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1 Ir. Erlinda Muslim, MEE Nip. 19601028 198811 2001 Strategy Analysis and Choice Manajemen Strategi Industri.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Ir. Erlinda Muslim, MEE Nip. 19601028 198811 2001 Strategy Analysis and Choice Manajemen Strategi Industri."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 1 Ir. Erlinda Muslim, MEE Nip Strategy Analysis and Choice Manajemen Strategi Industri

3 2 Stage 1: The Input Stage Stage 2: The Matching Stage Stage 3: The Decision Stage Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework

4 3 External Factor Evaluation Matrix (EFE) Competitive Profile Matrix Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) Stage 1: The Input Stage Formulation Framework

5 4 Provides basic input information for the matching and decision stage matrices Requires strategists to quantify subjectivity early in the process Good intuitive judgment always needed Input Stage

6 5 SPACE Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage TOWS Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Formulation Framework

7 6 Match between organization’s internal resources and skills and the opportunities and risks created by its external factors. Matching Stage

8 7 Resultant StrategyKey External FactorKey Internal Factor Develop a new employee benefits package = Strong union activity (threat) + Poor employee morale (weakness) Develop new products for older adults = Decreasing numbers of young adults (threat) +Strong R&D (strength) Pursue horizontal integration by buying competitor's facilities = Exit of two major foreign competitors form the industry (opportunity) + Insufficient capacity (weakness) Acquire Cellfone, Inc.= 20% annual growth in the cell phone industry (opportunity) + Excess working capacity (strength) Matching Key Factors to Formulate Alternative Strategies

9 8 Formulation Framework Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) Stage 3: The Decision Stage

10 9 External Factor Evaluation Matrix (EFE) Competitive Profile Matrix Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) Stage 1: The Input Stage Formulation Framework

11 10 Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future. -- Neils Bohr The External Assessment

12 11 Purpose: –Development of Finite List: Opportunities Threats to be avoided Nature of External Audit

13 12 Five (5) broad categories: 1.Economic forces 2.Social, cultural, demographic, & environmental forces 3.Political, governmental, and legal forces 4.Technological factors 5.Competitive forces Key External Forces

14 13 Key External Forces Competitors Suppliers Distributors Creditors Customers Employees Communities Managers Stockholders Labor Unions Special Interest Groups Products Services Opportunities & Threats Relationships Between Key External Forces and an Organization

15 14 Porter’s Five Forces Model of Industry Competition Exhibit 2.4 Reprinted with the permission of The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. from Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1980, 1998 by The Free Press. INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry Among Existing Firms INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry Among Existing Firms POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUBSTITUTES BUYERS SUPPLIERS Threat of substitute products or services Bargaining power of buyers Threat of new entrants Bargaining power of suppliers

16 15 Five Forces Analysis of the Automotive Industry Global Competitive Environment Threat of Buyers Threat of Suppliers Threat of Substitutes Threat of Market Entry Automotive Industry Threat of Rivalry  Train, public transport or other means of transportation  High barriers to entry  High capital requirements  Contrived deterrence  Cost disadvantages  Consolidation  Single Sourcing  Low level of total value added  Numerous potential customers  Industry policy of rebates  More demanding customers  Oligopolistic industry  Overcapacity  Differentiation on basis of functional attributes only temporary

17 16 External Factor Evaluation Matrix Summarize & evaluate: CompetitivePoliticalCultural TechnologicalEnvironmentalSocial GovernmentalDemographic Economic Industry Analysis (EFE)

18 17 Menggambarkan keseluruhan opportunities dan threats yang ada untuk mengetahui seberapa besar pengaruh dari setiap faktor tersebut terhadap institusi, respons institusi setiap faktor tersebut dan untuk mengetahui nilai institusi terhadap keseluruhan faktor dibandingkan dengan Institusi lain External Factor Evaluation (EFE)

19 18 Five-Step process: List key external factors (10-20)  Opportunities & threats Assign weight to each (0 to 1.0)  Sum of all weights = 1.0 Industry Analysis (EFE)

20 19 Five-step process: Assign 1-4 rating to each factor Firm’s current strategies response to the factor Multiply each factor’s weight by its rating Produces a weighted score Industry Analysis (EFE)

21 20 Five-step process: Sum the weighted scores for each  Determines the total weighted score for the organization. Highest possible weighted score for the organization is 4.0; the lowest, 1.0. Average = 2.5 Industry Analysis (EFE)

22 Clinton Administration Bad media exposure from FDA Smokeless market SE region U.S Production limits on tobacco Legislation against the tobacco industry Threats More social pressure to quit smoking TOTAL Pinkerton leader in discount market.051 Astronomical Internet growth Increased demand.151 Global markets untapped Weighted score RatingWeight UST—Key External Factors Opportunities

23 22 Tabel : Matriks EFE PT. Pos Indonesia

24 23 Total weighted score of 4.0 = Organization response is outstanding to threats & weaknesses Total weighted score of 1.0 = Firm’s strategies not capitalizing on opportunities or avoiding threats Industry Analysis (EFE)

25 24 Important Understanding of the factors used in the EFE Matrix is more important than the actual weights and ratings assigned. Industry Analysis (EFE)

