Presentasi berjudul: "Komponen2 Utama Pendidikan (Sukmadinata, 2008) Lingkungan Alam,sosial,budaya,politik,pekonomi,religi Pendidik Pesertadidik Interaksi Pendidikan Isi Proses."— Transcript presentasi:
Komponen2 Utama Pendidikan (Sukmadinata, 2008) Lingkungan Alam,sosial,budaya,politik,pekonomi,religi Pendidik Pesertadidik Interaksi Pendidikan Isi Proses Evaluasi Kurikulum Tujuan pendidikan
CURRICULUM Curir dan curere (Yunani kuno), jarak yg harus ditempuh dalam olah raga lari. Zais (1976); concepts of the curriculum; 1) curriculum as the program of studies, 2) curriculum as course content, 3) curriculum as planned learning experiences, 4) curriculum as experiences “had” under the auspices of the school, 5) curriculum as a structured series of intended learning outcomes, and 6) curriculum as a (written) plan for action. Saylor (1981); concepts of the curriculum: 1) curriculum as subjects and subject matter, 2) curriculum as experiences, 3) curriculum as objectives, 4) curriculum as planned opportunities for learning. Unruh &Unruh (1984); curriculum development is planning process of assessing needs, identifying goals and objectives, preparing for instructional, and meeting the cultural, social, and personal requirements that the curriculum is to serve.
CURRICULUM Oliva (1992); curriculum responds to and is changed by social forces, philosophical positions, psychological principles, accumulating knowledge, and educational leadership at its moment in history. Murray Print (1993); curriculum is defined as all the planned learning opportunities offered to learner by the educational institutional and the experiences learners encounter when the curriculum is implemented. Longstreet (1993); the curriculum should meet the needs of the individual child, of society, of business, of the art.
Official curriculum: the curriculum described in formal documents. Operational curriculum: the curriculum embodied in actual teaching practices and tests Hidden curriculum: institutional norms and values not openly acknowledged by teachers or school officials Null curriculum: the subject matters not taught Extra curriculum: the planned experiences outside the formal curriculum Five Concurrent Curricula
Six Common Concepts of Curriculum Scope and sequence: the depiction of curriculum as a matrix of objectives assigned to successive grade level and grouped according to a common theme Syllabus: a plan for an entire course, typically including rationale, topics, resources, and evaluation Content outline: a list of topics covered organized in outline form Textbooks: Instructional materials used as the guide for classroom instruction Course of study: a series of courses that the student must complete Planned experience: all experiences students have that are planned by the school, whether academic, emotional, or social.
Planning Elements Objectives: What knowledge, skill, or attitudes should students acquire? Rationale or educational philosophy behind the curriculum: Why should they learn this? What is the value of this? Content: What content, topics, concepts, skills, atc., should be covered? Characteristics of target audience: Who is this for (consider interests, abilities, background knowledge) Activities: What should they do? Materials: What resources will they need? Sequencing principles: In what order should this be done? Schedule: How long will each part take? Teacher training and attitudes: What do the teachers need to know, be able to do, and be committed to? Evaluation : How will success be determined? What will count as success Administrative structure, school facilities, and financial constraints: How will it be implemented in a school? Other parts of curriculum: How will it related to other subjects?
Hub. Kurikulum dan Pengajaran (Oliva, 1992) The Dualistic Model The Interlocking Model The Concentric Model The Ciclical Model CurrTeaching CurrTeaching CurrTeaching Curr Teaching
Kreteria Penyusunan Kreteria Pemilihan Sistem Pengembangan Kurikulum Rangkaian pengajaran tentang hasil belajar yang diharapkan Sistem pengajaran Hasil Belajar Konten instrumental Repentoir Prilaku Mengajar Sumber (isi budaya yang sesuai untuk pengajaran) (Bellack and Kliebard dalam Sanjaya, 2008)
The Process of Curriculum Analysis Sumber: Posner, 1992 How is the curriculum documented? What situation resulted in the development of the curriculum? What perspectives does the curriculum represent What are the purposes and content of the curriculum? How is the curriculum organized? How should the curriculum be implemented? What can be learned from an evaluation of the curriculum? What are the curriculum’s strengths and limitations? Curriculum documentation and origins (Set 1) Curriculum proper (Set 2) Curriculum in use (Set 3) Curriculum critique (Set 4)
Pendekatan mata pelajaran Pendekatan interdisipliner/ rumpun Pendektan integratif Pendekatan sistem
Breadth and Depth Within Discipline Grade 12 Kindergarten Mathematics Language Art Science Social Studies Curricula Spiraling Sumber: Fogarty, R., 1991
Konservatif: M elestarikan berbagai nilai budaya sebagai warisan masa lalu, agar identitas dan jati diri sebagai bangsa tidak hilang. Kreatif, k urikulum harus mampu menjawab setiap tantangan dan perubahan jaman, ok kurikulum harus mampu mengembangkan, mengajarkan, dan memberikan kegiatan kreatif dan konstruktif. Kritis dan evaluatif, Kurikulum tidak hanya mewariskan semua unsur kebudayaan yang ada, tetapi harus menilai dan memilih yang akan diwariskan. Demikian juga dengan kebudayaan baru/asing yang masuk, tidak semuanya jelek, disinilah peran kritis dan evaluatif kurikulum sangat diperlukan sebagai control sosial dalam proses pendidikan.
Development of thinking Competition in education with other nations Vocational education Moral education School safety Crucial curriculum issues: (McNeil, 2006)