The climate and culture of an Organization 4 th semester, 2013.
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The climate and culture of an Organization 4 th semester, 2013
Pre-discussion Questions What is meant by organizational climate? What do you understand about organizational culture? Do you think the organizational climate can change? Can you see the relation between climate and culture in an organization? Identify the function of cultural organization? How is the organizational culture established/created?
What is meant by Organizational climate? It refers to “an overall feeling that is conveyed by the physical layout, the way participants interact, and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with costumers or the outsiders (Luthan, 2002) It is the total environment quality within an organization (Lunenburg, 2004) Iklim organisasi dipandang sebagai kepribadian organisasi seperti yang dilihat oleh para anggotanya (Steers, 1977) Iklim organisasi adalah lingkungan manusia didalam mana para pegawai organisasi melakukan pekerjaan mereka…dimana dapat mempengaruhi motivasi, prestasi dan kepuasan kerja melalui pembentukan harapan pegawai ttg konsekuensi yang akan timbul dari berbagai tindakan (Davis & Newstrom, 1985)
Properties of Organizational Climate (Poole in Hoy & Miskel, 2001) Organizational climate arises from routine organizational practices that are important to the organization and its members Organizational climate influence members’ behavior and attitudes
School climate It is as the social atmosphere of a setting or ‘learning environment’ in which students have different experiences, depending upon the protocols set up by the teachers and administrators (Moos, 1979) It is “a relatively enduring quality of school that is manifested in teachers’ collective perceptions of organizational behavior” (Hoy & Miskel, 2001); It also refers to “teachers’ perceptions of the general work environment of school” It reflects “the physical & psychological aspects of the school that are more susceptible to change and that provide the precondition necessary for teaching and learning to take place”. It is “the enduring characteristics that describe the psychological character of a particular school, distinguish it from other schools, and influence the behavior of teachers and students, and as psychological feeling that teachers and students have for that school” (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2004)
How school climate established? Principal’s Behavior SCHOOL CLIMATE Teacher’s Behaviors
Dimensions of school climate Four aspects of school environment that form school climate: –A physical environment that is welcoming & conducive to learning –A social environment that promotes communication & interaction –An affective environment that promotes a sense of belonging & self-esteem –An academic environment that promotes learning & self-fulfillment
Dimensions of school climate from leadership perspectives In addition to environment, leadership can also influence the climate of school namely: –Leadership quality –Level of Confidence –Communication –Responsibility –Fair rewards –Opportunity –Staff involvement –Etc.
Dimensions of school climate from students’ perceptions Achievement motivation Fairness Order & discipline Parent involvement Sharing of resources Student interpersonal relationships Student-teacher relationships (Heynes et.al., 1993)
Culture of Organization Culture describes a wide range of influences on how people behave in organizations, communities and even nations. In general, it refers to a set of common values, attitudes, beliefs and norms, some of which are explicit and some of which are not” (Brown, 2004) Culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Brown in Susanto, 2004) Culture is one of those terms that is difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it (McNamara)
Concepts of organizational culture Organizational culture can be defined as a culture admitted within a certain organization. organizational culture is the set of shared values and norms that control organizational members’ interaction with each other and with suppliers, costumers and other people outside the organization (Jones, 2001) It is the personality of the organization (McNamana, 2007) It is ‘the basic pattern of shared assumptions, values and beliefs considered to be correct way of thinking about and acting on problems and opportunities facing the organization (McShane, et.al., 2005) BO merupakan ‘nilai-nilai yang menjadi pegangan SDM dalam menjalankan kewajibannya & juga perilakunya di dalam organisasi (Susanto, 2004)
Components of organizational culture Levels of organizational culture (Maslowski, 2001) Level 1: Artifacts & Practices symbols, rites, rituals, myths, visible &audible behavior patterns Level 2: Values sense of what ought to be done Level 3: Basic Assumptions relationship to environment, nature of reality, of human nature, of human activity and of human relationship Visible but often not decipherable Greater level of awareness Taken for granted Invisible
Other components of Organizational Culture (for details see table. 3.4, p.89) Morgan: unstated values, implicit expectation for member behavior, Climate, Stated values, customs & rituals, stories, myths, symbols Mcshane & Gilnow: Assumptions, beliefs, values, stories & legend, ritual & ceremonies, language, physical structure Johnson: paradigm, control systems, stories & myths, power structures, organizational structures, ritual & routines, symbols
Establishment of cultural organization Proses kemunculan budaya organisasi memakan waktu yang lama dan melibatkan peran serta kelompok serta dan umumnya melibatkan seseorang tokoh (top manager) yang menginstruksikan visi dan nilai-nilai kepada stafnya. Pembentukan budaya organisasi kemudian dijadikan acuan oleh seluruh anggota kelompok dalam bertindak dan berperilaku.
