Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

KARSINOGENESIS dr ASWIYANTI ASRI,M.Si.Med,SpPA BLOK 2.1.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "KARSINOGENESIS dr ASWIYANTI ASRI,M.Si.Med,SpPA BLOK 2.1."— Transcript presentasi:

1 KARSINOGENESIS dr ASWIYANTI ASRI,M.Si.Med,SpPA BLOK 2.1

2 Karsinogenesis the process by which a normal cell is transformed into a malignant cell and repeatedly divides to become a cancer.

3 Key Concepts Kanker berasal dari satu sel Kanker terjadi karena mutasi somatik – Genetic change : mutasi DNA – Epigenetic change : perubahan ekspresi gen tanpa perubahan DNA Mutasi tunggal belum cukup untuk menyebabkan kanker Kanker berkembang dari aberasi ringan sel – Insidens kanker paru meningkat tahun sejak mulai merokok

4 Key Concepts Karsinogen adalah mutagen yang mempunyai potensial untuk berinteraksi dengan DNA. Bahan kimiawi yang dapat menginisiasi karsinogenesis disebut karsinogen kimiawi Bahan kimia yang non-karsinogenik atau karsinogenik lemah dapat meningkatkan efektivitas karsinogen kimiawi; bahan ini disebut kokarsinogen. Kokarsinogen bekerja dengan mengubah uptake atau metabolisme karsinogen oleh sel.

5 Non-lethal Genetic damage lies at the center of carcinogenesis. Loss/damage to suppressor genes, Duplication of promotor genes Loss/damage to Apoptosis genes Loss/damage of DNA repair genes.

6 Istilah Carcinogenesis: Pathogenesis of cancer Carcinogen - agent causing cancer. Oncogen - agent causing neoplasm. Mutagen - agent causing mutation. Oncogenes – genes causing cancer p-onc, v-onc – Proto/viral/ - naming of oncogenes.

7 Karsinogen – bahan yang sudah diketahui menyebabkan kanker atau meningkatkan insidens kanker pada manusia atau hewan – Penyebab sebagian besar kanker : unknown – Multifaktorial – Karsinogen yang sudah dikenal hanya sedikit – Agen “lingkungan” yang belum teridentifikasi sebagai karsinogen : berperan dalam 95% kejadian kanker

8 Karsinogen  Chemicals  Biologic : Viruses, bacteria  Physics : Radiation Hereditary causes- Genetic defects. Combination – common.

9 Klasifikasi karsinogen Genotoxic – bekerja langsung pada DNA atau pada ekspresi DNA saat proses translasi DNA replication errors. Point mutations. Chromosomal aberration. Epigenetic – Non-DNA reactive. – Potentiators. – Ex.: hormone, immune function modifiers

10 Chemical capable of producing cancer by directly altering the genetic material of target cells. 1- Direct carcinogens (no metabolic activation). – Alkylating agents. 2-Indirect carcinogens (metabolic activation). – Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. – Aromatic amines. – Nitrosamines. – Natural substances. 3– Inorganic carcinogens. 4- Ni, Cr, Cd, As.

11 Epigenetic Carcinogen Cytotoxic carcinogens. – Nitrillotriacetate, BHA, BHT. Tumor promotors. – DDT, Dioxin Hormones. – Estradiol, DES Immunosuppressants. – Cyclosporin A Particulates. – Asbestos.

12  Agents Causing Neoplasia  Chemical Oncogenesis  Radiation Oncogenesis  Viral Oncogenesis  Nutritional Oncogenesis  Hormonal Oncogenesis  Genetic Oncogenesis

13 1 - Chemical Carcinogenesis Chemical carcinogens adalah electrophiles atau dapat dimetabolisme menjadi electrophiles (melalui aktivasi metabolik). Electrophiles ini dapat bereaksi dengan nucleophilic centers (predominantly N and O and to some extent S) dalam makromolekul selular seperti DNA, RNA dan protein. Jenis Proximate or direct-acting : act locally without metabolic change Indirect acting : carcinogenic only after being metabolised into active compounds (procarcinogen  ultimate carcinogen)

