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Product & Brand. Definitions Product –Anything offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a need or want.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Product & Brand. Definitions Product –Anything offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a need or want."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Product & Brand

2 Definitions Product –Anything offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a need or want. Service –A form of product that consists of activities, benefits or satisfactions offered for sale that are essentially intangible and do not result in the ownership of anything.

3 What is a Product? Products, Services, and Experiences –Market offerings may consist of a combination of goods and services –Experiences are used to differentiate offerings Levels of Product and Services –Core benefit, actual and augmented product Product and Service Classifications –Consumer products and industrial products

4 What is a Product? Convenience Shopping Specialty Unsought Frequent purchases bought with minimal buying effort and little comparison shopping Low price Widespread distribution Mass promotion by producer Types of Consumer Products

5 What is a Product? Convenience Shopping Specialty Unsought Less frequent purchases More shopping effort for comparisons. Higher than convenience good pricing Selective distribution in fewer outlets Advertising and personal selling Types of Consumer Products

6 What is a Product? Convenience Shopping Specialty Unsought Strong brand preference and loyalty, requires special purchase effort, little brand comparisons, and low price sensitivity High price Exclusive distribution Carefully targeted promotions Types of Consumer Products

7 What is a Product? Convenience Shopping Specialty Unsought Little product awareness and knowledge (or if aware, sometimes negative interest) Pricing varies Distribution varies Aggressive advertising and personal selling by producers and resellers Types of Consumer Products

8 Product and Service Classifications Consumer products Industrial products – Materials and parts – Capital items – Supplies and services

9 Product and Service Classifications Organizations, persons, places, and ideas –Organizational marketing makes use of corporate image advertising –Person marketing applies to political candidates, entertainment sports figures, and professionals –Place marketing relates to tourism –Social marketing promotes ideas

10 Product and Service Decisions Individual Product Product Line Product Mix Product attributes –Quality, features, style and design Branding Packaging Labeling Product support services Key Decisions

11 Product and Service Decisions Product line –A group of products that are closely related because they may: function in a similar manner be sold to the same customer groups, be marketed through the same types of outlets fall within given price ranges Key Decisions Individual Product Product Line Product Mix

12 Product and Service Decisions Individual Product Product Line Product Mix Product line length –Line stretching: adding products that are higher or lower priced than the existing line –Line filling: adding more items within the present price range Key Decisions

13 Product and Service Decisions Individual Product Product Line Product Mix Product mix –Also known as product assortment –Consists of all the product lines and items that a particular seller offers for sale Key Decisions

14 Strategi produk : dua tingkat kebijakan Strategi Lini produk. Strategi Bauran Produk

15 Strategi pada tingkatan lini produk Menambah produk baru di dalam lini. Cost Reduction. Product Improvement. Mengganti Strategi pemasaran produk seperti merubah pasar sasaran dan positioning produk. Product Elimination. Dilakukan jika strategi cost reduction, product improvement dan strategi pemasaran tidak memungkinkan lagi.

16 Strategi pada tingkatan Bauran produk Menambah lini produk. Mengurangi lini produk. Merubah prioritas lini produk

17 17 Product VS Brand A product is anything that can be offered to the market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a need or want. Thus, a product can be a physical good, service, organization, place or ideas. A brand is a product but adds other dimensions that differentiate it in some way from other products designed to satisfy the same need.

18 18 What is a Brand? A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.

19 JeWWave (Thailand) Co.,Ltd. All rights reserved. Best view by IE5.5 or higher, Set screen in 1024 x768 pixels mode. Examples of brands of computer products

20 20 Brand Elements A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherently enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations:A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherently enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations: –Brand Name –Logo –Symbol –Character –Packaging –Slogan

21 Brand Mark

22 Logo/Name

23 23

24 24 Why do brand matter? To consumers  Identification of sources of product  Assignment of responsibility to product maker.  Risk reducer (functional, financial, physical, social, psycological and time)  Search cost reducer  Symbolic device  Signal of quality  Promise or bond with product or maker

25 25 Why do brand matter? To Manufacturer  Means of identification to simplifying handling and tracing.  Means of legally protecting unique feature.  Signal of quality  Means of endowing products with unique associations.  Sources of competitive advantage  Sources of financial returns.

