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Slide 11.1 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 CHAPTER 11 DATA ANALYSIS & MODELLING.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Slide 11.1 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 CHAPTER 11 DATA ANALYSIS & MODELLING."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Slide 11.1 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 CHAPTER 11 DATA ANALYSIS & MODELLING

2 Slide 11.2 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Learning outcomes  Summarize approaches for analyzing requirements for e-business systems  Identify key elements of approaches to improve the interface design and security design of e-commerce systems.

3 Slide 11.3 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Management issues  What are the critical success factors for analysis and design of e-business systems?  What is the balance between requirements for usable and secure systems and the costs of designing them in this manner?  What are the best approaches for incorporating new IS solutions with legacy systems into the architectural design of the e-business?

4 Slide 11.4 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Analysis for e-business  Memahami proses dan aliran informasi untuk meningkatkan pelayanan  Pant and Ravichandran (2001) say: ‘Informasi adalah suatu agen koordinasi dan pengendalian dan bekerja sebagai perekat yang menyatukan organisasi, franchises, rantai pasok dan channel distribusi. Bersamaan dengan aliran material dan sumber daya lain, aliran informasi juga harus ditangani secara efektif dalam organisasi’

5 Slide 11.5 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Workflow management Workflow is ‘Otomatisasi proses bisnis, secara keseluruhan ataupun sebagian di mana dokumen, informasi atau tugas diteruskan dari seorang peserta ke lainnya untuk ditindaklanjuti berdasarkan seperangkat aturan prosedural’ Examples:  Booking a holiday  Handling a customer complaint  Receiving a customer order.

6 Slide 11.6 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 BizFlow

7 Slide 11.7 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Process modelling  Menggunakan metode hirarki untuk menentukan  Proses dan sub proses nya  Hubungan/ketergantungan tiap proses  Input/resource yang dibutuhkan oleh proses dan outputnya

8 Slide 11.8 Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Task analysis and task decomposition  Sebelum proses dapat didesain dan diimplemen, sebuah proses harus di-breakdown secara detail terlebih dahulu. Hal ini disebut dengan task analysis.  Curtis et al. (1992) framework: Level 1 business process dibagi ke dalam: Level 2 activities yang dibagi ke dalam: Level 3 tasks dan akhirnya: Level 4 sub-tasks.

9 Figure 11.1 An example task decomposition for an estate agency Source: Adapted from Chaffey (1998)

10 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Hubungan/ketergantungan antar Proses  Buat urutan suatu aktivitas terjadi berdasarkan prosedur bisnis  Data flow diagrams dan flow charts digunakan secara luas sebagai diagramming techniques  Flow process charts  Network diagrams  Event-driven process chain (EPC) model

11 Figure 11.2 Symbols used for flow process charts

12 Figure 11.3 Flow process chart showing the main operations performed by users when working using workflow software

13 Table 11.5 Elements of the event-driven process chain (EPC) model

14 Figure 11.4 General model for the EPC process definition model

15 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Data modelling  Desain relational database (RDBMS)  Tahap-tahapnya: 1. Identify entities 2. Identify attributes of entities 3. Identify relationships.

16 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Identify entities  Entity A grouping of related data, example customer entity. Entiti diimplementasikan sebagai table pada database.  Database table Each database comprises (terdiri dari) several tables.

17 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Identify attributes  Entitas mempunyai ciri-ciri yang berbeda, yang disebut attribute yang menggambarkan karakteristik dari suatu item dalam entitas tersebut. Contohnya, entitas Customer mempunyai atribut seperti name, phone number dan address. Saat implementasi, atribut akan menjadi field, dan kumpulan field untuk satu item tertentu dari entitas customer akan menjadi sebuah record.  Attribute A property or characteristic of an entity, implementation as field.  Field Attributes of products, example date of birth.  Record A collection of fields for one instance of an entity, example Customer Smith.

18 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Identify relationships  Relasi antar entitas memerlukan identifikasi field mana yang menghubungkan tabel-tabel tersebut. Contohnya, untuk setiap pesanan yang dipesan konsumen, kita perlu mengetahui konsumen mana yang telah menempatkan pesanan dan produk apa yang dipesan mereka. Field yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan antar tabel disebut field kunci. Ada 2 yaitu. Primary key yang digunakan sebagai identitas unik suatu record dan secondary key yang menghubungkan tabel dengan primary key di tabel lain.  Relationship Describes how different tables are linked.  Primary key The field that uniquely identifies each record in a table.  Secondary key A field that is used to link tables, by linking to a primary key in another table.

19 Figure 11.5 Generic B2C ER diagram

20 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Client/server architecture – separation of functions  Data storage. Predominantly on server. Client storage is ideally limited to cookies for identification of users and session tracking. Cookie identifiers for each system user are then related to the data for the user which is stored on a database server.  Query processing. Although some validation can be performed on the client.  Display. This is largely a client function.  Application logic. Traditionally, in early PC applications this has been a client function, but for e-business systems the design aim is to maximize the application logic processing including the business rules on the server.

