Conflict is inevitable. Interpersonal, social, national, international. Through mediated communication. Cultural differences can cause conflict, and once it occurs, cultural background and experiences influences how individual deal with it. Cultural shapes what people consider valuable and worth fighting over.
One way to think about intercultural conflict is from a Dialectical perspective. Contoh: Siswa (dari Afrika Utara) dilarang memakai kerudung di sekolah (di Perancis). It may ambiguity Membuat kita otomatis mengarah ke default style of handling conflict. Bahasa juga membuat penangangan kita terhadap konflik tidak efektif. It may be a combination of orientation to conflict and conflict management style
1. Conflict as Opportunity Based on assumptions: a. Conflict is a normal, useful process. b. All issue are subject to change through negotiation c. Direct confrontation and conciliation are valued d. Conflict can be a redistribution of opportunity, release of tensions, renewal relationship Western-based approach.
2. Conflict as Destructive It may rooted from spiritual or cultural values. Based on assumptions: a. Conflict is a destructive disturbance to peace - Destroy the community harmony (Confucian, Buddha) b. Confrontations are destructive and ineffective. This orientation involving identity and face saving. Individualistic – save their own dignity. Collectivistic – maintaining interpersonal harmony and saving others dignity.
1. Interpersonal -- Conflict between people. Types: a. Affective – incompatible feeling and emotions. Ex: different level of affection. b. Conflict interest – incompatible preferences for an action or plan. Ex: melarang pergi pasangan, control others life. c. Value – different ideologies on spesific issue. Ex: religious view, abortion. d. Cognitive – different perception or thought. Ex: cemburu dengan teman dekat pasangannya. e. Goal – disagree about preferred outcome. Ex: perbedaan cat rumah yang ingin digunakan.
Tactics dealing with conflict. People respond o conflict influenced by their cultural background. See others/elders dealt with it. People use different tactics in different situation, not locked in particular strategy. a. Dominating – high concern for self and low concern for others, with loud and forceful verbalization. Win lose orientation. b. Integrating – high concern for both the self and others, involves an open and direct exchange of info in attempt to reach solution acceptable for both. Win win solution. Need a lot of time and energy.
c. Compromising – moderate degree of concern for both the self and others. Involve sharing and exchange info, but one party should give up something to find mutually acceptable solution. Less commitment, less effective feel forced. d. Obliging – one person plays down differences and promote commonalities to satisfy others. Appropriate when one party more concerned with “the relationship” that specific issue. e. Avoiding – low concern for self and others. See negatively by US cultural context, but positive by others. Avoidance can allow individual to THINK.
2. Interpretive and Critical to Social Conflict Conflict is far more complex, deeply rooted in cultural differences in the social, economic, and historical contexts. Social conflict – arise from unequal social relationship between groups. Ex: Cina vs pribumi. Contextualizing intercultural conflict can help us understanding why the conflict occurs and identify ways to resolve those conflict.
a. Social Context - How we manage conflict may depend on particular context. - Many conflict arise designed to change contemporary society. Ex: pergerakan sosial ttg rasisme, homophobia - Confrontation can be an opportunity for social change nonviolent (Mahatma Gandhi) and violent forms (labeled terrorist). b. Economic - People find it easier to explain economic troubles by pointing to cultural differences or assigning blame. Ex: dominasi China di perekonomian Indonesia. c. Historical and Political - Identity comes from history constructed stereotype - Ex: Islam vs Yahudi.
1. Productive VS Destructive Conflict Produktif : Lebih memfokuskan pada masalah yang sebenarnya dan mengarah ke pemecahan masalah yang kooperatif. Destruktif : Lebih meningkatkan perasaan negatif, memperluas masalah sampai kemana-mana, menggunakan strategi yang memaksa, memanipulasi.
2. Competition VS Cooperation Process Competitive atmosphere will promote coercion, deception, suspicion, and lead to poor communication. Cooperation atmosphere will promote similarity, trust, flexibility, and lead to open communication. The key is in the beginning stages of relationship – openness.
3. Dealing with Conflict a. Fokus dan pikiran jangan melebar kemana-mana b. Pertahankan kontak, jangan sampai terputus c. Sadari perbedaan gaya melihat masalah d. Identifikasi gaya menghadapi konflik yang lebih disukai e. Kreatiflah dalam mencoba berbagai gaya penyelesaikan konflik f. Kenali konteks dari konflik g. Mau memaafkan
Sometimes two individual or groups cannot work through conflict on their own. Mediation model – Assist disputants to think in new ways about the conflict, to transform attitudes or negative perception. Traditional societies often use mediation as a non direct means permit individuals to save face.