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Konvensi UNESCO Tahun 2001 Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air

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1 Konvensi UNESCO Tahun 2001 Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air
tentang Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air dalam rangka Seminar dan Pameran Warisan Budaya Bawah Air dengan tema ‘Warisan Budaya Bawah Air, Apakah Harus Dilelang?’ Auditorium Gedung Baru Museum Nasional Jakarta, Rabu, 4 Agustus 2010 Presentasi oleh Masanori Nagaoka Kepala Unit Budaya, Kantor UNESCO Jakarta

2 Misi UNESCO UNESCO, sebagai satu-satunya organisasi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa yang memiliki mandat khusus untuk melindungi dan melestarikan warisan (alam dan budaya, benda dan tak-benda, bergerak dan tidak bergerak) merupakan pelopor dari upaya internasional untuk melindungi kreativitas dan keanekaragaman budaya di seluruh dunia.

3 Konvensi-Konvensi UNESCO untuk Melindungi Warisan Budaya di Seluruh Dunia
Konvensi Hak Cipta Universal (1952) Konvensi untuk Perlindungan terhadap Benda Budaya dalam Situasi Konflik Bersenjata dengan Berbagai Aturan untuk Penerapan Konvensi ini (1954) Konvensi mengenai Cara-cara Pelarangan dan Pencegahan Impor Gelap, Ekspor dan Pindah Kepemilikan atas Benda Budaya (1970) Konvensi mengenai Perlindungan terhadap Warisan Budaya dan Alam Dunia (1972) Konvensi mengenai Perlindungan terhadap Warisan Budaya Bawah Air (2001) Konvensi untuk Perlindungan terhadap Warisan Budaya Tak Benda (2003) Konvensi untuk Perlindungan dan Promosi Keanekaragaman Ekspresi Budaya (2005)

4 Konvensi UNESCO tentang Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air (2001)
THE 2001 CONVENTION: THE NEED TO RATIFY, STATUS, ISSUES AND THE UNESCO STRATEGY FOR RATIFICATION Let me begin with a sentence: “How can you call this planet earth, when it is quite clearly water?” Underwater cultural heritage is as important as cultural heritage on land and certainly not less rich than this. However, let us imagine a team of archeologists had recently excavated a new temple in Luxor and would now try to export its treasures in order to sell it at Sotheby’s. What do you think how the concerned country, the international press, archeologists would react? So why is it that shipwrecks, other than heritage on land, are still connected in our minds to the term “treasure” and not to “cultural heritage”?

5 Latar Belakang Ada sekitar 3 juta kapal karam yang belum ditemukan, banyak di antaranya berada di sekitar kawasan Asia Tenggara Dalam beberapa abad ini, Warisan Budaya Bawah Air lebih terlindungi dibandingkan situs-situs arkeologi yang berada di darat karena keadaan laut itu sendiri, misalnya, tingkat kerusakan cenderung rendah berkat rendahnya kadar oksigen di dalam laut Kemajuan teknologi membuat kedalaman laut semakin dapat dijangkau Penyelam “open circuit” (penyelam laut dangkal) dapat menyelam hingga kedalaman 100 m Kapal-kapal selam bahkan sudah dapat menyelam hingga kedalaman 10 km Banyak situs di wilayah perairan Asia menjadi sasaran penjarahan besar-besaran The richness of the world’s underwater cultural heritage is often under-estimated. Oceans, which cover the larger part of our planed, still retain many of their secrets. However, the looting of such heritage is augmenting rapidly due to improved diving technology. Worldwide, art markets and collectors along with treasure hunters increasingly turn to objects coming from the seabed. However, there is still a lack of awareness of its existence and historical importance. Threats Today shipwrecks and underwater ruins are coming under increasing threat. While professional equipment and a high-level of training are necessary to undertake underwater excavations, this heritage is no longer beyond the reach of treasure hunters. In addition to dispersal, recovered objects face also the risk of destruction due to the lack of conservation. Increasing Accessibility In 1942 and 1943, Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan invented the aqualung, thereby making it possible to reach wrecks located at greater sea depths. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, open circuit divers have been able to descend to a depth of up to 100 metres, and to even more with the discovery of new gas mixtures. In 1989, the Japanese research submarine Shinkai dived even to 6,527 metres below sea level in the Trench off Sanriku, Japan. In 1995, the Japanese unmanned probe Kaiko descended to the record depth of 10,911 metres. Increased accessibility allows archaeologists to better understand underwater cultural heritage and the public to enjoy it. However, it can also lead to pillaging and damages made by disrespectful leisure divers. Many archaeological sites under water are subject to heavy pillage. Their exploitation and the sale of the objects found is reminiscent of events that took place a hundred years ago on many archaeological sites on land. More than 160 large vessels have been commercially exploited on a large scale in the last thirty years, with up to 500,000 objects recovered and sold per wreck, and the ship’s hull left destroyed. The grey amount of pilfering and looting is however much higher, as irresponsible leisure divers increasingly damage wrecks and sites. Research has shown for instance that only a small minority of wrecks located in diveable depths along the coasts of the Mediterranean remain untouched. Famous wrecks, damaged or destroyed by commercial exploitation, include the Geldermalsen, the Nuestra Signora de Atocha, the Tek Sing as well as the Titanic.