26 25 External Factor Evaluation Matrix (EFE) Competitive Profile Matrix Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) Stage 1: The Input Stage Formulation Framework

27 26 Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. -- Albert Einstein The Internal Assessment

28 27 All organizations – Strengths Weaknesses Nature of an Internal Audit

29 28 Basis for objectives & strategies: –Internal strengths/weaknesses –External opportunities/threats –Clear statement of mission Nature of an Internal Audit

30 29 Distinctive Competencies A firm’s strengths that cannot be easily matched or imitated by competitors Building competitive advantage involves taking advantage of distinctive competencies Strategies designed in part to improve on a firm’s weaknesses and turn to strengths Key Internal Forces

31 30 Parallels process of external audit Gather & assimilate information from: Management Marketing Finance/accounting Production/operations Research & development Management information systems Internal Audit

32 31 Five basic activities – – Planning – Organizing – Motivating – Staffing – Controlling Functions of Management

33 32 Planning Stage When Most Important Function Strategy Formulation Organizing Strategy Implementation Motivating Strategy Implementation Staffing Controlling Strategy Implementation Strategy Evaluation Functions of Management

34 33 Planning Forecasting Establishing objectives Devising strategies Developing policies Setting goals Planning

35 34 Organizing Organizational design Job specialization Job descriptions Job specifications Span of control Unity of command Coordination Job design Job analysis Organizing Organizational design Job specialization Job descriptions Job specifications Span of control Unity of command Coordination Job design Job analysis Organizing Organizational design Job specialization Job descriptions Job specifications Span of control Unity of command Coordination Job design Job analysis Organizing

36 35 Motivating Leadership Communication Work groups Job enrichment Job satisfaction Needs fulfillment Organizational change Morale Motivating

37 36 Staffing Wage & salary admin Employee benefits Interviewing Hiring Firing Training Management development Safety Affirmative action EEO Labor relations Career development Discipline procedures Staffing

38 37 Controlling Quality control Financial control Sales control Inventory control Expense control Analysis of variances Rewards Sanctions Controlling

39 38 Process of defining, anticipating, creating, and fulfilling customers’ needs and wants for products and services Marketing

40 39 1. Customer analysis 2. Selling products/services 3. Product and service planning 4. Pricing 5. Distribution 6. Marketing research 7. Opportunity analysis Marketing

41 40 Customer analysis Customer surveys Consumer information Market positioning strategies Customer profiles Market segmentation strategies Marketing

42 41 Selling Products/services Advertising Sales Promotion Publicity Sales force management Customer relations Dealer relations Marketing

43 42 Product/service planning Test marketing Brand positioning Devising warrantees Packaging Product features/options Product style Quality Marketing

44 43 Pricing Forward integration Discounts Credit terms Condition of sale Markups Costs Unit pricing Marketing

45 44 Distribution Warehousing Channels Coverage Retail site locations Sales territories Inventory levels Transportation Marketing

46 45 Marketing research Data collection Data input Data analysis Support all business functions Marketing

47 46 Opportunity Analysis Assessing costs Assessing benefits Assessing risks Cost/benefit/risk analysis Marketing

48 47 Determining financial strengths and weaknesses key to strategy formulation Investment decision ( Capital budgeting ) Financing decision Dividend decision Finance/Accounting

49 48 Functions of Finance/Accounting – 1. Investment decision ( Capital budgeting ) 2. Financing decision 3. Dividend decision Finance/Accounting

50 49 Liquidity ratios Firm’s ability to meet its short-term obligations Ratios Current ratio Quick (or acid-test) ratio Basic Financial Ratios

51 50 Leverage ratios Extent of debt financing Ratios Debt-to-total-assets Debt-to-equity Long-term debt-to-equity Times-interest earned Basic Financial Ratios

52 51 Activity ratios Effective use of firm’s resources Ratios Inventory-turnover Fixed assets turnover Total assets turnover Accounts receivable turnover Average collection period Basic Financial Ratios

53 52 Profitability ratios Effectiveness shown by returns on sales and investment Ratios Gross profit margin Operating profit margin Net profit margin Return on total assets (ROA ) Basic Financial Ratios

54 53 Profitability ratios (continued) Effectiveness shown by returns on sales and investment Ratios Return on stockholders’ equity (ROE) Earnings per share Price-earnings ratio Basic Financial Ratios

55 54 Growth ratios Firm’s ability to maintain economic position Ratios Sales Net income Earnings per share Dividends per share Basic Financial Ratios

56 55 Process Capacity Inventory Workforce Quality Production/Operations

57 56 Process Design of facility Choice of technology Facility layout Process flow analysis Facility location Line balancing Process control Production/Operations

58 57 Capacity Forecasting Facilities planning Aggregate planning Scheduling Capacity planning Queuing analysis Production/Operations

59 58 Inventory Raw material Work in process Finished goods Materials handling Production/Operations

60 59 Workforce Job design Work measurement Job enrichment Work standards Motivation techniques Production/Operations

61 60 Quality Quality control Sampling Testing Quality assurance Cost control Production/Operations

62 61 Development of new products before competition Improving product quality Improving manufacturing processes to reduce costs Research and Development

