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Coastal Resource Management (CRM) (Disarikan dari: GIS Asia Pacific, June/July 1997) Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia Dr. Aniati Murni.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Coastal Resource Management (CRM) (Disarikan dari: GIS Asia Pacific, June/July 1997) Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia Dr. Aniati Murni."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Coastal Resource Management (CRM) (Disarikan dari: GIS Asia Pacific, June/July 1997) Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia Dr. Aniati Murni

2 –Marine Life Mangrove forests Variety of flora and fauna –The cause of degradation Population growth rate Conflict between land protection and resource use Within ten years the mangrove forest area was decreasing from 6000 ha to 400 ha –Coastal Management Main constraint of coastal sustainability: lack of information center that provide spatial and non-spatial data at the local government The data is required by the decision makers to make rational judgement and plan the allocation of resources to ensure their optimum socio-economic utilization and conservation I. CRM di Cebu (Phillipine) dan India

3 –Objectives Assist planners and decision makers to integrate zone planning and management Make the generated information accessible to target users CEIS is based on spatial and non-spatial geo-referenced videos and images. CEIS: Coastal Environmental Information System

4 –Geographic themes - Several data layers - multitemporal: Land terrain Underwater terrain Land Use Land cover Marine habitats Marine activities Environmental Management Projects Hydrology Infrastructure Socio-economic profile Administrative boundaries m elevation on land, 0-23 m nearshore area, up to 15 km seaward data were collecting using boat covering and GPS technology Diversity of coral, algae and sea grass and habitat structure were collected by scuba divers CEIS Data Development

5 –Environmental Impacts High sedimentation caused by erosion Use of dynamite and poisons for catching fish that will also destroy the coral heads Discharge of untreated waste and pollutants from industry and mining that cause river biologically dead - need waste water treatment and garbage collection system Illegal commercial fishing vessels into protected municipal waters Habitat degradation caused by tourism activities such as facilities for aquasport As a result: Only 10% of Cebu corals are in excellent condition; only 27% of Cebu shoreline still contain natural mangrove vegetation; mangroves have been cleared for conversion into fishponds and prawn farms CEIS Data Development (continuation)

6 –Cause of degradation: Mangrove is the most important ecosystem in coastal environment There is a combination factors of direct destruction and indirect climate and sea level fluctuations Growing population resulting in vandalism and destruction of mangrove areas Rice farmers grow salt-tolerant paddy (agriculture development), mangrove areas have also changed to shrimp ponds (industry program), mining and coastal development –Support of mangrove sustainability Intertidal slope and heavy siltation Mangrove forest product –Mangrove forest product Wood, Variety of fish, Honey, Wax, various chemical and medicines Managing Mangrove Forest (1)

7 –Aquaculture The fish and shrimp production is related to the gradient of salinity in the mangroves. Diminishing freshwater inflows, increasing soil salinity, interfering nutrient supply can reduce mangroves. –Forest conservation Mangroves should be conserved to retain coastal biodiversity and to prevent coastal erosion Provide temporal data of mangrove so that various physical and ecological changes can be monitored Orbital remote sensing data, land survey and time series data will provide the temporal data Landsat TM is suitable for forest classification and deforestation detection SAR X-band can give better discrimination of mangrove forest categories A study on human dependency on mangrove product is being conducted. Their dependency includes fuel wood and timber. An energy plantation is promoted to overcome this problem. Managing Mangrove Forest (2)

8 –Temporal data (Red = Mangrove Area, an area in India) Managing Mangrove Forest (3) Data of 1986 Data of 1993

9 –It is important to acquire the scientific knowledge that can provide governments and other relevant decision makers with insight into the consequences of their decisions –Conventional ground-base assessments, aerial photography, and especially airborne/spacecraft remote sensing with their large spatial coverage, repeatability, density of information makes it a very useful tool for base inventory and long term monitoring of extensive and remote coastlines. –THEMAP system High spatial /ground resolution (0.5 – 5 m) and high spectral resolution (15-20 spectral measurements) are required. Three spectral channel (conventional measurements), five channels for vegetation, five channels for in-water measurements, and three channels for soil discriminations II. Coastal Management in Australia

