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April 24, 2008SA/DSE1 An Overview of Computer System & Computer Network (KU1072 – week1) KU1072 Introduction to IT B, ITB Saiful Akbar Data & Software.

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Presentasi berjudul: "April 24, 2008SA/DSE1 An Overview of Computer System & Computer Network (KU1072 – week1) KU1072 Introduction to IT B, ITB Saiful Akbar Data & Software."— Transcript presentasi:

1 April 24, 2008SA/DSE1 An Overview of Computer System & Computer Network (KU1072 – week1) KU1072 Introduction to IT B, ITB Saiful Akbar Data & Software Eng. Research Division School of Electrical Eng. & Informatics

2 April 24, 2008SA/DSE2 Topics  Computer System (ch. 2-4)  Computer Network & Internet (ch. 8- 9)

3 April 24, 2008SA/DSE3 Referensi  Bahan presentasi ini diambil/dimodifikasi dari : G. Beekman & M. J. Quinn, Tomorrow’s Technology and You (Ch 2-4, 8-9) William F. Slater III, Internet History and Growth, Chicago Chapter of the Internet Society, September 2002 Social & Ethical Issues

4 April 24, 2008SA/DSE4 Computer System

5 April 24, 2008SA/DSE5 Computer System - Objectives  Bagaimana komputer menyimpan dan memanipulasi informasi  Struktur dasar dan organisasi komputer  Fungsi dan interaksi komponen internal sistem komputer  Beberapa contoh alat masukan dan bagaimana alat-alat tersebut memudahkan untuk memberikan data/informasi dengan jenis berbeda kepada komputer  Beberapa contoh alat keluaran dan penjelasan bagaimana alat-alat ini membuat komputer menjadi lebih bermanfaat  Tiga kategori perangkat lunak dan saling keterkaitannya  Peranan sistem operasi pada sistem komputer modern Computer System

6 April 24, 2008SA/DSE6 Basic Functions & Components Input-Process/Store-Output Input devices –Keyboards and pointing devices (mouse) Output devices –Display or video monitor –Printer –Speakers Central Processing Unit (CPU) Memory & Storage devices Computer System

7 April 24, 2008SA/DSE7  Merupakan suatu kumpulan sirkuit elektronik yang rumit dan ‘luar biasa’  Menginterpretasi dan mengeksekusi perintah- perintah yang ada dalam program  Dirakit/ditempatkan dengan ‘chips’ dan komponen elektronik lain pada motherboard Computer System The CPU: The Real Computer

8 April 24, 2008SA/DSE8 RAM (random access memory)  memori yang dapat diakses secara acak  Digunakan untuk penyimpanan sementara (temporer) program dan data  Mempunyai alamat yang ‘unik’ dan data dapat disimpan di lokasi yang manapun  Dapat ‘mengambil kembali’ informasi yang disimpan secara cepat  Bila komputer di-’off’-kan semua data dan program yang disimpan pada memori komputer akan hilang  ROM (read only memory)  Flash memory  Used for phones, pagers, portable computers, handheld computers, and PDAs Computer System The Computer’s memory

9 April 24, 2008SA/DSE9 Central Processing Unit Control Unit Algorithm and Logical Unit Internal storage unit External storage unit Input unit Output unit ROM RAM Working area Pengatur output

10 April 24, 2008SA/DSE10 Lalulintas informasi antar komponen pada ‘motherboard’ yang dilakukan menggunakan sekumpulan kabel disebut system buses, atau buses. Computer System Buses, Ports, and Peripherals

11 April 24, 2008SA/DSE11 Buses  Typically have 32 or 64 wires  Connect to storage devices in bays  Connect to expansion slots  Connect to external buses and ports Slots and ports  Make it easy to add external devices, called peripherals. Computer System Buses, Ports, and Peripherals

12 April 24, 2008SA/DSE12 Input: From Person to Processor  Keyboard Computer System

13 April 24, 2008SA/DSE13 Input: From Person to Processor  Pointing Devices Computer System Graphics tablet Touch Screen

14 April 24, 2008SA/DSE14  Reading Tools Input: From Person to Processor Computer System Pen Scanner OMR PDA Handwriting Recognition SW Barcode Reader (Optical Mark Reader) (Personal Digital Assistant)

15 April 24, 2008SA/DSE15 Input: From Person to Processor Others Computer System

16 April 24, 2008SA/DSE16 Output: From Pulses to People Computer System

17 April 24, 2008SA/DSE17 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Computer System

18 April 24, 2008SA/DSE18 Software Topology System Software –Operating System –Utility –Device Driver Compiler & Software Development Tools Application Software Computer System-Software