63 62 R&D budgets Financing as many projects as possible Use percentage-of-sales method Budgeting relative to competitors Deciding how many successful new products are needed Research and Development

64 63 Purpose – – Improve performance of an enterprise by improving the quality of managerial decisions. Management Information Systems

65 64 Internal Analysis (IFE) Menggambarkan keseluruhan strength dan weakness yang ada untuk mengetahui seberapa besar pengaruh dari setiap faktor tersebut terhadap institusi, respons institusi setiap faktor tersebut dan untuk mengetahui nilai institusi terhadap keseluruhan faktor dibandingkan dengan Institusi lain

66 65 Five-Step Process: List key internal factors (10-20)  Strengths & weaknesses Assign weight to each (0 to 1.0)  Sum of all weights = 1.0 Internal Analysis (IFE)

67 66 Assign 1-4 rating to each factor  Firm’s current strategies response to the factor Multiply each factor’s weight by its rating  Produces a weighted score Internal Analysis (IFE)

68 67 Sum the weighted scores for each  Determines the total weighted score for the organization  Highest possible weighted score for the organization is 4.0; the lowest, 1.0. Average = 2.5 Internal Analysis (IFE)

69 Financial ratios Reputation as family-friendly Long-range planning Minimal comps provided Buffets at most facilities Strong management team Owns 1 mile on Las Vegas strip Increasing free cash flows Room occupancy rates over 95% Largest casino company in world Weighted score RatingWeight Mandalay Bay Internal Strengths Internal Analysis (IFE)

70 TOTAL (including Strengths).101 Recent loss of joint ventures.101 Laughlin properties Family reputation, not high rollers Little diversification.051 Most properties located in Las Vegas Weighted score RatingWeight Mandalay Bay Internal Weaknesses Internal Analysis (IFE)

71 70 Tabel : Matriks IFE PT. Pos Indonesia

72 71 Diantara sejumlah strengths yang dimiliki suatu institusi dapat saja beberapa diantaranya merupakan distinctive competencies. Untuk mengevaluasi apakah suatu strength adalah distinctive competency dapat digunakan metode Barney yaitu dengan konsep VRIO Menentukan Distinctive Competencies

73 72 uValue : apakah faktor tersebut memberikan keunggulan kompetitif pada institusi ? uRareness : apakah pesaing tidak memiliki faktor tersebut ? uImitability : apakah tidak mudah untuk memiliki faktor tersebut ? uOrganization : apakah institusi memanfaatkan faktor tersebut secara maksimal ? Jika jawab dari keempat : Ya distinctive competency VRIO

74 73 External Factor Evaluation Matrix (EFE) Competitive Profile Matrix Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) Stage 1: The Input Stage Formulation Framework

75 74 Competitive Profile Matrix Identifies firm’s major competitors and their strengths & weaknesses in relation to a sample firm’s strategic position Industry Analysis (CPM)

76 75 (CPM) Procter Avon L’Oreal & Gamble Total Market Share Global Expansion Customer Loyalty Financial Position Management Price Competition Product Quality Advertising ScoreRatingScoreRatingScoreRatingWeight Critical Success Factor

77 76 Competitive Profile Matrix

78 77 SPACE Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage TOWS Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Formulation Framework

79 78 Whether it’s broke or not, fix it—make it better. Not just products, but the whole company if necessary. -- Bill Saporito Strategy Analysis & Choice

80 79 *Asumsi: Suatu strategi yang efektif akan memaksimalkan kekuatan (Strength) dan peluang (Opportunities), dan meminimalkan kelemahan (Weaknesses) dan ancaman ((Threat) *Opportunities: Situasi penting dari faktor eksternal yang menguntungkan perusahaan. (perubahan teknologi, membaiknya hubungan pembeli & pemasok, dll) *Threat: faktor internal yang tidak menguntungkan perusahaan. (masuknya pesaing baru, lambatnya pertumbuhan pasar, meningkatnya kekuatan pembeli & pemasok, dll) *Strength: Kekuatan internal meliputi sumberdaya, keterampilan/ keunggulan lainnya relatif terhadap pesaing dan kebutuhan pasar yang dilayani/ ingin dilayani perusahaan. (sumber daya keuangan, citra, dll) *Weaknesses: Kekurangan/ keterbatasan daam sumber daya, keterampilan dan kapabilitas yang menghambat kinerja perusahaan. SWOT ANALYSIS

81 80 Dikemukakan oleh : Thomas L. Wheelen dan J. David Hunger Menggunakan matrix untuk menghasilkan strategi alternatif dengan memanfaatkan EFE dan IFE Langkah-Langkahnya : òPada blok opportunities cantumkan sejumlah opportunities yang diambil dari tabel EFE òPada blok threats cantumkan sejumlah threats yang diambil dari EFE òPada blok strength, cantumkan sejumlah strength yang diambil dari IFE òPada blok weakness cantumkan sejumlah weakness yg diambil dari IFE òDapatkan sejumlah strategi-strategi yang mungkin untuk perusahaan berdasarkan kombinasi dari 4 elemen tersebut ANALISA SWOT (TOWS) MATRIX

82 81 TOWS Matrix –Threats –Opportunities –Strengths –Weaknesses Matching Stage

83 82 Develop four types of strategies –Strengths-Opportunities (SO) –Weaknesses-Opportunities (WO) –Strengths-Threats (ST) –Weaknesses-Threats (WT) TOWS Matrix