Aspects that establish organizational culture Top management Socialization / publication Organizational culture Selection criteria Philosophy of founders
Publication Phase Socialization/publication is an important part in forming certain culture within an organization, and its fruitfulness will depend on two aspects: 1.Success quality in of recruiting new staff that can adjust with organizational culture 2.Publication method leaded by management and appointed by top management in its implementation
4 steps in establishing organizational culture (Hoge & Anthony, 1988) 1.Dependency/authority confrontation 2.Confrontation of intimacy, role differentiation, peer relationship issues 3.Creativity/stability 4.Survival/growth issues
Managerial aspects - Philosophy - Value systems - Action - Vision Organizational aspects -Strategies -Structures -System -Technology Operational aspects -Language - Jargon - Habits - Ceremonies - Actions Organizational culture Feedback The formation of Organizational culture (Siagian, 2002)
Characteristics of cultural organization Chatman & Caldwell identify some elements/characteristics that can form a certain organizational culture, namely: 1.Innovation: expectation to be creative and take risks 2.Stability: maintain status quo or change 3.Attention to detail: precision and detail 4.Outcome orientation 5.People orientation 6.Team orientation 7.Aggressiveness: competitive or easygoing
Characteristics of cultural organization (Susanto, 2004) 1.Leadership 2.Innovation 3.Individual initiatives 4.Tolerance against risks 5.Guidance 6.Integration: units available are integrated 7.Management support 8.Controlling 9.Identity: staff acknowledgement/familiarity to organization 10.Reward system 11.Tolerance against conflict 12.Communication model
Typology of cultural organization Organizational culture is classified into four separate orientation (Horrison, 1972): 1.Power orientation 2.Role orientation 3.Task orientation 4.Person orientation
Power orientation Budaya ini menekankan pada bagaimana lingkungan eksternal bisa dikuasai, ditundukan dn dicirikan oleh norma-norma bersaing untuk menjaga kekuasaannya, dan tidk mempedulikan nilai kemanusiaan/kesejahteraan anggota, lebih berorientasi keuntungan pribadi Kekurangan: –Tidak adaptif terhadap perubahan yang sangat dinamis, carir terhambat, inisiatif personal tertutup Keunggulan: –struktur & proses pengambilan keputusan efektif bagi pemecahan masalah
Role orientation Budaya organisasis sejenis ini sering disebut sebagai budaya birokrasi yang merupakan reaksi terhadap budaya yang cenderung power orientation Ciri-ciri: persaingan & konflik diatur oleh sekepakatan dan perjanjian, adanya aturan & prosedur, hak & kewajiban ditaati secara cermat Kelemahan: tidak fleksibel dalam beradaftasi dengan perubahan lingkungan Kelebihan: sangat efektif bagi organisasi besar dan kompleks, memudahkan peminpin dalam pengawasan, pedoman kerja yang jelas berupa aturan & prosedur
Task orientation Orientasi budaya ini didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa pencapaian tujuan adalah hal yang paling penting; struktur organisasi dan fungsi kegiatan dinilai berdasarkan signifikansinya terhadap pencapaian tujuan. Ciri-ciri: tidak ada yang boleh menghambat penyelesaian tugas, mekanisme yg tidak efektif diubah mengikuti kebutuhan tugas & fungsi, wewenang dianggap sah jika didasarkan pada pengetahuan/kompetensi yang tepat, Kelemahan: mengandalkan komitmen penuh setiap anggota kelompok, sulit membina kohesi internal Kelebihan: fleksibilitas organisasi tinggi mengikuti dinamika yang terjadi, sistem pengendalian yang lentur memudahkan peralihan yang cepat
Person orientation Orientasi budaya ini didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa organisasi dinilai sebagai sarana bagi anggotanya dalam memenuhi kebutuhan mereka yang tidak dapat terpenuhi jika dilakukan secara sendiri Ciri-ciri: kewenangan bisa diserahkan pada seseorang selama dinilai cakap dan ahli untuk menjalankannya, musyawarah untuk mufakat lebih disukai dalam keputusan secara umum Kelemahan:kesulitan mengerahkan kegiatan para anggotanya secara bersama-sama dalam menghadapi resiko Kelebihan: beadaptasi dengan perkembangan, anggota cenderung memiliki komitmen tinggi terhadap organisasi