26 26 Branding Challenges & Opportunities Knowledgeable consumers. Knowledgeable consumers. Brand Proliferation Brand Proliferation Media Fragmentation Media Fragmentation Increased competition Increased competition Increased costs of introducing new product or supporting existing product. Increased costs of introducing new product or supporting existing product. Greater accountability Greater accountability

27 27 Brand Elements Choice Criteria: General Considerations  Memorable  Easily Recognized  Easily Recalled  Meaningful  Credible & Suggestive  Rich Visual & Verbal Imagery  Appealing  Fun & Interesting  Aesthetics

28 28 Brand Elements Choice Criteria: General Considerations (continue)  Adaptable  Flexible & Updateable  Protectable  Legally  Competitively  Transferable  Within & Across Product Categories  Across Geographical Boundaries & Cultures

29 29 Can anything be branded? Physical goodsPhysical goods ServicesServices RetailersRetailers On-line productOn-line product On-line serviceOn-line service PeoplePeople OrganizationOrganization Sports, Arts, EntertainmentSports, Arts, Entertainment Geographic locationGeographic location IdeasIdeas

30 30 Brand Value Examples of brand value 2001 ( Million US$) Coca-cola 69 Microsoft65 IBM52 GE42 Nokia35 Intel34 Disney32 McDonald25 Sony15 Honda14 BMW13

31 31 Keys to enduring Brand Leadership  Vision of mass market  Managerial persistence  Financial commitment  Relentless innovation  Asset Leverage

32 tingkatan arti/makna dari suatu merek produk Atribut. Manfaat. Nilai. Budaya. Kepribadian. Pengguna.

33 - Suggest something about product benefit - Suggest product quality - Easy to pronounce,recognize & remember - Distinctive - Carry appropriate symbolism - Culturally sensitive Source : Kotler, Philip & Team, Marketing Management : An Asia Perspective

34 Aspek dalam strategi dan manajemen merek Brand Equity. Brand Identification Strategy. Brand Leveraging Strategy. Brand System Management.

35 Brand Equity Seperangkat aset dan liabilitas merek yang menambah atau mengurangi nilai yang diberikan oleh sebuah barang atau jasa kepada perusahaan atau para pelanggan perusahaan.

36 Aset dan dan liabilitas yang menjadi dasar ekuitas merek Brand Loyalty. Brand Awarennes. Perceived Quality. Brand Assosiation. Asset merek lainnya seperti paten, cap, saluran hubungan dan lainnya.

37 BrandEquity Awareness Competitive Advantage Associations Perceived Quality Loyalty For more see: Aaker, David A. (1995), Strategic Market Management, 4th ed., Wiley, NY

38 38 The Concept of Customer-Based Brand Equity Brand Salience Brand awareness Feeling Judgment Brand Imagery BrandPerformance Resonance Brand Relationship (What about you and me?) Brand response (What about you?) Brand Meaning (what are you?) Brand Identity (Who are you?)

39 Brand Identification Strategy B agaimana setiap produk yang ada di dalam perusahaan diberi merek. Strategi-strategi ini meliputi : 1.Specific Product Branding. Memberikan nama merek untuk produk tertentu dengan cara yang beragam. 2.Product Line Branding. Memebrikan suatu nama merek untuk satu lini produk yang berkaitan. 3.Corporate Branding. Menggunakan nama perusahaan sebagai nama merek untuk produk yang dijual. 4.Combination Branding. Mengkombinasikan strategi di atas. 5.Private Branding. Strategi pengecer untuk menjual produk yang diperoleh dari pemasok dengan nama merek sendiri.

40 Brand Leveraging Strategy Menggunakan nama merek yang sudah ada sekarang untuk memperkenalkan produk lainnya di dalam perusahaan. Strategi ini dapat dilakukan dalam bentuk : 1.Line Extension. Menggunakan merek lini produk untuk produk produk baru yang yang ada di dalam lini. Seperti BMW memilki BMW300, BMW500 dan BMW Stretching the Brand Vertically. Strategi ini dimaksudkan untuk memberikan nama merek untuk produk sejenis yang dibuat secara bertingkat dalam hal kualitas/harga. 3.Brand Extension. Menggunakan nama merek produk perusahaan yang ada sekrang untuk produk baru di lini yang berbeda atau untuk lini produk baru. 4.Cobranding. Strategi yang menggunakan dua nama merek untuk mempromosi suatu produk. 5.Licensing. Menggunakan nama merek melalui lisensi


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