84 83 uKuadran SO : posisi yang paling menguntungkan dimana institusi sedang melihat peluang-peluang dan memiliki kekuatan untuk meraihnya uKuadran ST : institusi dengan beberapa kekuatan yang dimilikinya sedang menghadapi ancaman dari luar. Institusi dapat menggunakan kekuatan untuk menciptakan peluang di masa yang akan datang uKuadran WO : institusi sedang melihat peluang tetapi mengalami kendala dalam meraihnya karena perusahaan memiliki kelemahan. Institusi harus dapat mengeliminir kekurangan-kekurangan supaya lebih efektif dalam meraih peluang uKuadran WT : posisi yang paling tidak menyenangkan dimana perusahaan sedang menghadapi ancaman dari luar bersamaan dengan posisinyapun sedang lemah. Institusi bertahan sambil mengkaji ulang keterlibatan institusi dalam pelayanan yang sedang terancam tersebut Kuadran SO, ST, WO, WT

85 84 uStrategi SO : strategi memanfaatkan peluang dengan mendayagunakan kekuatan internal uStrategi ST : strategi untuk menghadapi atau menghidarkan ancaman dengan mendayagunakan kekuatan yang dimiliki uStrategi WO : strategi untuk mengatasi kelemahan dengan cara memanfaatkan peluang yang ada uStrategi WT : strategi yang meminimalkan kelemahan sambil mencegah ancaman yang ada di luar STRATEGI SO, ST, WO, WT

86 85 SO Strategies Use a firm’s internal strengths to take advantage of external opportunities Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths (TOWS) SO Strategies

87 86 WO Strategies Improving internal weaknesses by taking advantage of external opportunities Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths (TOWS) WO Strategies

88 87 ST Strategies Using firm’s strengths to avoid or reduce the impact of external threats. Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths (TOWS) ST Strategies

89 88 WT Strategies Defensive tactics aimed at reducing internal weaknesses and avoiding environmental threats. Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths (TOWS) WT Strategies

90 89 Steps in developing the TOWS Matrix 1. List the firm’s key external opportunities 2. List the firm’s key external threats 3. List the firm’s key internal strengths 4. List the firm’s key internal weaknesses TOWS Matrix

91 90 Developing the TOWS Matrix 5. Match internal strengths with external opportunities and record the resultant SO Strategies 6. Match internal weaknesses with external opportunities and record the resultant WO Strategies 7. Match internal strengths with external threats and record the resultant ST Strategies 8. Match internal weaknesses with external threats and record the resultant WT Strategies TOWS Matrix

92 91 WT Strategies Minimize weaknesses and avoid threats ST Strategies Use strengths to avoid threats Threats-T List Threats WO Strategies Overcome weaknesses by taking advantage of opportunities SO Strategies Use strengths to take advantage of opportunities Opportunities-O List Opportunities Weaknesses-W List Weaknesses Strengths-S List Strengths Leave Blank TOWS Matrix

93 92 OPPORTUNITIES (O) List External Opportinities Here EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS THREATS (T) List External Threats Here S-O Strategies Generate strategies here that use Strenghts to take adventage of opportunities S-T Strategies Generate strategies here that use strenghts to avoid threats W-O Strategies Generate strategies here that take adventage of opportunities by overcoming weaknesses W-T Strategies Generate strategies here that minimize weaknesses and avoid threats STRENGHTS (S) List Internal Strenghts Here WEAKNESSES (W) List Internal Weaknesses Here SWOT MATRIX

94 93 TOWS Matrix

95 94 TOWS Matrix

96 95 TOWS Matrix

97 96 SPACE Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage TOWS Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix FORMULATION FRAMEWORK

98 97 SPACE Matrix SPACE = The Strategic Position and ACtion Evaluation Dikemukakan oleh : R. Howe, R. Mason & K. Dickel Diadaptasi oleh : Fred R. David Menilai seluruh strategic factors Mengolah Ditampilkan pada sistem –koordinat 2 dimensi

99 98 Strategic Position and Action Evaluation Matrix  Four quadrant framework  Determines appropriate strategies  Aggressive  Conservative  Defensive  Competitive SPACE Matrix

100 99 Two Internal Dimensions  Financial Strength [FS]  Competitive Advantage [CA] Two External Dimensions  Environmental Stability [ES]  Industry Strength [IS] SPACE Matrix

101 100 Overall Strategic position determined by: – Financial Strength [FS] – Competitive Advantage [CA] – Environmental Stability [ES] – Industry Strength [IS] SPACE Matrix

102 101 Developing the SPACE Matrix: EFE Matrix IFE Matrix Financial Strength Competitive Advantage Environmental Stability Industry Strength SPACE Matrix

103 102 Select variables to define FS, CA, ES, & IS Assign numerical ranking from +1 (worst) to +6 (best) for FS and IS; Assign numerical ranking from –1 (best) to –6 (worst) for ES and CA. Compute average score for FS, CA, ES, & IS SPACE Matrix