Functions of cultural organization There are at least 3 principle functions of organizational culture: 1.Corporate culture is a deeply embedded form of social control that influence employee decision and behavior 2.Corporate culture is the social glue that bonds people together and make them feel part of the organizational experience 3.Corporate culture assists the sense-making process
Functions of cultural organization (2) Hoy & Miskel (2001) “culture serves to guide and shape the attitude and behavior of organizational members. Kreitner & Kinici (2000) identify the function of organizational culture into 4 aspects: 1.Memberikan identitas organisasi kepada karyawannya 2.Memudahkan komitmen kolektif 3.Mempromosikan stabilitas sistem sosial 4.Membentuk prilaku dengan membantu meneger merasakan keberadaannya The four functions can be seen from the following chart:
Functional flow of Organizational culture Organizational Culture Identity of Organization Social system stabilities Collective commitment Understandable way Of supervising
Impacts of cultural organization According to Lunenberg & Ornstein (2004), the organizational culture can influence staff performance, improve organizational effectiveness, organizational structural process and also other managing processes as motivating, leadership, decision making, communication & change
Maintaining and strengthening cultural organization One way to strengthen the organizational culture is by means of socialization which is “the process by which individuals learn values, expected behavior and social knowledge necessary to assume their roles in the organization” Look at chart 3.8 on organizational socialization process/cycle
Things to consider in maintaing organizational culture Susanto, (2004): –Seleksi karyawan –Penempatan karyawan –Pendalaman bidang pekerjaan –Penilaian kinerja dan pemberian penghargaan –Penyebaran cerita dan berita –Pengakuan atas kinerja dan promosi jabatan
School culture Peterson (2002): Just as culture is critical to understanding the dynamics behind any thriving community, organization, or business, the daily realities & deep structure of school life hold the key to educational success. Reforms that strive for educational excellence are likely to fail unless they are meaningfully linked to the school’s unique culture.
Other concepts of school culture School culture as “ a structure, process & climate of values & norms that channel staff and students in the direction of successful teaching and learning.” (purkey & Smith, 1987) School culture includes values, symbols, beliefs and shared meanings of parents, students, teachers, and other conceived as a group or community (Turner & Crang, 1996) School culture is defined as “the basic assumptions, norms and values and cultural artifacts that are shared by school members which influence their functioning at school (Maslowski, 1997)
Components of school culture Cardwell & Spinks (1992), the foundation of school culture can be viewed from the answers of the following questions: –What are the purposes of education? –What is the role of school in achieving these purposes –What knowledge, skill and attitude are worthy of being addressed in the educational program of the school? –What is the relationship between a school and its community, between school and government? –To what extent should the school cater for the needs of all students? –How should a student learn? –What behaviors and relationships are desirable among different members of the school community?
For more details about the culture of school can refer to Picture 3.9, p. 109
Agenda for next week! Topic: Short-presentation for School-Visit Agenda Readings: Refer to group topics
Remainder!!! Group Presentation “School-visit Agenda” discussion will be held March 25, 2013, please be prepared!!