6 Warisan Budaya Bawah Air = “harta karun” ?
Latar Belakang Warisan Budaya Bawah Air = “harta karun” ? Cultural heritage on land has in the last decades benefited from national and international protection. Nevertheless, the looting of underwater cultural heritage is increasing rapidly and it still remains largely unprotected. Due to improved diving technology, art markets and collectors along with treasure hunters turn more and more to objects coming from the seabed. The cultural treasures in danger of pillaging and destruction are immense. Over three million undiscovered shipwrecks are estimated to be spread across the ocean floor. Remnants of ancient civilization, like the ruins of the Alexandria lighthouse in Egypt, and whole cities, such as Jamaica’s Port Royal, lay under the waves. However many national laws do not adequately protect such heritage and wrecks or ruins located in international waters are even still entirely unprotected. A court case ensuing from the looting of Clive of India's Gold from the wreck of the Doddington set important precedents for the convention.

7 Sejarah Konvensi tahun 2001
Tahun 1993 UNESCO bertekad untuk menyusun sebuah konvensi baru untuk perlindungan warisan budaya bawah air. Oleh karena itu, Konvensi tahun 2001 diadopsi oleh Konferensi Umum UNESCO. Konvensi ini merupakan tanggapan dari komunitas internasional atas penjarahan dan perusakan warisan budaya bawah air. Konvensi tahun 2001 menawarkan suatu standar internasional yang tinggi untuk perlindungan warisan budaya bawah air. Konvensi tersebut terdiri atas kerangka hukum yang komprehensif dan aturan perlindungan melalui upaya hukum, administratif, dan operasional yang sebaiknya diadopsi oleh Negara-negara Pihak berdasarkan kemampuan masing-masing. Konvensi tahun 2001 ini mulai berlaku pada 2 Januari 2009 Sampai dengan Mei 2010, 31 negara sudah meratifikasi dan menjadi Negara Pihak konvensi ini. Recovered objects are not only threatened by dispersal – an object that has been immersed for a long period in saltwater and is recovered faces a risk of rapid deterioration when brought into contact with air. It has to undergo adequate de-saltng and conservation treatment to be preserved. Many precious cultural objects have been lost already and a protection of underwater cultural heritage is urgently needed.

8 Apa isi dari Konvensi ini?
Konvensi UNESCO tentang Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air merupakan instrumen hukum yang penting untuk perlindungan warisan budaya bawah air. Konvensi tersebut bertujuan untuk: (1) memastikan perlindungan universal yang dilakukan terhadap warisan budaya bawah air; (2) memfasilitasi kerjasama antar negara; dan (3) menetapkan standar-standar profesional. The Convention contains many more important regulations. For instance it contains regulations against the illicit trafficking of cultural property and on training in underwater archaeology. The transfer of technologies and information sharing is also encouraged and public awareness shall be raised concerning the value and significance of the underwater cultural heritage. A important part of the Convention is its ANNEX – it contains the "Rules concerning activities directed at underwater cultural heritage", i.e. operation schemes for underwater interventions and is internationally recognized as the reference document in the discipline of underwater archaeology.