104 103 Environmental Stability (ES) Technological changes Rate of inflation Demand variability Price range of competing products Barriers to entry Competitive pressure Price elasticity of demand Financial Strength (FS) Return on investment Leverage Liquidity Working capital Cash flow Ease of exit from market Risk involved in business External Strategic PositionInternal Strategic Position SPACE Matrix

105 104 Industry Strength (IS) Growth potential Profit potential Financial stability Technological know-how Resource utilization Capital intensify Ease of entry into market Productivity, capacity utilization Competitive Advantage CA Market share Product quality Product life cycle Customer loyalty Competition’s capacity utilization Technological know-how Control over suppliers & distributors External Strategic PositionInternal Strategic Position SPACE Matrix

106 105 FS ES CAIS ConservativeAggressive Defensive Competitive SPACE Matrix

107 106 SPACE Matrix : NIKE

108 107 SPACE Matrix : AMAZON

109 108 -2,50 +0,59 +3,09 +2,75 +0,60 -2,15 Posisi Strategis SO + 0,59 ; + 0,60 Weakness Strength Opportunities Threats Rata-Rata Opportunities = +33/12 = + 2,75 Rata-Rata Threats = -28/13 = - 2,15 Rata-Rata Strength = +34/11 = + 3,09 Rata-Rata Weakness = -15/6 = - -2,50 Koordinat X = +3,09 + (-2,50) = 0,59 Koordinat Y = +2,75 + (-2,15) = 0,60

110 109 Supports an Aggressive Strategy Supports a Turn Oriented Strategy Supports a Diversification Strategy Supports a Difensive Strategy OPPORTUNITIES THREATS WEAKNESSESSTRENGTHS SPACE MATRIX POSISI STRATEGIS PERUSAHAAN

111 110 SPACE Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage TOWS Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Formulation Framework

112 111 Boston Consulting Group Matrix Enhances multidivisional firms’ efforts to formulate strategies Autonomous divisions (or profit centers) constitute the business portfolio Firm’s divisions may compete in different industries requiring separate strategy Graphically portrays differences among divisions Focuses on market share position and industry growth rate Manage business portfolio through relative market share position and industry growth rate BCG Matrix

113 112 DogsIV Cash Cows III Question Marks IStarsII Relative Market Share Position High 1.0 Medium.50 Low 0.0 Industry Sales Growth Rate High +20 Low -20 Medium 0 BCG Matrix

114 113 Kondisi Bisnis Perusahaan Perusahaan dengan satu bisnis Diversifikasi perusahaan yang berhubungan Diversifikasi perusahaan yang tak ada hubungan Bersaing sebagai satu bisnisMembagi kompetensi bisnis satu sama lain Tiap unit bisnis otonom pada pasar yang berbeda-beda Apple Computer McDonald’s Corp. Wrigley Maytag Texas Air Ford Motor P&G Philip Morris Dow-Corning Johnson & Johnson Du Pont Gilette ITT Rockwell GE LTV Textron Litton

115 114 Pendekatan Portofolio Pendekatan portofolio ditandai ciri berikut :  Menguji setiap bisnis perusahaan yang terpisah sebagai elemen portofolio dari total bisnis.  Suatu unit bisnis dalam portofolio perusahaan, pada derajat tertentu, adalah merupakan penghasil (generators) atau penerima (recipients) dari sumber-sumber (resources) perusahaan.  Pendekatan portofolio merupakan cara yang sederhana dan visual untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengevaluasi alternatif strategi guna dapat menghasilkan dan mengalokasikan sumber-sumber perusahaan (corporate resources)

116 115 Matrix BCG ini dibentuk dari empat sel (Matriks 2 X 2) yang mengukur laju pertumbuhan pasar (market growth) pada sumbu vertikal, dan pangsa pasar relatif (relative market share) pada sumbu horizontal Didalam matriks BCG, setiap unit bisnis menempati salah satu dari kategori “tanda tanya”  Question mark  Star  Cash cow  Dogs SUSUNAN MATRIKS BCG

117 116 Matrixs BCG merupakan model yang sederhana dan paling banyak digunakan. Model ini berguna bagi top manager yang membawahi unit bisnis yang berbeda-beda (diversified forms), khususnya untuk mengalokasikan sumber-sumber (resources) dari satu unit ke unit bisnis lainnya. Matriks ini juga digunakan untuk memperkirakan posisi pasar suatu unit bisnis beberapa tahun ke depan bila tidak dilakukan perubahan kebijakan (policies) selama ini MATRIKS BCG

118 117 Bentuk BCG Matrix Relative Market Share StarQuestion Mark DogCash Cow High Market Growth Low WeakStrong

119 118 The Boston Consulting Group’s Growth-Share Matrix 20%- 18%- 16%- 14%- 12%- 10%- 8%- 6%- 4%- 2%- 0 Market Growth Rate 10x 4x 2x 1.5x 1x Relative Market Share.5x.4x.3x.2x.1x Dogs ? Question marks ? ? 2 1 Stars 5 4

120 119 Indikator Cash Flow Beberapa indikator berikut diperlukan dalam penyusunan matriks BCG:  Cash flow merupakan indikator kunci pada matriks BCG  Cash flow merepresentasikan kemampuan dari unit bisnis untuk membangun portofolio-nya  Cash flow dalam matriks BCG dapat dibagi atas:  Pemakaian kas (cash use) karena pangsa pasar relatif (relative market share) di sumbu horizontal  Penerimaan kas (cash generated) karena pertumbuhan pasar (market growth rate) di sumbu vertikal  Relative market share dapat dihitung dari ratio market share unit bisnis dengan market share pesaing tertinggi  Market growth atau pertumbuhan pada industri bersangkutan.

