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Methods and Work Measurement

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Presentasi berjudul: "Methods and Work Measurement"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Methods and Work Measurement
Lecture 6: Motion Study and Micromotion Study 20 March 2009

2 History of Motion and Time Study
Frederick W. Taylor ( ) Midvale Steel Company (1881) Time studies are belong to Taylor Taylor started his study by two good steady workers who were physically strong. Which is the best way to do this job? What should constitute a day’s work?

3 History of Motion and time Study
Frank and Lilian ( ) Gilbeth. Motion studies are belong to them Their activities cover a wide range Inventions and improvements in building and construction work, fatigue, monotony, transfer of skill, development of such techniques as the process chart, micromotion study, and chronocyclegragh

4 History of Motion and time Study
Henry Laurence Gantt( );The assistant of Taylor, Gantt chart, incentive payment. Humanist policies for employees. Harrington Emerson ( ); He studied subject of productivity and wages, Ralph M. Barnes ( ) the first professor who was studying on work measurements. Marvin E. Mundel ( ); Work measurement , to simplify the tools

5 History of Motion Study
Motion study can not be discussed without constant reference to the work of Frank B. Gilbreth and his wife, Lillian m. Gilbreth Mrs. Gilbreth’s trainning as a psychologyst and Mr. Gilbreth’s engineering background fitted them in a unique way to undertake work involving an understanding of the human factor ,and a knowledge of material, tools and equipment.

6 Definition Studi Gerakan (Motion Study) adalah analisa yang dilakukan terhadap beberapa gerakan bagian badan pekerja dalam menyelesaikan pekerjaannya. Dengan demikian diharapkan agar gerakan-gerakan yang tidak efektif dapat dikurangi atau bahkan dihilangkan sehingga akan akan diperoleh penghematan dalam waktu kerja dan pemakaian fasilitas-fasilitas yang tersedia untuk pekerjaan tersebut

7 Definition Motion study or work methods design:for finding the preferred method of doing work. That is, the ideal method or one nearest to it Time study or work measurement: for determining the standard time to perform a specific task. Micromotion Study is the study of the fundamental element or subdivisions of an operation by mean of a motion picture camera and a timing device which accurately indicates the time intervals on the motion picture film

8 Therblig Untuk memudahkan analisa terhadap gerakan-gerakan yang dipelajari, Frank dan Lilian Gilbreth menguraikan gerakan kedalam 17 gerakan dasar atau elemen gerakan yang dinamakan therblig. Sebagian besar gerakan ini merupakan gerakan-gerakan dasar tangan.

9 Macam – macam elemen gerakan therbligs
Mencari ( search ) Memilih ( select ) Memegang ( Grasp ) Menjangkau/membawa tanpa beban ( Transport Empty ) Membawa dengan beban ( Transport Loaded ) Memegang untuk memakai ( hold ) Melepas ( Release load ) Mengarahkan ( Position ) Mengarahkan Awal ( Pre-Position ) Memeriksa ( Inspect ) Merakit ( Assemble ) Mengurai Rakit ( Diassembly) Memakai ( Use ) Kelambatan yang tak terhindarkan ( Unavoidable delay ) Keterlambatan yang dapat dihindarkan (Avoidable delay) Merencanakan ( Plan ) Istirahat untuk menghilangkan Lelah ( Rest to Overcome Fatigue )

10 Effective Therblig Physical basic divisions Menjangkau ( reach )
Membawa ( move ) Melepas ( release ) Memegang ( Grasp ) Mengarahkan awal ( Pre Position )

11 Objective Basic Divisions
Memakai ( Use ) Merakit ( Assemble ) Mengurai rakit ( Disassemble ) Inefective Therblig Mencari ( search ) Memilih ( select ) Mengarahkan ( Position ) Memeriksa ( inspect ) Merencanakan ( Plan )

12 Delay Kelambatan yang tak terhindarkan ( unavoidable delay ) Kelambatan yang dapat dihindarkan ( avoidable delay ) Istirahat untuk menghilangkan lelah ( rest to overcome fatigue ) Memegang untuk memakai ( hold )

13 Micromotion Study Micromotion Study is the study of the fundamental element or subdivisions of an operation by mean of a motion picture camera and a timing device which accurately indicates the time intervals on the motion picture film Micromotion Study provides a technique for recording and timing an activity. It consists of taking motion picture of the operation with a clock in the picture or with a motion picture camera or video camera operating at constant and known speed The purposes of micromotion study are : As an aid in studying the activities of two or more persons in group work As an aid in studying the relationship of the activities of the operator and the machine As a means of timing operations As an aid in obtaining motion time data for time standard As a permanent record of the method and time of activities of the operator and the machine For research in the field of motion and time study

14 Micromotion Study Two most important uses of micromotion study are:
To assist in finding the preferred of doing work To assist in training individuals to understand the meaning of motion study The procedure of improving methods consists of : 1. filming the operation to be studied 2. analyzing the film 3. charting the results of the analysis 4. developing an improved method through the problem solving process Gilbreth also developed two techniques for the study of the motion path of an operator : The cyclegraph : to record the path of motion of an operator by attaching a small electric light bulb to the finger, hand, or other part of the body and photographing, with still camera, the path of light as it moves through space The chronocyclegraph: to record the path of motion in form the spots of light that it will be spaced according to the speed of the movement, being widely separated when the operator moves fast and close together when the movement is slow so that it is posible to measure accuratly time, speed, acceleration and retardation and to show direction and path of motion in three dimension

15 Micromotion Study Dalam menganalisa gerakan kerapkali di jumpai kesulitan-kesulitan dalam menentukan batas-batas satu therblig dengan therblig lainnya karena waktu perpindahan yang sangat singkat antara satu elemen gerakan dengan elemen yang lain. Rekaman gerakan dengan kamera film dapat mengatasi hal ini. Dengan bantuan sejenis jam khusus misalnya microchronometer waktu setiap elemen dapat diukur.


17 Fundamental Hand Motion









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