Diterbitkan olehChe BaskoroTelah diubah "2 tahun yang lalu
Presentasi berjudul: "Metode Pengumpulan Data dan Analisis Kualitas Air"— Transcript presentasi:
1Metode Pengumpulan Data dan Analisis Kualitas Air OlehEko SugihartoKoordinator PenelitianPSLH UGM
2Mengapa Perlu ? Lima alasan utama keperluan pemantauan: mengetahui karakter air dan identifikasi kualitas air dari waktu ke waktu;mengidentifikasi problem spesifik air (bila ada);memberikan informasi terjadinya pencemaranmengevaluasi ketaatan terhadap peraturan perundang-undanganmengevaluasi effisiensi pengelolaan air yang telah dilakukan (RKL-RPL , UKL-UPL)
3STRATEGI PENENTUAN LOKASI PENGAMBILAN Tergantung pada:Jenis perairanTujuan PemantauanKetelitian yang diinginkanKarakter parameter yang dipantau
4JENIS PENGAMBILAN SAMPEL GrabCompositeIntegratedContinous
5IDENTITAS SAMPEL Data Minimal yang diperlukan untuk identitas sampel: Nomor / Kode sampelTanggal dan Jam PengambilanLokasiCuaca saat pengambilanSuhu air, suhu udaraNama pengambil sampelBahan yang ditambahkan (bila ada)
6IDENTITAS SAMPELFor each visit to an individual station where field and/or samples are collected record the following:Station IDSampling DateLocationSampling Depth (if other than surface)Sampling TimeSample Collector's Initials (if several persons in the region collect this data)Record of all measured field parameters and their respective values.
8pH A scale that denotes how acidic or basic a substance is pH A scale that denotes how acidic or basic a substance is. Pure water has a pH of 7.0 and is neither acidic nor basic.
9PARAMETER PENCEMAR UTAMA B O DC O DT S STSSTurbiditasMinyakRadio aktifMikro organisme
10Mikro organisme What is E. coli and where does it come from? E. coli is a type of fecal coliform bacteria commonly found in the intestines of animals and humans. E. coli is short for Escherichia coli. The presence of E. coli in water is a strong indication of recent sewage or animal waste contamination. Sewage may contain many types of disease-causing organisms.
11REAKSI BOD The Reaction Expression - Which can be expressed analytically as: CnHaObNc + (n + a/4 - b/2 - 3c/4) O2 ----> n CO2 + (a/2 -3c/2)H2O + cNH3
14Biochemical Oxygen Demand Referred to as a “standardized laboratory procedure used to determine the relative oxygen requirements of wastewaters, effluents and polluted water” - Standard Methods (1998)widest application in management of waste loadings to sewage treatment facilitiesmeasures the molecular oxygen utilized during a specific incubation period for the biochemical degradation of organic material and oxygen used to oxidize reduced forms of nitrogen (nitrogenous demand)works best at pH (mariculture????)
15BOD Bacteria and other microorganisms use organic substances for food as they metabolize organic material, the consume oxygenorganics are broken down into simpler compounds such as CO2 and H2Oenergy released is used for growth and reproduction
16BODWhen this process occurs in water, the oxygen consumed is dissolved oxygenif oxygen is not continuously replaced, the D.O. level will decrease as the organics are decomposed by microbesrate of decline approximates 0.20 mg O2/L/hr (Boyd, 1990) in pondsthe need for oxygen is referred to as “biochemical oxygen demand”not: “biological oxygen demand”
17BODOrganic waste in sewage is is one of the major types of water pollutantsimpractical to isolate and identify each specific organic chemical and determine its concentrationBOD is an indirect measure of the total amount of biodegradable organics in the watermore organics = more BOD exerted
18BODComplete decomposition of organic material by microorganisms takes time: (approx. 20 days under normal conditions)the total amount of oxygen required to “stabilize” all biodegradable organic compounds is the UBOD or BODLamount expressed in mg/L of oxygenlevels sometimes in excess of 1,500 mg/Lnormal sewage levels = 200 mg/L
19PENGUKURAN BOD 5 days a 20oC 300 mL glass BOD bottles two D.O. readings: initial and after 5 days’ incubation in dark at 20oCBOD = D.O.Day 0 - D.O.5daysvery clean waters = BOD5 of 1.0 mg/Lsewage level = BOD5 greater than 10 mg/L
20CODThis refers to chemicals present in the water that are not biodegradable by microbes or are at least slowly degradedmeasures all organics, including the biodegradable (BOD) fraction)it is the amount of a specific oxidant (potassium dichromate) that reacts with the sample under controlled conditionsSo? Chemical not biological reaction