10 –Object classes: toxic blue and green algae blooms, harmless algae, information makes it a very useful tool for base inventory and long term monitoring of extensive and remote coastlines. –Toxic algae bisa tumbuh di kedangkalan sungai yang biasanya dekat dengan tempat rekreasi dan ini bisa membahayakan manusia. Keadaan ini bisa diindikasikan dengan informasi / pemetaan tingkat aliran sungai dan tingkat kandungan chlorophyl. –Pemetaan ini bisa dilakukan dari high spectral resolution CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization) system and THEMAP software yang bisa memonitor sampai 3m ground resolution dengan biaya lebih murah dibandingkan dengan surface sampling yang biasanya mempunyai interval pengamatan sampai beberapa ratus meter. Mapping and Measuring Water Quality

11 –Coastal Zone Mapping Kwalitas air di sekitar pantai perlu dijaga (bay) Kwalitas air dapat dimonitor terus dengan mengamati komunitas yang hidup di dasar pantai (dengan kedalaman lebih dari 10 m) seperti rumput laut dan cacing laut Basis data yang perlu dibangun meliputi kebiasaan mencari ikan, pengelolaan zone pantai, monitoring lingkungan, kwalitas air, urban development dan under-water communities monitoring CSIRO dan THEMAP system pernah dicobakan dengan terbang, mengumpulkan data dan sekaligus memproses data di atas Jawa Timur dan Bali. Pada saat mendarat langsung telah diperoleh peta tematik land use, forestry plantation dan lingkungan pantai Terutama untuk pemetaan forestry plantation seluruh area tersebut dapat dilakukan dalam hitungan minggu dibanding dengan metode ground survey yang akan memakan beberapa bulan. Environmental Baselines

12 –Mangrove merupakan variable penting pada ekosistem pantai Kelestariannya ditentukan oleh aktivitas manusia dan alam Sedimentasi yang tinggi tidak menyehatkan mangrove dan kelestarian daerah perikanan menjadi terancam Mangrove mendukung rantai makanan kehidupan laut yang akan menyelamatkan larva dan fauna yang dibutuhkan pada perikanan –Untuk menyelamatkan mangrove Diperlukan pemetaan (informasi spatial kontesktual) dari struktur keragaman dan proses dinamik yang terjadi pada zone yang ingin diamati Sensitive Ecological Area: Human and Mangroves

13 –Mata pencarian utama penduduk (mono kultural) adalah sugar cane. Mangrove paling dekat dengan pantai adalah jenis rhizophora dan jenis-jenis lain yang lebih tahan garam ada pada lokasi yang lebih jauh dari pantai. Pada musim laut pasang, air laut masuk ke muara sungai yang merubah kwalitas air sungai Peta Bio-diversity

14 –Untuk membedakan jenis mangrove dapat dilakukan dengan mengukur biomass daun atau indeks vegetasi (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI) yang berkorelasi dengan Leaf-Area-Index (LAI) Peta Vegetasi

15 –Fully digital – resolusi tinggi, memerlukan storage yang besar ( ha, resolusi 1m, 20 channels perlu 2.5 Gb) –Memerlukan komputer dengan speed tinggi, dengan PC perlu 2-week processing, dengan Silicon Graphics diharap bisa dalam 1-2 hari –Memerlukan expert yang kompeten dalam menggunakan THEMAP –Tidak dapat menembus awan, akan ditambah sensor radar yang dapat menembus hutan (foliage penetration radar) –Banyak customer yang tidak begitu mantap bila fully digital dan tidak melihat bentuk photonya Kelemahan THEMAP

16 –Geomatic karena menggabungkan digital imaging spectrometer sensor, soft photogrammetric technology dan GIS yang dapat menghasilkan suatu GIS dan DSS untuk manager dan policy-makers –Integrasi dari beberapa teknologi: Airborne imaging spectrometer sensors Advanced hyperspectral measurement Photogrammetry software Modeling teknologi THEMAP Integrated and Geomatic System


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