faktor-faktor produksi yang tersedia dan teknologi produksi yang tersedia.

14 Figure 2 The Production Possibilities Frontier Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Production possibilities frontier A B C Quantity of Cars Produced 2, , ,000 3,000 1,000 Quantity of Computers Produced D

15 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Our Second Model: The Production Possibilities Frontier Concepts Illustrated by the Production Possibilities Frontier Efficiency Tradeoffs Opportunity Cost Economic Growth Konsep Ilustrasi oleh Frontier Produksi Possibilities efisiensi pengorbanan peluang Biaya Pertumbuhan Ekonomi

16 Figure 3 A Shift in the Production Possibilities Frontier Copyright © 2004 South-Western E Quantity of Cars Produced 2, , ,000 3,000 1,000 Quantity of Computers Produced A

17 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Microeconomics focuses on the individual parts of the economy. How households and firms make decisions and how they interact in specific markets Macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole. Economy-wide phenomena, including inflation, unemployment, and economic growth Ekonomi mikro berfokus pada bagian-bagian individu dari perekonomian. Bagaimana rumah tangga dan perusahaan membuat keputusan dan bagaimana mereka berinteraksi di pasar tertentu Makroekonomi melihat perekonomian secara keseluruhan. Ekonomi-lebar fenomena, termasuk inflasi, pengangguran, dan pertumbuhan ekonomi

18 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning THE ECONOMIST AS POLICY ADVISOR When economists are trying to explain the world, they are scientists. When economists are trying to change the world, they are policy advisor. Ketika para ekonom mencoba untuk menjelaskan dunia, mereka adalah para ilmuwan. Ketika para ekonom mencoba untuk mengubah dunia, mereka adalah penasihat kebijakan.

19 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning POSITIVE VERSUS NORMATIVE ANALYSIS Positive statements are statements that attempt to describe the world as it is. Called descriptive analysis Normative statements are statements about how the world should be. Called prescriptive analysis Pernyataan positif adalah pernyataan yang mencoba untuk menggambarkan dunia seperti itu. Disebut analisis deskriptif Pernyataan normatif adalah pernyataan tentang bagaimana dunia seharusnya. Disebut analisis preskriptif

20 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Positive or Normative Statements? An increase in the minimum wage will cause a decrease in employment among the least-skilled. POSITIVE Higher federal budget deficits will cause interest rates to increase. POSITIVE Laporan positif atau normatif? Peningkatan upah minimum akan menyebabkan penurunan dalam pekerjaan antara yang paling terampil. POSITIF Tinggi defisit anggaran federal akan menyebabkan suku bunga meningkat. POSITIF ? ? POSITIVE VERSUS NORMATIVE ANALYSIS ?

21 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Positive or Normative Statements? The income gains from a higher minimum wage are worth more than any slight reductions in employment. NORMATIVE State governments should be allowed to collect from tobacco companies the costs of treating smoking-related illnesses among the poor. NORMATIVE Laporan positif atau normatif? Keuntungan pendapatan dari upah minimum yang lebih tinggi yang bernilai lebih daripada pengurangan kecil dalam pekerjaan. NORMATIF Pemerintah negara bagian harus diperbolehkan untuk mengumpulkan dari perusahaan tembakau biaya mengobati penyakit yang berhubungan dengan merokok di kalangan orang miskin. NORMATIF ? ? POSITIVE VERSUS NORMATIVE ANALYSIS ?

22 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Economists in Washington... serve as advisers in the policymaking process of the three branches of government: Legislative Executive Judicial.. berfungsi sebagai penasihat dalam proses pembuatan kebijakan dari tiga cabang pemerintahan: legislatif eksekutif yudisial

23 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Economists in Washington Some government agencies that collect economic data and make economic policy: Department of Commerce Bureau of Labor Statistics Congressional Budget Office Federal Reserve Board Beberapa lembaga pemerintah yang mengumpulkan data ekonomi dan membuat kebijakan ekonomi: Departemen Perdagangan Biro Statistik Tenaga Kerja Anggaran Kongres Kantor Federal Reserve Board

24 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning WHY ECONOMISTS DISAGREE They may disagree about the validity of alternative positive theories about how the world works. They may have different values and, therefore, different normative views about what policy should try to accomplish. Mereka mungkin tidak setuju tentang validitas teori positif alternatif tentang bagaimana dunia bekerja.? Mereka mungkin memiliki nilai yang berbeda dan, oleh karena itu, pandangan normatif yang berbeda tentang apa kebijakan harus mencoba untuk menyelesaikan.

25 Table 2 Ten Propositions about Which Most Economists Agree Copyright © 2004 South-Western

26 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Summary Economists try to address their subjects with a scientist’s objectivity. They make appropriate assumptions and build simplified models in order to understand the world around them. Two simple economic models are the circular-flow diagram and the production possibilities frontier. Para ekonom mencoba untuk mengatasi mata pelajaran mereka dengan objektivitas seorang ilmuwan. Mereka membuat asumsi yang tepat dan membangun model yang disederhanakan untuk memahami dunia di sekitar mereka. Dua model ekonomi sederhana adalah diagram lingkaran-aliran dan produksi frontier kemungkinan.

27 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Summary Economics is divided into two subfields: Microeconomists study decisionmaking by households and firms in the marketplace. Macroeconomists study the forces and trends that affect the economy as a whole Ekonomi dibagi menjadi dua bidang: Microeconomists mempelajari pengambilan keputusan oleh rumah tangga dan perusahaan di pasar. Makroekonomi mempelajari kekuatan dan tren yang mempengaruhi ekonomi secara keseluruhan

28 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Summary A positive statement is an assertion about how the world is. A normative statement is an assertion about how the world ought to be. When economists make normative statements, they are acting more as policy advisors than scientists. Sebuah pernyataan positif adalah pernyataan tentang bagaimana dunia ini. Sebuah pernyataan normatif adalah pernyataan tentang bagaimana dunia seharusnya. Ketika para ekonom membuat pernyataan normatif, mereka bertindak lebih sebagai penasihat kebijakan dari para ilmuwan.

29 Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Summary Economists who advise policymakers offer conflicting advice either because of differences in scientific judgments or because of differences in values. At other times, economists are united in the advice they offer, but policymakers may choose to ignore it. Para ekonom yang menyarankan pembuat kebijakan memberikan saran yang saling bertentangan baik karena perbedaan dalam penilaian ilmiah atau karena perbedaan nilai- nilai. Di lain waktu, ekonom bersatu dalam saran yang mereka tawarkan, namun para pembuat kebijakan mungkin memilih untuk mengabaikannya.


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