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PENGANTAR ILMU EKONOMI Dr. Djoko Poernomo, M.Si Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi FISIP UNEJ 3 September 2014 (2)

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Presentasi berjudul: "PENGANTAR ILMU EKONOMI Dr. Djoko Poernomo, M.Si Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi FISIP UNEJ 3 September 2014 (2)"— Transcript presentasi:

1 PENGANTAR ILMU EKONOMI Dr. Djoko Poernomo, M.Si Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi FISIP UNEJ 3 September 2014 (2)

2  Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan pengertian ilmu ekonomi  Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan persoalan pokok yang dibahas pada ilmu ekonomi  Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan pemecahan persoalan pokok ekonomi. Capaian Pembelajaran

3  Istilah “Ekonomi” berasal Xenophon, seorang filosof Yunani kuno yang hidup pada tahun SM, dengan karyanya OIKONOMOS yang berarti TATA KELOLA RUMAH TANGGA.  Pada masa itu, mata pencaharian rakyat di ladang, jadi tentu yang dimaksud adalah tata kelola rumah tangga terhadap hasil ladang. Ini berarti menyangkut efisiensi manajemen hasil ladang namun bukan efisiensi seperti transaksi perdagangan komersial sebab saat itu belum lajim.  Untuk mewujudkan efisiensi, Xenophon mengusulkan “pembagian kerja” dan “spesialisasi” perlu dilakukan. Dua hal inilah yang kelak menjadi perhatian khusus pada ekonomi modern. Asal Usul Ekonomi (1)

4  Penyair Yunani Kuno Hesiodus (700 SM) mempunyai puisi sangat terkenal berjudul KERJA dan HARI yang mempersoalkan masalah SCARCITY untuk pemenuhan hidup, oleh karenanya orang harus bekerja. Ia menulis: “Lantaran dewa-dewa membuat makanan tetap tersembunyi; karena jika tidak, dengan mudah kamu akan memperolehnya dalam sehari apa yang kamu butuhkan untuk setahun”.  Adam Smith-lah yang kemudian menyusun sebuah karya yang sangat fenomenal, berpengaruh, dan mendunia.  Karya Smith: 1) The Theory of Moral Sentimens (1759) dan 2) An inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations The Wealth of Nations (9 Maret 1776). Asal Usul Ekonomi (2)

5 Suatu studi tentang bagaimana kelompok-kelompok masyarakat (societies) mendaya gunakan sumber-sumber daya yang terbatas (scarce resources) untuk memproduksi komoditas-komoditas yang bernilai/ bermanfaat (valuable commodities) dan mendistribusikannya (distribute) diantara anggota masyarakatnya. Ilmu Ekonomi (Economics) Ilmu pengetahuan sosial yang menguraikan/ menjelaskan tentang bagaimana orang (societies) menetapkan pilihan penggunaan sumber-sumber daya (limited) dalam upaya untuk memuaskan kebutuhannya (unlimited).

6 As individuals, limited income (and time and ability) keep us from doing and having all that we might like. As a society, limited resources (such as manpower, machinery, and natural resources) fix a maximum on the amount of goods and services that can be produced. As individuals, limited income (and time and ability) keep us from doing and having all that we might like. As a society, limited resources (such as manpower, machinery, and natural resources) fix a maximum on the amount of goods and services that can be produced. When we, either as individuals or as a society, choose more of something, scarcity forces us to take less of something else Scarcity, refers to the tension between our limited resources and our unlimited wants and needs. It limits us both as individuals and as a society

7 So because of scarcity, people and economies must make decisions over how to allocate their resources. Economics, in turn, aims to study why we make these decisions and how we allocate our resources most efficiently. The ultimate goal of economic science is to improve the living conditions of people in their everyday lives

8 Ilmu Ekonomi (Economics) Ilmu Ekonomi (Economics) Ilmu Ekonomi Mikro (Microeconomics) Ilmu Ekonomi Mikro (Microeconomics) Ilmu Ekonomi Makro (Macroeconomics) Ilmu Ekonomi Makro (Macroeconomics) The branch of economics which is concerned with the behavior of individual entities such as markets, firms, and households The branch of economics which is concerned with the overall performance of the economy

9 The post hoc fallacy occurs when we assume that, because one event occurred before another event, the first event caused the second event Failure to hold other things constant (ceteris paribus) Hold other things constant when you are analyzing the impact of a variable on the economic system Failure to hold other things constant (ceteris paribus) Hold other things constant when you are analyzing the impact of a variable on the economic system The fallacy of composition. When you assume that what is true for the part is also true for the whole, you are committing the fallacy of composition Fallacies in the logic of economics Fallacies in the logic of economics

10 What commodities are produces and in what quantities ? How are goods produced ? For whom are goods produced ? Positive economics Normative economics

11 Opportunity cost –Scarcity implies that choices need to be made –Costs are incurred in making choices –Economists refer to this as an opportunity cost –The opportunity cost of an action is the next best alternative foregone in choosing the given action –The opportunity cost of a good, is the quantity of other goods which must be sacrificed to obtain another unit of that good –Scarcity implies that choices need to be made –Costs are incurred in making choices –Economists refer to this as an opportunity cost –The opportunity cost of an action is the next best alternative foregone in choosing the given action –The opportunity cost of a good, is the quantity of other goods which must be sacrificed to obtain another unit of that good

