# HARMONIK SEBAB & AKIBAT

## Presentasi berjudul: "HARMONIK SEBAB & AKIBAT"— Transcript presentasi:

HARMONIK SEBAB & AKIBAT
ALAT PENGHEMAT DAYA HARMONIK SEBAB & AKIBAT DIREKTORAT JENDERAL LISTRIK DAN PEMANFAATAN ENERGI 2006

Harmonik (Harmonics) Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having frequencies that are whole multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate (e.g. 50Hz or 60 Hz).\ According IEC 3rd Harmonics

Penyebab Harmonik Di Sisi Konsumen :
Harmonik timbul karena adanya beban yang tidak linier (semua beban dengan power supply menggunakan power electronics – IGBT, Thyritor, Transistor, MOSFET/FET, UJT, SCR)* Contoh : ASD, PC, TV, LHE. Electrical Arc Ct : Furnances and Welding Machine Intinya rangkaian daya komponen Elektronika Daya dengan Kapasitor bank Di Sisi Pembangkit : Desain generator atau transformator yang kurang baik dapat menimbulkan harmonik* * Lihat Kennedy hal.173, Westinghouse Prot

Efek Samping Harmonik Harmonik Akibat Arus Faktor daya rendah
Pemanasan dan Ferro resonance Trafo Yy Resonance on Capacitor Bank Tegangan netral-ground besar Tidak terukur pada meter mekanik Gagal fungsi pada rele Losses netral besar (sistem 3fase 4kawat) Skin Effect Tegangan Pemanasan berlebih pada peralatan Osilasi mekanik pada motor Over Voltage Gangguan pada peralatan elektronik (EMI) Power and Harmonics in Nonsinusoidal Systems

Electromechanical Energy Meter kWh Meter elektromekanik mengukur energi berdasarkan : Kes : Jika sinusoidal murni maka P pengukuran = P kenyataan = 100% Bagaimana Jika tidak sinusoidal ???

Electromechanical Energy Meter
Lihat Definisi Integral --- Sampling

V 1st x I 3rd = 0%

V1st+V3rd+V5th x I1st+I5th+I7th = 32%

Mengukur Harmonik Measuring nonsinusoidal voltage and
current waveforms requires a True RMS m e t e r. V,I : Fluke 41, Harmonitor 3000 kWh : Electronic Energy Meter Contoh : AMR Sampai Harmonik ke berapa ? True RMS capability is required to accurately measure systems where harmonic current is present. Average responding instruments will yield erroneous measurement results from 25 to 40% below the actual value when harmonic distortion is present. Understanding Power & Power Quality Measurements

Does having harmonics in the power system always mean trouble?
Jika masih di bawah standar : tidak Jika melebihi standar : Sistem tidak di disain untuk itu ya Sistem sudah di disain tidak

Mengatasi Harmonik Disisi konsumen Harmonics Filter : Active dan Passive Gunakan PWM 18 Pulses Emisi Harmonik dari konsumen harus dibatasi (Perlu Standar – Menyatu dengan Power Quality (IEC and 3-4)) Bagaimana pengaturan dan penerapannya.... Disisi Sistem Distribusi Pembebanan harus memperhatikan SCL pd PCC Derating Transformer Reduce Network Impedances Pembumian yang benar

ALAT PENGHEMAT DAYA TIDAK ADA ALAT YANG BISA MENGHEMAT PENGGUNAAN ENERGI LISTRIK  PENGHEMAT REKENING LISTRIK ADA 2 JENIS : KAPASITOR MURNI (BEBAN PASIF) KAPASITOR DIRANGKAI DENGAN INDUKTOR DAN POWER ELECTRONICS IGBT, Thyritor, Transistor, MOSFET/FET, UJT, SCR)* Contoh : ASD, PC, TV, LHE.