9 Apa isi “Lampiran” dari Konvensi tahun 2001?
Lampiran Konvensi merupakan salah satu panduan terpenting yang ada untuk para arkeolog bawah air saat ini. Lampiran Konvensi tahun 2001 berisi rincian praktis mengenai “Berbagai Aturan dan Ketentuan mengenai berbagai kegiatan yang mengarah pada warisan budaya bawah air”. 36 Aturan dalam Lampiran memberikan skema operasional. The best-known and most widely applied part of the 2001 Convention is certainly its Annex. It is one of the most important guidelines available for underwater archaeologists today. The Annex of the 2001 Convention contains the detailed practical “Rules concerning activities directed at underwater cultural heritage“. They include regulations as to how a project is to be designed; guidelines regarding the competence and the qualifications required for persons undertaking activities; and methodologies on conservation and site management. The 36 Rules of the Annex present a directly applicable operation scheme for underwater interventions. Over the years, they have become a reference document in the field of underwater excavations and archaeology, setting out regulations for a responsible management of such cultural heritage. Every professional working in the field of underwater cultural heritage should strictly comply with these Rules.

10 Apa itu Warisan Budaya Bawah Air?
(a) “Warisan Budaya Bawah Air” berarti semua jejak keberadaan manusia yang memiliki karakter budaya, sejarah, atau arkeologis yang sebagian atau keseluruhannya telah berada di bawah air, secara berkala atau terus-menerus, selama paling tidak 100 tahun seperti: (i) Situs, struktur, bangunan, artefak dan sisa-sisa manusia, yang berada dalam konteks arkeologis dan alam mereka; (ii) Kapal, pesawat udara, kendaraan lain atau bagian dari muatan kendaraan tersebut atau isi lainnya, yang berada dalam konteks arkeologis dan alam mereka; dan (iii) Benda-benda dengan karakter prasejarah. Pasal 1 Ayat 1 dari Konvensi It does not include natural heritage like coral reefs or fossils.

11 Prinsip-Prinsip Utama Konvensi tahun 2001
Ada 4 prinsip utama: Kewajiban untuk Melestarikan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air Pelestarian In situ sebagai Pilihan Utama Tidak Ada Eksploitasi Komersial Pelatihan dan Berbagi Informasi Prinsip-prinsip ini sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip moral yang sudah berlaku untuk warisan budaya yang berada di darat! Obligation to Preserve Underwater Cultural Heritage - States Parties should preserve underwater cultural heritage and take action accordingly. This does not mean that ratifying States would necessarily have to undertake archaeological excavations; they only have to take measures according to their capabilities. The Convention encourages scientific research and public access. In situ Preservation as a Preferred Option - The in situ preservation of underwater cultural heritage (i.e. in its original location) should be considered as the first and preferred option before allowing or engaging in any activities. The recovery of objects may be authorized for the purpose of making a significant contribution to the protection of, or knowledge about, underwater cultural heritage. No Commercial Exploitation - The 2001 Convention stipulates that underwater cultural heritage should not be commercially exploited for trade or speculation, and that it should not be irretrievably dispersed. This regulation is in conformity with the moral principles that already apply to cultural heritage on land. It is not to be understood as preventing archaeological research or tourist access. Training and Information Sharing - Many States do not yet have sufficiently trained underwater archaeologists. The Convention therefore encourages training in underwater archaeology, the transfer of technologies and the sharing of information. © D. Frka, UNESCO