19 April 24, 2008SA/DSE19 Operating System Supports multitasking Manages virtual memory Maintains file system Responsible for authentication and authorization DOS, Windows, Mac OS, Unix, Linux Computer System-Software

20 April 24, 2008SA/DSE20 Utility Programs  Serve as tools for doing system maintenance and repairs that aren’t automatically handled by the operating system  Make it easier for users to: Copy files between storage devices Repair damaged data files Translate files so that different programs can read them Guard against viruses and other potentially harmful programs (as described in the chapter on computer security and risks) Compress files so they take up less disk space Perform other important, if unexciting, tasks Computer System-Software

21 April 24, 2008SA/DSE21 Utility Programs  Symantec Norton Utilities: recovering damaged files, repairing damaged disks, and improving disk performance. Computer System-Software

22 April 24, 2008SA/DSE22 Language & Compiler  The Language of Computers Machine Language: numeric codes that represent data (& instructions) Low-level language  Assembly High-level language: falls between machine language and natural human language (English oriented)  Pascal, C, C++, Java, C#, Fortran, Basic, Ada, Prolog, LISP, Phyton, Perl  Compilers translate high-level language into machine language. Computer System-Software

23 April 24, 2008SA/DSE23 Software Development Tools Environment for building a program: editor, compiler, library MS Visual Studio, JDeveloper, Eclipse, Gambas, etc Computer System-Software

24 April 24, 2008SA/DSE24 End User Applications  Word processing and desktop publishing  Spreadsheets and other number-crunching applications  Databases  Computer graphics and digital image processing  Digital audio, digital video, and multimedia  Entertainment  Customized problem-solving (MIS, ERP, CRM)  Artificial intelligence

25 April 24, 2008SA/DSE25 Computer Network & Internet

26 April 24, 2008SA/DSE26 Objectives  Describe the nature and function of local area networks and wide area networks.  Describe the component’s of computer network & communication model  Discuss the uses and implications of , instant messaging, blogging, teleconferencing, and other forms of online communication.  Explain how and why the Internet was created.  Describe the technology that is at the heart of the Internet.  Describe the internet applications and web applications Computer Network & Internet

27 April 24, 2008SA/DSE27 Basic Network Anatomy A computer network is any system of two or more computers that are linked together. Anatomy: –LAN: wired-LAN, wireless (local area networks) –MAN (metropolitan area networks) –WAN (wide area networks) Computer Network & Internet

28 April 24, 2008SA/DSE28 Components of Computer Network Computer Network & Internet  Cable: UTP, coaxial  Fiber optic  NIC (network interface card), Modem (modulator/demodulator)  Router  Server: File Server, Web Server, Server  Client  Protocol: TCP/IP (Transmission Control protocol/ Internet Protocol),FTP (file transfer protocol), HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol)  NOS (network operating system)

29 April 24, 2008SA/DSE29 Communication model  Client/server model One or more computers act as dedicated servers and all the remaining computers act as clients.  Peer-to-peer model Every computer on the network is both client and server.  Many networks are hybrids, using features of the client/server and peer-to-peer models. Computer Network & Internet

30 April 24, 2008SA/DSE30 Internet  History ARPAnet DoD 1969 (ARPAnet), 1980 (P2P), 1990 (HTTP)  The Internet: an interconnected network of thousands of networks using TCP/IP protocol Computer Network & Internet

31 April 24, 2008SA/DSE31 Internet Growth Computer Network & Internet The Internet was not known as "The Internet" until January 1984, at which time there were 1000 hosts that were all converted over to using TCP/IP.

32 April 24, 2008SA/DSE32 Internet Protocol, Address  TCP/IP Layering Protocols  IP Address  Routing  Domain Name & DNS (domain name system)  Top-level domains include:.edu - educational sites.com - commercial sites.gov - government sites.mil - military sites.net - network administration sites.org - nonprofit organization sites Computer Network & Internet

33 April 24, 2008SA/DSE33 Address An address includes:  username is the person’s “mailbox”  hostname is the name of the host computer and is followed by one or more domains separated by periods:  host.domain  host.subdomain.domain  host.subdomain.subdoma in.domain Computer Network & Internet

34 April 24, 2008SA/DSE34 Network Applications   Mailing List  Newsgroups  Instant Messaging  Voice Mail  Internet Telephony  Massive Multiplayer Online Game  Search Engine, Web-Robot Indexer/Web Crawler/Spider  Specialized Search Engines: Google Maps, Froogle, and others Computer Network & Internet

