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Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Surabaya 60111 DataLink Layer.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Surabaya 60111 DataLink Layer."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Surabaya DataLink Layer

2 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Pendahuluan  Merupakan Layer 2 pada Model OSI  Bertujuan menyediakan koneksi antara dua komputer/host dengan menggunakan pengalamatan secara fisik/Hardware Addressing  Komunikasi hanya bisa terjadi jika kedua host/komputer yang berkomunikasi tahu alamat fisik masing-masing  Pengalamatan secara fisik biasa disebut MAC Address  MAC Address Diambilkan dari ID NIC masing-masing komputer

3 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo MAC (Media Access Control) Address  MAC Address terdiri dari 48 bit tetapi biasanya ditulis dalam 12 bit Heksadesimal dengan ketentuan 6 bit sebagai kode pabrik yang ditentukan oleh IEEE dan 6 bit berikunya adalah nomor serial peralatan yang dikeluarkan oleh pabrik

4 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Pengiriman Data  Untuk melakukan pengiriman data diperlukan kombinasi antara pengalamatan secara fisik dan pengalamatan secara logik  pengalamatan secara logik biasa disebut dengan IP Address (nomor IP), berada pada layer network  Nomor IP diperlukan oleh perangkat lunak untuk mengidentifikasi komputer pada jaringan  Namun nomor identitas yang sebenarnya diatur oleh NIC (Network Interface Card) atau kartu Jaringan yang juga mempunyai nomor unik.

5 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Pengiriman data pada DataLink Layer  Penentuan waktu pengiriman data yang tepat apabila suatu media sedang terpakai, hal ini perlu melakukan suatu deteksi sinyal pembawa.  Pada Ethernet menggunakan metode Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection (CSMA/CD).  Pada jaringan yang dapat melakukan akses secara bersamaan simultan. Maka bila Host A mengirimkan data ke Host D, maka Host B dan C akan melakukan deteksi jalur, dan apabila jalur sedang dipakai maka Host B dan C akan menunggu terlebih dahulu.

6 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Metode CSMA/CD  sebuah host komputer yang akan mengirim data ke jaringan pertama-tama memastikan bahwa jaringan sedang tidak dipakai untuk transfer dari dan oleh host komputer lainnya (Listen).  Jika pada tahap pengecekan ditemukan transmisi data lain dan terjadi tabrakan (collision), maka host komputer tersebut diharuskan mengulang permohonan (request) pengiriman pada selang waktu berikutnya yang dilakukan secara acak (random).  Dengan demikian maka jaringan efektif bisa digunakan secara bergantian

7 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Error Checking Pengiriman Data  Data-Link dapat melakukan deteksi error dan memberikan peringatan (notification) kepada lapisan diatasnya,bahwa terjadi kesalahan transmisi.  Teknik yang digunakan error ddetection adalah Frame Check Sequence (FCS) dan Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).  Data Link tidak melakukan error-correction

8 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Data Pada DataLink Layer

9 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Generic Data Link Frame Format Preamble or Start Field  When computers are connected to a physical medium, there must be a way they can grab the attention of other computers to broadcast the message, "Here comes a frame!"  Various technologies have different ways of doing this process, but all frames, regardless of technology, have a beginning signaling sequence of bytes.  Depending up frame format: Preamble = 7 bytes, Start or Start of Frame Delimiter (SFD) = 1 byte

10 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Generic Data Link Frame Format Address Field  We saw how IEEE uses Destination and Source Addresses.  By the way: Any idea how a serial data link frame is addressed? Unicast address – Single device Broadcast address – All devices Multicast address – Specific group of devices

11 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Generic Data Link Frame Format Type Field  Usually information indicating the layer 3 protocols in the data field, I.e. IP Packet.  Type field values of particular note for IEEE frames include: 0x0600 XNS (Xerox) 0x0800 IP (the Internet protocol) 0x8137 Novell NetWare packet formatted for Ethernet II 0x6003 DECNET

12 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo “Ethernet” Frame Formats Length Field  In some frame formats such as 802.3, there is a length field which specifies the exact length of a frame.

13 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo  IEEE specification limits the data portion to a maximum of 1500 bytes.  Designed to hold a Layer 3 IP packet.  When IEEE created 802.2, it saw the need for a protocol TYPE field that identified what was inside the “data” field.  IEEE called its 1 byte type field DSAP (Destination Service Access Point).  Turned out that 1 byte was not long enough to handle all the different number of protocols.

14 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo To accommodate more protocols IEEE added the SNAP (Subnetwork Access Protocol) header.

15 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo  The fields of various Ethernet framing that are used for identifying the type of data contained in a frame: Ethernet II or DIX (DEC, Intel, Xerox) – Most common IEEE Ethernet (802.3) IEEE with SNAP header

16 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Generic Data Link Frame Format Data Field  Included along with this data, you must also send a few other bytes.  They are called padding bytes, and are sometimes added so that the frames have a minimum length for timing purposes.  LLC bytes are also included with the data field in the IEEE standard frames. (later)

17 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Application Header + data Data Encapsulation Example … Application Layer Layer 4: Transport Layer Layer 3: Network Layer Layer 2: Network Layer Layer 1: Physical Layer

18 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Generic Data Link Frame Format FCS  Used to insure that the data has arrived without corruption.  More efficient than sending the data twice and comparing the results.  Necessary to prevent errors.

19 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Three Kinds of FCS  Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) performs polynomial calculations on the data  Two-dimensional parity adds an 8 th bit that makes an 8-bit sequence have an odd or even number of binary 1s  Internet checksum adds the numbers to determine a number

20 Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institut of Surabaya – ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo Generic Data Link Frame Format Stop Field (Other data link frame formats)  The computer that transmits data must get the attention of other devices, in order to start a frame, and then claim it again, to end the frame.  The length field implies the end, and the frame is considered ended after the FCS.  Sometimes there is a formal byte sequence referred to as an end-frame delimiter.


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