14

15 Industrial Exposures  Benzidine Urinary Bladder  Vinyl Chloride Liver Mesenchyme  Certain tars Skin and  Asbestos Peritoneum (lungs when combined with cigarette smoking)  Benzene Lymphoid Tissue Other Exposures  Diethylstilbestrol VaginaI  Arsenic Compounds Skin cancer  Cigarette Smoke Lungs, urinary tract  Betal Nut Buccal Mucosa

16 1 - Chemical Carcinogenesis – Mode of carcinogenesis Inducing changes in DNA – eg. Base alkylation, deletion, breakage, cross-linkage Epigenetic mechanisms Synergistic action with viruses Promoter for other carcinogens – Difficulties in identifying carcinogen Numerous industrial, agricultural, household chemicals present in low levels Exposed to large number of chemicals in a lifetime Long lag phase

17 2 – Radiation Oncogenesis – Jenis Ultraviolet X-ray Radioisotopes Nuclear Fallout – Mode of oncogenesis Direct effect on DNA Activation of cellular oncogenes

18 2 – Radiation Oncogenesis Radiasi ionisasi : 2 mekanisme – Ionisasi langsung – merusak DNA dan molekul lainnya, mutasi somatik – Efektor sekunder seperti radikal bebas yang terbentuk. Radikal bebas akan merusak, membunuh sel dan menginduksi mutasi X Ray workers – Leukemia Radio-isotopes – Thyroid carcinoma Atomic explosion – Skin cancer, Leukemia

19

20

21

22 2 – Radiation Oncogenesis – Radiasi UV Nonionisasi skin cancers – squamous CA, basal cell CA, malignant melanoma Kulit terang dan orang tua Sinar UV menginduksi cross-linkages antara molekul DNA dan karsinogenesis terjadi bila mekanisme repair tidak efisien

23

24

25

26

27 2 – Radiation Oncogenesis – X-ray radiation Earlier use of X-rays caused skin cancer, leukemia and papillary thyroid CA Radiotherapy causes raditation-induced malignancy yrs later – usually sarcomas Diagnostic X-rays are considered to have no increased risk except in abdominal x-rays which increase incidence of leukemia in the fetus

28 2 – Radiation Oncogenesis – Radioisotopes Osteosarcoma banyak diantara pekerja pabrik yang menggunakan cat mengandung radium Pertambangan mineral radioaktif di Eropa dan Asia berkaitan dengan kanker paru Thorium meningkatkan risiko kanker hepar– hepatocellular, angiosarcoma, cholangiocarcinoma Radioactive iodine – meningkatkan risiko kanker tahun kemudian – Nuclear Fallout Hiroshima, Nagasaki (atomic blasts) Marshall islands (atmospheric testing of nuclear divide containing radioactive iodine) Chernobyl, 1986

29 3 – Viral Oncogenesis – Jenis Oncogenic RNA Viruses Oncogenic DNA Viruses – Mode of Oncogenesis RNA Virus DNA Virus Human Papilloma Virus – Cervical neoplasia – warts, papilloma, ca cx Epstein-Barr virus – – Burkitts Lymphoma, KNF. Hepatitis B & C virus – Hepatocellular carcinoma.

30 3 – Viral Oncogenesis Virus berperan dalam patogenesis keganasan dengan mengintegrasikan elemen genetik virus kedalam DNA inang. Gen baru ini diekspresikan oleh sel inang; pertumbuhan sel atau pembelahan sel atau merusak gen normal yang berfungsi mengontrol pertumbuhan dan pembelahan sel. Infeksi virus juga menyebabkan disfungsi imun, sehingga terjadi penurunan immune surveillance untuk tumor yang baru terbentuk Insersi asam nukleat virus  mutasi Perubahan onkogen, gen supresor tumor dan gen DNA repair mengakibatkan “up-regulation“ pembelahan sel  Carcinogenesis.