12 Mengapa Konvensi melarang eksploitasi komersial terhadap situs-situs bawah air?
Warisan budaya bawah air bukan “harta karun” melainkan “warisan budaya untuk kemanusiaan”; Perusahaan komersial seringkali tidak melakukan penelitian ilmiah dan dokumentasi yang seharusnya diadakan bagi para arkeolog, sejarawan, dan ahli konservasi; Eksploitasi komersial menyebabkan kemungkinan hilang, hancur, dan tersebarnya warisan bawah air; Dalam hal ini, Konvensi 2001 mengajak setiap Negara untuk mengambil tindakan melawan perdagangan ilegal benda budaya yang diambil dari bawah laut. A wreck is not only a cargo, but also the remains of a ship, its passengers, and their lives. A submerged city is as precious to archeologists and historians as Pompeii, as such sites give valuable testimony to historic events, sinking of the Titanic. The 2001 Convention contains several regulations concerning the prevention of the illicit trafficking of cultural property recovered from the sea (Articles 14 – 18). States Parties must take all practicable measures to ensure that their own nationals and vessels do not engage in activities damaging or dispersing underwater cultural heritage. It furthermore stipulates that States Parties should take measures to prevent the entry into their territory, the dealing in, or the possession of underwater cultural heritage that was illicitly exported/and or recovered. States should also prohibit the use of their territory and maritime ports for activities harming the underwater cultural heritage. Each State Party should impose sanctions for violations of measures taken in the framework of the 2001 Convention’s implementation, and should cooperate to ensure their enforcement. Seizure of illicitly recovered underwater cultural heritage should also be foreseen by national law. The 2001 Convention does not contain a restitution-claim. However, the regulations of the Convention should be understood within the context of, and as complementary to, other UNESCO and UNIDROIT Conventions that regulate this issue. © The National Committee for Salvage and utilization of Valuable Objects from Sunken Ships (PANNAS BMKT) The Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 2010

13 Mengapa Sistem Kerjasama Negara diusulkan oleh Konvensi tahun 2001?
The Context Kerjasama antarnegara merupakan cara terbaik untuk memastikan perlindungan warisan budaya bawah air secara menyeluruh. Dengan meratifikasi Konvensi ini, Negara-negara setuju untuk melarang warga negara dan kapal-kapal mereka melakukan penjarahan warisan budaya bawah air, dimanapun mereka berada, meminta mereka untuk melaporkan temuan dan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan, dan memberitahu Negara lain akan temuan tersebut. Sistem ini akan mempermudah pengambilan langkah bersama dan efektif melawan perburuan harta dan pencurian yang terjadi di wilayah di luar yurisdiksi nasional garis pantai suatu Negara, tanpa memperluas atau mengurangi hak kedaulatan Negara. Cooperation between States is the best way to assure the comprehensive protection of underwater cultural heritage. If a State has no jurisdiction over a location it cannot prevent interference with it and prevent its looting. At sea, a State usually has exclusive jurisdiction only for its Territorial Sea, limited jurisdiction over the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf, and jurisdiction only over its own vessels and nationals at High Sea. If, therefore, a vessel from another State pillages a site off the coast of a State whose jurisdiction is no longer applicable, due to the distance from the coast, the Coastal State cannot prevent this. The Flag State of the vessel will however often ignore the activities of its vessels and nationals as the location of the concerned site can be very far away from its waters. As the extension of the jurisdiction of States at sea was not an option the 2001 Convention chose to facilitate State cooperation, to find a solution to this situation. In joining the Convention, States therefore agree to prohibit their nationals and vessels from looting underwater cultural heritage, regardless of its location, requesting them to report finds and activities and informing other States of this. The interested States can then cooperate in the protection of the archaeological sites. The Flag State sets legal regulations for its nationals and vessels and other States help it – through a Coordinating State - in implementing them as agreed between the concerned States and in accordance with the Convention. This system will make it easier to take joint and effective action against treasure-hunting and pillaging being conducted in territories outside of the national jurisdiction of a Coastal State, without extending or diminishing State sovereignty rights.

14 Ungkapan Keprihatinan UNESCO terhadap WBA Indonesia (Lelang Cirebon 5 Mei 2010)
“Akan sangat disayangkan jika kita membiarkan warisan yang bernilai sejarah dan arkeologi tinggi terpencar, sehingga menghilangkan akses bagi para ilmuwan dan masyarakat umum ke koleksi yang luar biasa tersebut. Eksploitasi terhadap situs arkeologi dan tindakan yang mengakibatkan terpencarnya artefak-artefak dari situs merupakan proses yang tidak bisa dipulihkan. Muatan yang berasal dari kapal karam di perairan Cirebon memberikan banyak informasi terkait ramainya pertukaran kebudayaan dan perdagangan di kawasan tersebut pada masa itu. UNESCO, melalui Konvensi 2001 tentang Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air, mendorong Negara-negara Pihak untuk melindungi warisan yang tenggelam dan menjadikannya dapat diakses untuk penelitian dan dinikmati oleh umum. Maka, kami mendukung Pemerintah Indonesia untuk melakukan segala upaya guna memastikan dilakukannya penelitian ilmiah secara menyeluruh terhadap situs-situs dan artefak-artefak untuk dipamerkan di museum-museum. UNESCO siap membantu pihak berwenang Indonesia dengan menugaskan para ahli di bidang museologi dan konservasi.” © The National Committee for Salvage and utilization of Valuable Objects from Sunken Ships (PANNAS BMKT) The Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 2010