NOTE : KAPASITOR BANK INDIVIDUAL TIDAK MENIMBULKAN HARMONIK ! - SPIKES
Paberik Panel Listrik Konsumen Gardu Portal VAR LOGIC Panel Kapasitor Bank JTR NOTE : KAPASITOR BANK INDIVIDUAL TIDAK MENIMBULKAN HARMONIK ! - SPIKES - EXECESIVE SWITCHING

CAP BANK 6 STEP

6 STEP CAP BANK Contoh : Kawasan Industri Perlu Perhatikan SCL PCC

Power Electronic and Capacitor

Harmonics Sources

Fundamental Component

Voltage Distortion

Harmonik Pd 3 Fase 4 Kawat Arus netral bisa mencapai 1,5 kali Arus Fase Secara teoritis 20% harmonik ke-3 menambah arus netral sampai 60% Potensi rugi-rugi jaringan +3%

Standard Harmonics ANSI C57.110-1986
IEC x series PQ Parameters...Apa saja ? IEC x series PQ Measurement... Bagaimana ? IEC IEC 555 is enforced in Europe, making it a de facto standard for commercial equipment intended to be sold worldwide IEEE 519 th 1992 Recommended limits are set at 5% Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) THD Max 5% Partial Max 3%

Standard Harmonics ANSI C57.110-1986 IEC 555 - 1982 IEEE 519 th 1992 :
In section 10.3 (Development of Current Distortion Limits), "..... The objectives of the current limits are to limit the maximum individual frequency voltage harmonic to 3% of the fundamental and the voltage THD to 5% for systems without a major parallel resonance at one of the injected frequencies." "..If individual customers meet the current distortion limits, and there is not sufficient diversity between individual customer harmonic injections, then it may be necessary to implement some form of filtering on the utility system to limit voltage distortion levels."

Standard Harmonics IEC/EN ( ) + (am 1 + am ) Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current <16 A per phase single & 3 phase). Disebutkan standar emisi harmonik dari tiap kelas peralatan - Kelas A : 3 Phase Balance Equipment, Household Appliances - Kelas B : Portabel Tools - kelas C : Lightning Equipment - Kelas D : Special Wave Shape ≤600 W Standar di Indonesia ? Belum ada

Peraturan Mutu Listrik di Indonesia
SNI Frekuensi Standar 501% Hz IEC ( ) SNI Tegangan Standar 220 (+5% / -10%) IEC ( )+ Amd1 ( ) + Amd 2 (1997-0) SNI Kesesuaian Elektromagnetik (KEM) Masih Berupa Pedoman bukan Spesifikasi IEC (1995) SK Menteri ESMD N Th 2002 Power Factor 0,85 Lagg/Lead - Keppre TDL 2004

Italy – Meter Market Energy Distributor Memutuskan memasang
Lebih dari 20 Juta Meter elektronik Berkaitan dengan Meter Error yang ditimbulkan Oleh harmonik dari peralatan rumah tangga

Annual demand 982,000 meters Demand includes 400,000 meters a year in 2006 and 2007 due to the replacement of electromechanical meters with electronic meters Target of 5 million out of 12 million by 2010.

Harmonics Mitigation

17 Aspek Mutu Listrik Variasi frekuensi Variasi tegangan
Kelip (flicker) Kedip (voltage sag) Harmonik Ketidak seimbangan tegangan Keandalan (pemadaman) Voltage swells

Aspek mutu listrik Electrical noise Faktor daya rendah Ground loops
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference Static electricity Voltage surges Voltage impulses Demand interval Kelayakan instalasi

IEC edition (A14)

IEC edition (A14)

IEC 555

IEC 555

IEC 555

IEEE-519

IEEE-519

IEEE-519

Peraturan Ketenagalistrikan
UU 15 th 1985 Ketenagalistrikan UU 8 Th 1999 Perlindungan Konsumen PP 3 Th 2005 Penyediaan dan Pemanfaatan tenaga Listrik PP 102 Th 2000 Standardisasi Nasional

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