31 3 – Viral Oncogenesis – Deteksi viral genome Identifikasi sekuens asam nukleat spesifik virus dengan hibridisasi probe DNA/RNA Pengenalan antigen spesifik virus dalam sel yang terinfeksi Deteksi virus-specific mRNA

32 4 – Nutritional Oncogenesis – Hubungan kanker dengan diet – Contoh Low-fiber diet dan KKR Fatty diet dan kanker payudara Daun sirih dan oral cancer – Agen protektif– ?efek antioksidan perlu konfirmasi Beta-carotene Vitamin C, E Selenium

33

34

35

36

37 5 – Hormonal Oncogenesis – Types Induction of Neoplasms by Hormones Dependence of Neoplasms on Hormones – Hormones inducing Neoplasms Estrogen – breast cancer Diethylstilbestrol (DES) – vaginal and uterine cancer

38 5 – Hormonal Oncogenesis – Neoplasma yang tergantung faktor hormonal Neoplasma yang tidak disebabkan oleh hormon tetapi tergantung pada hormon untuk dapat tumbuh optimal Sel neoplastik mempunyai reseptor hormon Hilangnya stimulasi hormon memperlambat tetapi tidak menghentikan pertumbuhan Contoh – Kanker prostat – Kanker payudara – Kanker tiroid

39 6 - Genetic Oncogenesis (Role of Inheritance) – Types Mendelian inheritance Polygenic inheritance Association with inherited diseases – Mendelian Inheritance Dominant Recessive Examples – Retinoblastoma – Wilm’s tumor – Others » Neurofibromatosis (type 1 von Recklinghausen’s disease) » Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEN) » Familial polyposis coli » Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

40 6 - Genetic Oncogenesis (Role of Inheritance) – Polygenic Inheritance Neoplasms occuring in related individuals more often than expected on the basis of chance – Breast CA – Colon CA – Association with Inherited Diseases Many inherited diseases are associated with higher risk of neoplasia Types : – Syndromes characterised by increased chromosomal fragility – Syndromes of immunodeficiency

41 Hypotheses of the Origin of Neoplasia Multiple Hits and Multiple Factors – Knudson : carcinogenesis memerlukan 2 hits 1 st event – initiation – Carcinogen = initiator 2 nd event – promotion – Agent = promoter – Multiple hits occur – 5 or more Each hit produces a change in the genome which is transmitted to its progeny (ie. clone) – Lag period Time between exposure (first hit) and development of clinically apparent cancer Altered cell shows no abnormality during lag period

42

43 Karsinogenesis Inisiasi – Kerusakan DNA eg.Benzpyrene Promosi – Perubahan histologik– eg. Turpentine (co-carcinogens) Malignant transformation/Progresi : – Pembentukan tumor yang visible – kerusakan DNA berlanjut

44 Initiation - point at which an irreversible alteration, usually genetic, is introduced into a target cell. (genotoxicity)=Interaction with DNA Konversi proto-oncogen menjadi oncogen Inisiasi: (1) irreversible (2) carcinogenic compounds (3) Segera setelah paparan karsinogen (4) Inisiasi saja tidak menyebabkan terbentuknya tumor Beberapa paparan terhadap inisiator dapat menyebabkan terbentuknya tumor tanpa adanya promoter.

45

46 Promotion is the process whereby an initiated tissue or organ develop focal proliferations and it requires the presence of continuous stimulation. A promotor: is a substance which doesn't damage DNA but enhance growth of tumor induced by genotoxic carcinogens e.g.: skin cancer in mice can be induced by application of benzo [ α ] pyrene ( initiator) followed by phorbol ester from cotton oil ( promoter). Promotion (1) reversible (2) acts only after exposure to an initiating agent (3) requires repeated administration of a promoter (4) is not carcinogenic in itself

47

48  Perubahan menetap gen dalam sel yang terinisiasi  Mutasi lain atau faktor epigenetik dapat mengubah fenotipe keganasan, invasi dan metastasis

49

50

51 Etiology and Pathogenesis of Neoplasia Initiation and Promotion

52

53

54  Perubahan ekspresi gen pada tingkat transkripsi, translasi atau posttranslasi  Penyebab  Metilasi DNA  Histone deacetylation  Perubahan stabilitas mRNA  Fosforilasi protein  Trafficking  Protein binding/complexing  Cell-cell communication

55

56

57

58

59


Download ppt "KARSINOGENESIS dr ASWIYANTI ASRI,M.Si.Med,SpPA BLOK 2.1."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google