121 120 Asumsi Cash flow vs. posisi bisnis Hubungan antara cash flow perusahaan dengan portofolio bisnisnya dapat terjadi berdasarkan beberapa asumsi :  Profit margin dan penerimaan kas (cash generation) makin besar dengan bertambahnya relative market share, akibat learning curve  Market growth membutuhkan uang tunai (cash used) guna membiayai modal kerja, penambahan kapasitas, dan investasi lainnya  Sebagian unit bisnis membutuhkan uang tunai lebih besar dari pendapatannya, sedang sebagian lain menghasilkan lebih besar dari yang digunakannya  Dalam portofolio perusahaan, cash flow keseluruhan perusahaan harus seimbang, yaitu antara kebutuhan tunai total dengan kemampuan unit-unit usaha dalam menghasilkan uang tunai ditambah pembiayaan dari luar.

122 121 Analisa Cash Flow Relative Market Share StarQuestion Mark DogCash Cow High Market Growth Low WeakStrong Cash generated +++ Cash use Cash generated + Cash use Cash generated +++ Cash use - ++ Cash generated + Cash use - 0

123 122 4 Strategi Utama BCG Matrix  Build market share  Hold market share  Harvest  Divest

124 123 BCG Matrix: Karakteristik Kuadran Relative Market Share Star Earnings: high stable, growing Cash flow: neutral Strategy: hold or invest for growth Question Mark Earnings: low, unstable, growing Cash flow: negative Strategy: build market share or harvest/divest Dog Earnings: low, unstable Cash flow: neutral or negative Strategy: harvest/divest Cash Cow Earnings: high stable Cash flow: high stable Strategy: hold or add market share 30% Market Growth -10%

125 124 Penggunaan Model : Simbol Product A Previous Market Size and Position B Market Share Product A Total Market Product B Market Smaller but firm has greater share

126 125 Plotting Your SBU’s Relative Market Share StarQuestion Mark DogCash Cow 30% Market Growth -10% A B C A C B

127 126 Traditional SBU or Product Path Relative Market Share StarQuestion Mark DogCash Cow 30% Market Growth -10%

128 127 MATRIKS BCG & BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE ? ? ? Question mark Berada pada kuadran 1, dimana relative market share-nya rendah (low), namun dengan market groqth rate yang tinggi (high) Ini mengingat posisi market share yang rendah, menunjukkan cash generated yang rendah pula, dan cash use yang tinggi pada market growth yang tinggi. Dalam kondisi bisnis “question mark” ini perusahaan harus memutuskan untuk memperkuat diri dengan strategi intensif (penetrasi pasar, pengembangan pasar, atau pengembangan produk) atau menjualnya bila pelaksanaan strategi terlalu mahal. Misi yang dituntut dari anak perusahaan ini adalah membangun (build) market share. Dalam daur hidup bisnis, posisi ini terletak pada masa perkenalan atau masa-masa awal bisnis (introduction) perusahaan

129 128 Star MATRIKS BCG & BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE Berada pada kuadran II, menunjukkan baik relative market share dan market growth yang tinggi, serta menunjukkan cash generated maupun cash use yang tinggi pula. Posisi star merupakan posisi dominan yang dikejar setiap perusahaan dan posisi yang paling kuat, namun harus dipertahankan dengan investasi yang memadai. Hal tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan strategi integrasi, strategi intensif atau joint ventures, melalui integrasi ke hilir (forward), ke hulu (backward) atau ke pesaing (horizontal), serta melalui penetrasi pasar, pengembangan pasar, atau pengembangan produk dan joint ventures. Misi yang perlu dilakukan adalah mempertahankan (hold) market share. Posisi “hold” sama dengan siklus pertumbuhan (growth) pada business life cycle.

130 129 Cash cow MATRIKS BCG & BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE Berada pada kuadran III, yaitu dengan relative market share yang tinggi namun market growth-nya rendah. Pada market share yang tinggi, biaya per unit cenderung rendah dan berarti menghasilkan laba yang tinggi. Sebaliknya dengan market growth yang rendah, bisnis dalam keadaan menurun sehingga kurang di perlukan uang tunai untuk keperluan investasi. Unit bisnis ini memiliki keuntungan dan cash flow yang tinggi Misi yang di emban adalah memanen (harvest) keuntungan dan cash flow jangka pendek untuk membiayai bisnis anak perusahaan yang lainnya, dengan pendapatan yang besar, namun dengan pertumbuhan yang rendah

131 130 Dog MATRIKS BCG & BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE Berada pada kuadran IV, berada pada posisi yang lemah dan industri sudah tidak menarik. Biasanya strategi yang baik adalah melakukan divestasi, kecuali masih ada kemungkinan memperbaikinya dengan biaya yang tidak terlalu mahal. Misi yang dilakukan adalah melakukan (divest) bisnis tersebut. Disini perusahaan berada dalam keadaan “declining” atau mengalami siklus menurun.