15 Kasus terkait WBA Indonesia: Mengapa “perlindungan” lebih penting daripada “lelang”?
WBA memiliki konteks sejarah yang penting, yang dapat memberi gambaran mengenai hubungan ekonomi dan sosial-budaya antara Indonesia dan negara lain. Bagi para ilmuwan, WBA mewakili sumber informasi yang tidak ternilai mengenai peradaban kuno dan sejarah pelayaran. Bagi masyarakat umum, WBA menawarkan kesempatan untuk mengembangkan rekreasi penyelaman dan pariwisata. Perlindungan WBA juga penting bagi tujuan pendidikan, terutama untuk pembangunan berkelanjutan jangka panjang bagi komunitas lokal. Dari segi ekonomi, pariwisata dapat dikembangkan di daerah di sekitar situs bawah air, jika dikelola dengan baik, dan dapat pula menciptakan sumber ekonomi yang signifikan dan berkelanjutan bagi masyarakat lokal. © The National Committee for Salvage and utilization of Valuable Objects from Sunken Ships (PANNAS BMKT) The Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 2010 15

16 Keadaan Terkini Terkait WBA Indonesia
Data mengenai bangkai kapal dan benda berharga di dalamnya masih belum akurat; Terbatasnya kapasitas dalam pengawasan dan pengendalian BMKT, dan terbatasnya kualitas dan kuantitas sumber daya manusia dibandingkan dengan luas wilayah laut Indonesia; Situs bangkai kapal di wilayah perairan dangkal umumnya telah rusak dan dicuri; Fasilitas dan infrastruktur pendukung survei, pengangkatan, dan penanganan pasca-pengangkatan yang tidak memadai; Ketiadaan museum maritim untuk mengakomodir berbagai warisan maritim termasuk BMKT. © PANNAS BMKT The Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 2010 ©, Jakarta 2010

17 Masalah-masalah utama yang harus ditanggapi
Kurangnya arkeolog bawah air yang terlatih; Kurangnya pengetahuan masyarakat mengenai pentingnya warisan budaya bawah air; Kurangnya perlindungan hukum nasional; Perlunya kerjasama internasional untuk melawan perburuan harta karun dan penjarahan. © PANNAS BMKT The Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 2010 © BBC Indonesia; Cirebon Auction, 2010 17

18 Kegiatan terkini UNESCO terkait dengan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air
Rapat Konsultasi Nasional tentang Warisan Budaya Bawah Air (Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, Juni 2007) Pertemuan ini ditujukan untuk mempromosikan Konvensi UNESCO tahun 2001 tentang Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air. Sebelas lembaga pemerintahan yang terkait secara langsung dengan pengelolaan warisan budaya bawah air di Indonesia hadir dalam pertemuan ini. CollAsia 2010 – Pelestarian Koleksi Arkeologis Bawah Air (Manila dan Subic, Filipina : September 2009) Program tiga minggu ini ditujukan untuk memperbaiki kondisi pelestarian koleksi arkeologis bawah air di Asia Tenggara. Sebanyak 17 peserta dari 8 negara mengikuti pelatihan ini termasuk Brunei, Kamboja, Indonesia, Malaysia, Filipina, Thailand, Timor-Leste, dan Vietnam. Pelatihan Dasar I dan II Mengenai Warisan Budaya Bawah Air (Chanthaburi, Thailand tahun 2009 dan 2010) Pelatihan ini bertujuan untuk membuat peserta yang berasal dari latar belakang akademis yang berbeda-beda untuk memiliki tingkat pemahaman yang sama atas ilmu arkeologi kelautan yang multi-disipliner. Perwakilan dari Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata dan Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan Indonesia mengikuti kedua pelatihan ini. The National Consultative meeting was organized jointly by the UNESCO Jakarta, the Indonesian National Commission for UNESCO and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia with the objective to promote the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage. Some 11 relevant government agencies directly concerned with underwater heritage management in Indonesia were present at the meeting. Representatives from UNESCO/HQs and ICOMOS International Committee for Underwater Cultural Heritage (ICUCH) provided their expertise and shared experiences.

