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1 IKI20210 Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Kuliah no. 1: Pendahuluan 14 Februari 2003 Bobby Nazief Qonita Shahab

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 IKI20210 Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Kuliah no. 1: Pendahuluan 14 Februari 2003 Bobby Nazief Qonita Shahab"— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 IKI20210 Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Kuliah no. 1: Pendahuluan 14 Februari 2003 Bobby Nazief Qonita Shahab bahan kuliah: Sumber: 1. Hamacher. Computer Organization, ed Materi kuliah CS61C/2000 & CS152/1997, UCB.

2 2 IKI20210 °Pengantar Organisasi Komputer “Mata kuliah ini mengajarkan dasar-dasar organisasi komputer sekuensial, yang terdiri dari komponen-komponen: input, output, memori, dan prosesor (kontrol dan datapath), melalui pemrograman dengan bahasa assembly.” °Prasyarat: Pengantar Sistem Digital Konsep Pemrograman I °Bobot: 3 SKS °Buku Acuan: V. Carl Hamacher, dkk. Computer Organization. Edisi ke-5. McGraw-Hill, David Patterson & John Hennessy. Computer Organization & Design: The Hardware/Software Interface. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.

3 3 Administrasi Perkuliahan °Penilaian: Tugas:30%(5 tugas pemrograman + PR) UTS:30% UAS:40% °Jadwal Kuliah: Rabu: 8:00 – 9:40 WIB Jumat: 8:00 – 8:50 WIB °Jadwal Ujian: UTS: 16 April 2003 UAS: Juni 2003

4 4 Organisasi Sistem Komputer

5 5 I/O systemProcessor Compiler Operating System (Windows 98) Application (Netscape) Digital Design Circuit Design Instruction Set Architecture °Koordinasi dari berbagai tingkat abstraksi Datapath & Control transistors Memory Hardware Software Assembler 20210

6 6 Tingkat-tingkat Abstraksi Organisasi Komputer °Application S/W MS Word  computer as electronic type-writer MS Excel  computer as electronic calculator °System S/W Compilers  computer as translator (source to executable program) Operating Systems  computer as machine that executes programs, stores files, prints content of files to printers, communicate with other computers °Instruction Set What basic operations can be carried out What, where, and how data can be stored & retrieved in/from memory How can data be exchanged to the outside “world” °Computer H/W The 5 components: Datapath, Control, Memory, Input, Output

7 7 Tingkat-tingkat Bahasa Pemrograman High Level Language Program (e.g., C) Assembly Language Program (e.g.,AVR) Machine Language Program (AVR) Control Signal Specification Compiler Assembler Machine Interpretation A = 25; B = 8; C = A * B; ldsr1,0x100 lds r2,0x102 addr1,r2 sts0x104, r °°°° 20210

8 8 Organisasi Bahasa Pemrograman Java Java Language Java Virtual Machine Operating System Computer H/W byte code JVM dapat langsung berhubungan dgn h/w

9 9 5 Komponen Utama Komputer Processor (active) Computer Control (“brain”) Datapath (“brawn”) Memory (passive) (where programs, data live when running) Devices Input Output Keyboard, Mouse Display, Printer Disk (where programs, data live when not running)

10 10 Contoh-contoh (Organisasi) Komputer

11 11 Contoh: Komputer Berbasis Pentium Processor/Memory Bus PCI Bus I/O Busses

12 12 Contoh: Komputer Berbasis SPARCstation20 °TI SuperSPARC tm TMS390Z50 in Sun SPARCstation20 Floating-point Unit Integer Unit Inst Cache Ref MMU Data Cache Store Buffer Bus Interface SuperSPARC L2 $ CC MBus Module MBus L64852 MBus control M-S Adapter SBus DRAM Controller SBus DMA SCSI Ethernet STDIO serial kbd mouse audio RTC Boot PROM Floppy SBus Cards

13 13 Contoh: Microcontroller AT90S8515

14 14 Struktur (Umum) Interkoneksi Antar-Komponen Proc Caches Processor-Memory Bus Memory I/O Devices: Controllers adapters Disks Displays Keyboards Networks Semua komponen memiliki organisasi & antar-muka I/O Bus

15 15 Outline Materi Kuliah °Konsep-konsep Dasar Stored Program Computer Instruction Set °Set Instruksi/Pemrograman °Input/Output °Memori °Aritmatika °Prosesor Datapath Control Unit °Pipeline

16 16 Generasi Komputer °I: ’46 – ’57: UNIVAC 1103 Bahasa Rakitan Vacuum Tube instruksi/detik °II: ’58 – ’64: IBM 7094 Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi (Fortran, Cobol), Kompilator Transistor I/O & Processor Parallelism instruksi/detik °III: ’65 – ’71: IBM System/360, DEC PDP-8 Sistem Operasi Small- & Medium-scale Integrated Circuit (IC) Cache & Virtual Memory, Microprogramming, Pipelining, Parallelism instruksi/detik °IV: ’72 – ’77: Apple IIe, IBM PC Large Scale Integrated Circuit (LSI) Microprocessor, PC instruksi/detik °IV: ’78 – …: – Pentium IV, MIPS, Sparc, PowerPC Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSI) instruksi/detik

17 17 Tren Teknologi

18 18 Tren Teknologi: Kapasitas Mikroprosesor 2X transistors/Chip Every 1.5 years Called “Moore’s Law” Alpha 21264: 15 million Pentium Pro: 5.5 million PowerPC 620: 6.9 million Alpha 21164: 9.3 million Sparc Ultra: 5.2 million Moore’s Law

19 19 Tren Teknologi: Kinerja Prosesor 1.54X/yr Processor performance increase/year, mistakenly referred to as Moore’s Law (transistors/chip)

20 20 Tren Teknologi: Kapasitas Memori (1 Chip DRAM) year size(Megabit) Now 1.4X/yr, or doubling every 2 years 4000X since 1980

21 21 Teknologi Komputer  Perubahan Dramatis °Prosessor 2X lebih cepat setiap 1,5 tahun 100X lebih cepat dalam dekade terakhir °Memori Kapasitas DRAM: 2x / 2 years Kecepatan Memori: meningkat 10% per tahun Biaya per bit: membaik 25% per tahun Kapasitas meningkat 64X dalam dekade terakhir °Disk Kapasitas disk: > 2X setiap 1,0 tahun Biaya per bit: membaik 100% per tahun Kapasitas meningkat 120X dalam dekade terakhir

22 22 Bicycle Computer (Embedded) °P. Brain wireless heart monitor strap record 5 measures: speed, time, current distance, elevation and heart rate Every 10 to 60 sec. 8KB data  33 hours Stores information so can be uploaded through a serial port into PC to be analyzed Speed Altitude Heart Rate Dramatic change !!!


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