35 April 24, 2008SA/DSE35 World Wide Web, Web  Protocol HTTP, Web Server, Web Client/Browser  Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)  Beyond HTML: Scripting Language, XML, XHTML, VRML, Applet  Web Address: US.html Protocol for Web pages weatherunderground.com/ Domain Name Resource File satellite/vis/1k/ Path Computer Network & Internet

36 April 24, 2008SA/DSE36 Web Applications  simple data-processing tasks  Most Web applications take advantage of the Web’s connectivity.  Search Engine  online business transactions (e-bay, amazon, paypal,…)  News-oriented Web applications  Other Web applications support a more traditional form of information broadcasting. Computer Network & Internet

37 April 24, 2008SA/DSE37

38 April 24, 2008SA/DSE38 ISTILAH-ISTILAH DALAM BIDANG KOMPUTER  User : orang yang menggunakan komputer  Programmer : orang yang membuat program komputer  System analyst : orang yang bertugas memilih komputer yang baik dan cocok untuk digunakan (biasanya untuk keperluan suatu perusahaan)  System administrator / manager : bertugas untuk meningkatkan efisiensi kerja bagi keseluruhan sistem komputer yang digunakan di perusahaannya

39 April 24, 2008SA/DSE39 ISTILAH-ISTILAH DALAM BIDANG KOMPUTER  Bus : media berbentuk (rangkaian) kabel untuk lintasan elektronik yang membawa sinyal dari satu komponen ke komponen lain dalam komputer  RAM (Random Access Memory) : memori utama yang bekerja pada komputer, tersusun dari sejumlah sel yang masing-masing diberi nomor dan alamat (setiap sel menampung 8 bit/ 1 byte)  Bit : binary digit (dijit biner)  Sistem operasi (operating system) : program pertama yang dieksekusi ketika komputer dinyalakan. Disimpan dalam ROM dan external memory  Network : suatu jaringan komputer  Internet “ inter-connecting network ”  jaringan komputer yang saling terhubung

40 April 24, 2008SA/DSE40 ISTILAH-ISTILAH DALAM BIDANG KOMPUTER  Domain : setiap jaringan yang membentuk internet  User : masing-masing orang yang menggunakan sebuah jaringan  Telnet : fasilitas yang memungkinkan orang ‘log-in’ (berkoneksi) ke komputer lain dan / atau menggunakan komputer lain  Account : nomor sebagai tanda anggota jaringan  ISP (internet access provider) : penyedia akses (lokal) ke internet  sering disebut sebagai ‘provider’ saja  electronic mail / surat elektronik yaitu surat/pesan yang dikirimkan secara elektronik melalui jaringan komputer  (internet) host : pengkoneksi ke internet

41 April 24, 2008SA/DSE41 ISTILAH-ISTILAH DALAM BIDANG KOMPUTER  FTP ( file transfer protocol ) : program yang memungkinkan dilakukannya penyalinan file antar host  HTTP ( hypertext transfer protocol ) : program yang memungkinkan pemindahan gambar grafis, suara, bahkan video antar host  WWW ( world wide web ) : adalah sekumpulan dokumen multimedia yang dihubungkan dengan jalur hypertext  URL ( uniform resource locator ) : alamat yang mengidentifikasikan lokasi sesuatu di halaman world wide web

42 April 24, 2008SA/DSE42 ISTILAH-ISTILAH DALAM BIDANG KOMPUTER  Browser : program yang memungkinkan kita untuk melihat dokumen www  Client : program yang bekerja pada PC kita, sehingga kita dapat melakukan banyak hal di internet  Cyberspace : istilah yang umum dan banyak digunakan untuk menyebut internet  gabungan seluruh aktivitas dan informasi yang ada di dunia komputer, khususnya komputer yang terhubung ke internet

43 April 24, 2008SA/DSE43 ISTILAH-ISTILAH DALAM BIDANG KOMPUTER  Cybernaut : orang yang menggunakan internet  Downloading files : menyalin/mengopy file dari internet ke komputer yang kita gunakan  HTML ( hypertext mark-up language ) : format yang digunakan untuk membuat dokumen world wide web  MPEG (moving photographic experts group) : format file grafis untuk video atau film  Modem ( modulator/demodulator ) : perangkat yang digunakan untuk mengirim file dan pesan melalui saluran telepon  dikonversikan ke dalam bentuk suara


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