19 Tindakan Kolektif Jangka Menengah dan Panjang untuk Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air Indonesia
Meningkatkan kemampuan pengelolaan dari para pejabat nasional dalam mengelola situs-situs arkeologis bawah air di Indonesia dan untuk melawan kegiatan-kegiatan gelap para pemburu harta karun dan penyelam. Mendorong pendampingan dan peningkatan kesadaran di antara komunitas lokal mengenai Warisan Budaya Bawah Air, dan di saat yang sama, peningkatan kemampuan/ pengembangan keterampilan bagi para pelatih penyelam lokal. Mempelajari hukum nasional dan Peraturan Presiden di Indonesia saat ini, dan bila perlu, membantu Pemerintah Indonesia dalam mengamandemen ketentuan-ketentuan hukum yang ada.

20 Contoh Museum dan Pariwisata
Beberapa contoh proyek untuk mempertunjukkan pelestarian in situ warisan budaya bawah air, dan telah berhasil difungsikan sebagai fasilitas pariwisata, antara lain: Museum Bawah Air - Alexandria (Mesir) - Baiheliang (Cina) - Nanhai No. 1 (Cina) Museum Jejak Penyelaman - Caesarea (Israel) - Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (AS) - Kronprins Gustav Adolf (Finlandia) - Protected Shipwreck Sites (Kroasia) - Ustica (Italia) - Wellington wreck (Selandia Baru)   © Baiheliang, 2010 The UNESCO 2001 Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage stipulates that sites should preferably be left where they were found, in the absence of any type of valid justification for intervention or recovery. The preference given to in situ preservation takes into account the integrity of sites, the information they may yield in the future, and the fact that – due to the low grade of oxygen – the underwater preservation is even easier and less costly than when taking it on land. Of increasing importance is last not least the interest of the public and especially tourism.  The increasing number of museums and tourist sites that combine   the fascination with both the underwater environment and submerged cultural artefacts has given rise to a new form of tourism. Underwater Museums Alexandria (Egypt) Following the discovery of precious statues and artefacts in the area of the eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt, the construction of an underwater museum in the Bay is discussed.  The museum may expose finds from the ancient Ptolemaic palace, where once reigned Cleopatra, as well as from the adjacent sites of the sunken cities Herakleion and Canopus and the famous Pharos lighthouse. The museum building may feature an above-water exhibition space as well as an underwater area corresponding to the major archaeological zones. It might be conceived as an “aquarium” with underwater “tubes” extending into the Bay of Alexandria. The first step to be undertaken is a feasibility study, which will be accompanied by an international Scientific Advisory Committee established by UNESCO. More UNESCO publication “Focus on Alexandria” Baiheliang (China) Baiheliang is an archaeological site in China, now submerged under the waters of the newly built Three Gorges Dam. It displays some of the world’s oldest hydrological inscriptions, recording 1,200 years of changes in the water level of the Yangtze River. The stone ridge is 1,600 meters long and 15 meters wide and will be submerged 30 meters below water-level, when the Three Gorges Dam Project is completed. Since 1994, China's departments for the protection of cultural heritage have undertaken research on the conservation of the stone inscriptions of Baiheliang. Finally, it was decided to transform the site into an underwater museum, which is now under construction. Nanhai No. 1 (China) An entire ancient wreck has been raised on the south coast of China (Guangdong province). The Nanhai No 1, a 1000-year-old vessel, 25 meters long and weighing 3,800-tons, which sank during the Song Dynasty ( ), was discovered in the late 1980s by a fisherman and is in good condition. It is thought to contain 60,000 to 80,000 precious pieces of cargo. The wreck was found in the western part of the mouth of the Pearl River (Zhu Jiang), the starting point of China’s “Marine Silk Road”, which once connected China with the Middle East and Europe. The Nanhai No. 1 wreck will be displayed in a new museum, which will host an aquarium with the same water quality, temperature and environment as the spot in which the wreck was discovered. Museum Dive Trails Caesarea (Israel) The ancient port of Caesarea was built by King Herod to honour his Roman patron, Caesar Augustus. It was one of the largest ports in the Roman Empire when it was inaugurated in 10 BCE. Located on Israel’s Mediterranean coast today it has become an underwater museum for divers. They can swim along the sign-posts and admire the relics of the celebrated harbour: a ruined lighthouse, an ancient breakwater, the port’s original foundations, anchors, pedestals and even a shipwreck from Roman times. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (USA) A trail of historic shipwrecks is scattered along the coral reefs and buried in the sandy shallows a few miles off the Florida Keys, USA. The nine wrecks on the Shipwreck Trail are associated with European, Colonial, and American history and serve the same functions in this underwater trail as do museums on land. Through the Trail, the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary makes the rich maritime heritage more visible. An underwater site guide is available which provides the shipwreck and mooring buoy positions, history, a site map, and identifies marine life visitors can expect to see. Kronprins Gustav Adolf (Finland) Declared a maritime historical underwater park in the year 2000, the wreck site of the Kronprins Gustav Adolf off Helsinki, is the first Finnish park of its kind. The Swedish ship was wrecked off Helsinki in 1788 and its remains were discovered in Divers can visit the wreck by following a lead line with twelve information boards about various details of the remains. There are usually no strong currents and the visibility is between one and ten metres. Protected Shipwreck Sites (Croatia) Croatian authorities have installed metal cages over several shipwrecks to protect them. Although this protection cannot fully deter potential looters, it does prevent the devastation of sites while nevertheless allowing leisure divers to enjoy them. The system of cooperation with local dive clubs has had great success and contributed largely to the preservation of the sites concerned. Ustica (Italy) The submerged ancient city of Osteodes, shipwrecks and picturesque petrified black lava can be found around the island of Ustica in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 57 kilometres northwest of Palermo, Italy. In 1990, an underwater guided trail was created in Punta Gavazzi, Ustica, giving divers the opportunity to admire the numerous sites in situ. The accorded protection made it also possible to preserve the black coral and turtles, and numerous diving centres have been established. Wellington wreck (New Zealand)   The wreck of the Wellington in New Zealand sank on 13 November 2005 in 23 to 26 metres of water off Island Bay on Wellington’s south coast. The wreck has attracted the interest of many tourist divers, including many former navy servicemen who had once served on the ship. Its remains also attract thousands of fish, including juvenile kahawai, cod and tarakihi. Given the attraction of this and similar submerged sites the New Zealand Maritime Archaeological Association is now developing a “wreck trail”. Designed for divers and non-divers, it will offer information on the location, the history and the range of shipwrecks around the city. © Courtesy Israel 21C, 2010 20