12 Market-based systems The price system is the “automatic” social control mechanism, which co-ordinates the decentralized decisions of individuals Prices perform three functions: –they provide information –they provide incentives –they determine who gets how much of what For this reason Adam Smith described the price- system as the ‘invisible hand’ The price system is the “automatic” social control mechanism, which co-ordinates the decentralized decisions of individuals Prices perform three functions: –they provide information –they provide incentives –they determine who gets how much of what For this reason Adam Smith described the price- system as the ‘invisible hand’ (Market economy)

13 Centrally planned systems Central planner decides what is produced, how, and for whom Problems with data requirements, bad incentives, etc. Central planner decides what is produced, how, and for whom Problems with data requirements, bad incentives, etc. (Command economy) The government answers the major economic questions through its ownership of resources and its power to enforce decisions

14 Market based or centrally planned? Mixed economy, where the government and the private sector jointly solve the economic problems Governments pass laws that regulate economic life, produce educational and police services, and control pollution.

15 Land Labor Capital Land Labor Capital Faktor-faktor produksi Proses produksi (teknologi) Proses produksi (teknologi) Consumed Employed

16 Production Possibilities Frontier (PPF) Suatu gambaran, biasanya dlm bentuk kurva, yang menunjukkan jumlah maksimum produksi yang dapat dihasilkan oleh suatu perekonomian sesuai dengan technological knowledge dan kuantitas input yang tersedia/ dimiliki. PPF

17 Alternative Production Possibilities

18 PPF Makanan (Private goods) Makanan (Private goods) Jalan Raya (Public goods) Jalan Raya (Public goods)

19 PPF Makanan (Private goods) Makanan (Private goods) Jalan Raya (Public goods) Jalan Raya (Public goods) U U I I

20 PPF Makanan (Private goods) Makanan (Private goods) Jalan Raya (Public goods) Jalan Raya (Public goods)

21 A set of arrangements through which buyers and sellers exchange goods and services The interaction between buyers and sellers determines: the quantity of the good or service produced and the price at which these are bought and sold A set of arrangements through which buyers and sellers exchange goods and services The interaction between buyers and sellers determines: the quantity of the good or service produced and the price at which these are bought and sold Market A mechanism through which buyers and sellers interact to determine prices and exchange goods and services

22 The behavior of buyers (consumers) is captured by the concept of demand The behavior of sellers (producers) is captured by the concept of supply

23 Demand describes the the quantity of a good buyers wish to purchase at every possible price It is important to distinguish between demand and the quantity demanded The quantity demanded is only meaningful in the context of a particular price The market demand is an aggregated representation of all buying agents in the market Demand describes the the quantity of a good buyers wish to purchase at every possible price It is important to distinguish between demand and the quantity demanded The quantity demanded is only meaningful in the context of a particular price The market demand is an aggregated representation of all buying agents in the market Demand

24 Kurva Permintaan (Demand curve) Jumlah Harga Law of demand: There is an inverse relationship between price and the quantity buyers are willing to purchase in a defined time period, ceteris paribus.

25 A change in the price of a good lead to a movement up or down the demand curve - ceteris paribus The other factors held constant are called non- price determinants Changes in these factors shift the demand curve. A change in the price of a good lead to a movement up or down the demand curve - ceteris paribus The other factors held constant are called non- price determinants Changes in these factors shift the demand curve.

26 A buyer’s disposable income Consumer tastes Prices of related goods and services Number of buyers in the market Expectations about changes in prices, income and the availability of goods A buyer’s disposable income Consumer tastes Prices of related goods and services Number of buyers in the market Expectations about changes in prices, income and the availability of goods Other factors affecting demand

27 Supply describes the quantity of a good sellers wish to provide at every possible price It is important to distinguish between supply and the quantity supplied The market supply is an aggregated representation of all selling agents in the market Supply describes the quantity of a good sellers wish to provide at every possible price It is important to distinguish between supply and the quantity supplied The market supply is an aggregated representation of all selling agents in the market Supply

28 Jumlah Harga Kurva Penawaran (Supply curve) Law of supply: There is a direct relationship between the price of a good and the quantity of that good offered for sale in a defined time period, ceteris paribus.

29 A change in the price of a good lead to a movement up or down the supply curve - ceteris paribus Other factors held constant are called non- price determinants Changes in these factors shift the supply curve A change in the price of a good lead to a movement up or down the supply curve - ceteris paribus Other factors held constant are called non- price determinants Changes in these factors shift the supply curve

30 Technology Resource or input prices Taxes and subsidies The number of sellers Expectations of producers Technology Resource or input prices Taxes and subsidies The number of sellers Expectations of producers Other factors affecting supply

31 Demand Supply Surplus Shortage Equilibrium point Jumlah Harga The market equilibrium comes at that price and quantity where the forces of supply demand are in balance. At the price, the amount that buyers want to buy is just equal to the amount that sellers want to sell

32 D-3 Supply Jumlah Harga D-2 E-1 E-2 D-1 E-3

33 Labor Land Capital goods Labor Land Capital goods Labor Land Capital goods Labor Land Capital goods Shoes Housing Pizzas Shoes Housing Pizzas Shoes Housing Pizzas Shoes Housing Pizzas Price on Product markets Price on Product markets Price on Factor markets Price on Factor markets Product markets Factor markets Demand Supply Consumer $ votes Consumer Ownership of inputs $ Costs of production $ Costs of production Businesses Productivity of factors Productivity of factors What How For whom


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