132 131 KUADRANKATEGORIMISIDAUR HIDUP IQuestion Mark (“?”)BuildIntroduction IIStarsHoldGrowth IIICash CowsHarvestMature IVDogsDivestDecline HUBUNGAN ANTARA KATEGORI BISNIS, MISI DAN DAUR HIDUP

133 132 Keuntungan MATRIKS BCG  Pendekatan yang sederhana pemakaiannya dan disajikan secara visual  Memudahkan penentuan portofolio bisnis dari divisi atau anak perusahaan  Merangsang minat dalam perencanaan strategi  Mendorong perusahaan untuk melihat formulasi strategi sebagai hubungan kerjasama antara unit-unit bisnis yang ada didalam perusahaan  Memperlihatkan bagaimana setiap unit perusahaan memiliki penerimaan dan penggunaan dana tunai (cash flow) yang berbeda- beda terhadap pencapaian tujuan perusahaan.

134 133 Penggunaan tinggi dan rendah pada growth-share matriks untuk empat kategori, terlalu menyederhanakan masalah bisnis. Hubungan antara market share dengan profitabilitas tidak selalu linier karena market share unit bisnis yang rendah masih bisa mendapatkan keuntungan yang besar, bila di pasarkan pada “niche market” Tingkat perrumbuhan yang tinggi tidak selalu yang terbaik. Matriks ini hanya memperhitungkan pesaing yang kuat dengan mengabaikan pesaing-pesaing kecil yang sedang tumbuh dengan cepat. Market growth hanyalah salah satu saja dari faktor daya tarik industri (industry attractiveness) dan market share adalah juga salah satu dari posisi kompettif bisnis. KELEMAHAN MATRIKS BCG

135 134 GE Multifactor Portfolio Matrix Invest/Grow Selectivity /earnings Harvest /Divest Business Strengths Industry Attractiveness High High Medium Medium Low Low

136 135 GE/McKinsey Matrix & Arah Strategis Memposisikan berbagai divisi organisasi dalam 9-sel berdasarkan analisa SWOT dengan weighted scores (dari matriks EFE and IFE). Strategi yang dapat ditempuh, adalah:  Grow and build (divisi pada sel 1, 2 or 4): market penetration, market development, product development or backward, forward and horizontal integration.  Hold and maintain (divisi pada sel 3, 5, 7): market penetration or product development.  Harvest or divest (divisi pada cells 6, 8, 9): divest, liquidate, or retrench.

137 136 Earn/ 7 Protect (hold) Dominate/ 3 Delay/ divest Earn/ 5 Protect (hold) Invest/Grow 2 Selectively (build) Invest/Grow 1 Strongly (build) Invest/Grow 4 Selectively (build) Harvest/ 6 divest Harvest/ 8 divest Business Strengths Industry Attractiveness High Medium Low Harvest/ 9 divest GE Multifactor Portfolio Matrix

138 137 ADL Portfolio Matrix Industry Maturity (Attractiveness) Competitive Position Embrionic Dominant Growing Favorable Mature Weak Divest Harvest Hold Niche Improve Selective Invest Aging Tenable Strong Consolidate Maintain Liquidate Selective

139 138 Penggunaan ADL Matrix  ADL Matrix adalah matriks yang dibuat oleh konsultan Arthur D. Little sebagai penyempurnaan dari GE/McKinsey Matrix  Perbedaannya: Pada ADL Matrix di-plotkan posisi daya saing (competitive position) perusahaan terhadap tahap- tahap siklus hidup (life cyclus dari produk, pasar, dan industri.  Penggunaan ketiga matriks dalam proses portofolio bisnis barangkali akan memberikan hasil yang lebih baik.

140 139 Illustrasi: Analisa Portofolio Internasional Dominate/ Divest/ Joint Venture Selective Strategies Invest/Grow Competitive Strengths Country Attractiveness High Medium Low Harvest/ Divest/ Combine/ License Country’s Attractiveness:  Market size,  Market rate of growth,  Regulasi pemerintah,  Faktor ekonomi,  Politik, dll. Product’s Competitive Strength:  Market share,  Product fit,  Contribution margin,  Market support, dll.

141 140 SPACE Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage TOWS Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Formulation Framework

142 141 Matriks Internal-External adalah salah satu alat yang dapat digunakan untuk memposisikan perusahaan kedalam matriks yang terdiri atas 9 sel, untuk menyusun strategi perusahaan/grand strategy. IE Matrix terdiri atas sumbu X yang menyatakan skor total dari IFE matrix (IFAS) dan sumbu Y yang menyatakan skor total EFE matrix (EFAS) Arti posisi internal pada sumbu X dan posisi eksternal pada sumbu Y adalah sebagai berikut : POSISI INTERNAL POSISI INTERNAL POSISI INTERNAL LEMAH RATA-RATA KUAT POSISI EXTERNAL POSISI EXTERNAL POSISI EXTERNAL RENDAH SEDANG TINGGI POSISI PADA SUMBU X POSISI PADA SUMBU Y INTERNAL EXTERNAL (IE) MATRIX