21 Contoh-Contoh Terbaik (1)
Museum Bawah Air di Alexandria, Mesir Pemerintah Mesir memutuskan untuk mendirikan museum bawah air untuk memelihara dan melindungi WBA mereka. Ditujukan untuk menciptakan Alexandria Centre for Maritime Archaeology and Underwater Cultural Heritage (Pusat Arkeologi Maritim dan Warisan Budaya Bawah Air Alexandria) © UNESCO, Alexandria Museum, 2010

22 Contoh-Contoh Terbaik (2)
© Vasamuset, Museum Pictures, 2010 Museum Bangkai Kapal Vasa (Swedia) Pengangkatan bangkai kapal Vasa pada tahun 1960an, dilanjutkan dengan proses konservasi dan restorasi. Saat ini, Vasa menjadi museum yang memberikan pengetahuan yang begitu besar pada masyarakat mengenai sejarah raja yang dulu menggunakan kapal ini. Museum ini telah dikunjungi sekitar 750,000 pengunjung tiap tahunnya.

23 Contoh-Contoh Terbaik (3)
Museum Arkeologi Bawah Air Bodrum (Turki) Museum ini adalah rekonstruksi dari Istana Bodrum, yang juga mengkonservasi benda berharga dari kapal-kapal yang melewati perairan Anatolia di Turki. Ditujukan untuk mempresentasikan sejarah para pelaut kuno yang melewati perairan tersebut. Sudah dikunjungi sekitar 60 juta pengunjung. © The Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archeology Official Website, 2010

24 Terima kasih!

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