143 142 POSISI I, II, IV Posisi perusahaan yang menempati sel I, II & IV dapat digambarkan sebagai GROW & BUILD. Strategi yang cocok untuk masing-masing posisi sel ini adalah : Intensive (market penetration, market development & product development) atau integration (backward integration, forward integration, horizontal integration) POSISI III, V, VII Posisi yang menempati sel III, V & VII dapat digambarkan sebagai HOLD & MAINTAIN. Strategi yang cocok untuk masing-masing posisi sel ini adalah : Market penetration & product development. POSISI VI, VIII, IX Posisi perusahaan yang menempati sel VI, VIII & IX dapat menggunakan strategi HARVEST or DIVESTITURE 9 SEL POSISI MATRIKS INTERNAL-EKSTERNAL

144 143 VII IV I VIII V II IX VI III 4,0 TINGGI 3,0 RATA 2,0 RENDAH 1,0 4,0 KUAT 3,0 RATA-RATA 2,0 LEMAH 1,0 SKOR TOTAL EFE/ EFAS SKOR TOTAL IFE/IFAS 9 SEL POSISI MATRIKS INTERNAL-EKSTERNAL

145 144 IE MATRIX : AMAZON

146 145 SPACE Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage TOWS Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Formulation Framework

147 146 Popular tool for formulating alternative strategies All organizations (or divisions) can be positioned in one of four quadrants Based on two evaluative dimensions: – Competitive position – Market growth Grand Strategy Matrix

148 147 Quadrant IV 1. Concentric diversification 2. Horizontal diversification 3. Conglomerate diversification 4. Joint ventures Quadrant III 1. Retrenchment 2. Concentric diversification 3. Horizontal diversification 4. Conglomerate diversification 5. Liquidation Quadrant I 1. Market development 2. Market penetration 3. Product development 4. Forward integration 5. Backward integration 6. Horizontal integration 7. Concentric diversification Quadrant II 1. Market development 2. Market penetration 3. Product development 4. Horizontal integration 5. Divestiture 6. Liquidation RAPID MARKET GROWTH SLOW MARKET GROWTH WEAK COMPETITIVE POSITION STRONG COMPETITIVE POSITION

149 148 Quadrant I Excellent strategic position Concentration on current markets and products Take risks aggressively when necessary Grand Strategy Matrix

150 149 Quadrant II Evaluate present approach seriously How to change to improve competitiveness Rapid market growth requires intensive strategy Grand Strategy Matrix

151 150 Quadrant III Compete in slow-growth industries Weak competitive position Drastic changes quickly Cost and asset reduction indicated (retrenchment) Grand Strategy Matrix

152 151 Quadrant IV Strong competitive position Slow-growth industry Diversification indicated to more promising growth areas Grand Strategy Matrix

153 152 Grand Strategy Matrix : Amazon

154 153 Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) Stage 3: The Decision Stage Formulation Framework

155 154 Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix Only technique designed to determine the relative attractiveness of feasible alternative actions QSPM

156 155 Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix Tool for objective evaluation of alternative strategies Based on identified external and internal crucial success factors Requires good intuitive judgment QSPM

157 156 Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix List the firm’s key external opportunities & threats; list the firm’s key internal strengths and weaknesses Assign weights to each external and internal critical success factor QSPM

158 157 Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix Examine the Stage 2 (matching) matrices and identify alternative strategies that the organization should consider implementing Determine the Attractiveness Scores (AS) QSPM

159 158 Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix Compute the total Attractiveness Scores Compute the Sum Total Attractiveness Score QSPM

160 159 Key Internal Factors Management Marketing Finance/Accounting Production/Operations Research and Development Computer Information Systems Strategy 3Strategy 2Strategy 1WeightKey External Factors Economy Political/Legal/Governmental Social/Cultural/Demographic/ Environmental Technological Competitive Strategic Alternatives QSPM

161 160 QSPM

162 161 Limitations: Requires intuitive judgments and educated assumptions Only as good as the prerequisite inputs QSPM

163 162 Positives: Sets of strategies examined simultaneously or sequentially Requires the integration of pertinent external and internal factors in the decision-making process QSPM

164 163 Culture: The set of shared values, beliefs, attitudes, customs, norms, personalities, heroes, and heroines that describe a firm Cultural Aspects of Strategy Choice

165 164 Culture: Successful strategies depend on degree of support from a firm’s culture Cultural Aspects of Strategy Choice

166 165 Politics in organizations: Management hierarchy Career aspirations Allocation of scarce resources Politics of Strategy Choice

167 166 Political tactics for strategists: Equifinality Satisfying Generalization Focus on Higher-Order Issues Provide Political Access on Important Issues Politics of Strategy Choice

168 167 Duties and Responsibilities: 1.Control and oversight over management 2.Adherence to legal prescriptions 3.Consideration of stakeholder interests 4.Advancement of stockholders’ rights Role of A Board of Directors

169 Discussion Nike vs Reebok Kijang vs Kuda Nokia vs Sony Ericson What type’s of strategies?

170 Discussion Pepsi vs Coke Mc Donald vs KFC Who will be winner?

171 This is the end of the PRESENTATION Ir. Erlinda Muslim, MEE Nip Strategy Analysis and Choice


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