21 Figure 11.6 Three-tier client server in an e-business environment

22 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 The three-tier client server  Require different servers to combine applications logic and database storage  Purpose of each server:  Web server. Manages http requests  Merchant server. Main location of app. Logic  Personalization server. Provides tailored content  Payment commerce server. Manages payment  Catalogue server. A document management server

23 Figure 11.7 E-business architecture for The B2C Company

24 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Diskusi  Bentuk kelompok dan diskusikan dari pengalaman pribadi/teman Anda, dari sisi penggunaan website apa yang sering menjadi masalah dalam membeli barang secara online? Dan apa harapan Anda ketika masuk suatu website untuk membeli suatu barang.

25 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 User-centred design Kecuali sebuah web site memenuhi kebutuhan pengguna yang diinginkan, web site tersebut tidak akan memenuhi kebutuhan dari organisasi yang menyediakan web site tersebut. Pengembangan web site harusnya berpusat pada pengguna, dibutuhkan evaluasi untuk desain yang terus berkembang terhadap kebutuhan pengguna. (Bevan, 1999a)

26 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Analysis considerations (Bevan)  Who are the important users?  What is their purpose for accessing the site?  How frequently will they visit the site?  What experience and expertize do they have?  What nationality are they? Can they read English?  What type of information are they looking for?  How will they want to use the information: read it on the screen, print it or download it?  What type of browsers will they use? How fast will their communication links be?  How large a screen/window will they use, with how many colours?

27 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Usability/kegunaan  Pendekatan desain web site yang dengan tujuan agar tugas yang dilakukan oleh pengguna dapat diselesaikan.  Melibatkan 2 hal:  Expert reviews  Usability testing

28 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Four stages of Rosenfeld and Morville (2000) 1. Identifikasi pengunjung yang berbeda 2. Beri peringkat berdasarkan nilai mereka dimata bisnis 3. Daftarkan 3 informasi yang paling penting yang dibutuhkan oleh jenis pengunjung tersebut 4. Bertanya kepada perwakilan dari masing-masing jenis pengunjung untuk membangun wishlists (daftar keinginan) mereka.

29 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Use-case analysis  The use-case method of process analysis and modelling was developed in the early 1990s as part of the development of object-oriented techniques. It is part of a methodology known as Unified Modelling Language (UML) that attempts to unify the approaches that preceded it such as the Booch, OMT and Objectory notations.  Use-case modelling A user-centred approach to modelling system requirements.  Unified Modelling Language (UML) A language used to specify, visualize and document the artefacts of an object- oriented system.

30 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Schneider and Winters (1998) stages in Use Case 1. Identify actors. Actors are typically application users such as customers and employers also other systems 2. Identify use-cases. The sequence of transactions between an actor and a system that support the activities of the actor 3. Relate actors to use-cases See figure Develop use-case scenarios See figure 11.9 for a detailed scenario.

31 Figure 11.8 Relationship between actors and use-cases for The B2C Company, sell- side e-commerce site

32 Figure 11.9 Primary use-case scenario for an entire e-commerce purchase cycle

33 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Primary scenario for the Register use-case Pre-condition: A user is active on the web site Scenario: Register Basic path: 1. Use-case starts when customer presses ‘register’ 2. Customer enters name, postal address and 3. The post/zip code will be checked for validity 4. The customer will select ‘submit’ 5. The system will check all fields are present 6. A redirect page will be displayed to thank the customer.

34 Figure Primary scenario for the Register use-cases for The B2C Company

35 Figure Clear user scenario options at the RS Components site (www.rswww.com)

36 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Persona  Persona:  Model yang serupa dengan use-case, prinsipnya adalah memilah jenis-jenis pengunjung kemudian dipersonalkan.  Contoh: Primary persona dari ford.com adalah “Marie”; seorang wanita yang baru mau membeli mobil, belum mempunyai merek kesukaan tertentu, tidak mengetahui tentang mobil dan membutuhkan bantuan untuk memilih mobil yang sesuai.

37 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Benefit of Persona  Membangun customer-centric  Mengindentifikasikan detail mengenai kebutuhan informasi dan langkah-langkahnya  Test existing web-site design  Untuk membandingkan dan melakukan pengujian kekuatan dan kejelasan komunikasi  Dapat dihubungkan kepada marketing

38 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Developing a persona 1. Membangun atribut personal ke dalam persona 2. Ingatlah bahwa persona hanyalah suatu model dari karakteristik dan lingkungan 3. Skenario-skenario yang berbeda dapat dikembangkan untuk masing-masing persona, misalnya:  Info-seeking scenario  Purchase scenario

39 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Case Study  Dulux.co.uk

40 Slide Dave Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce Management, 3 rd Edition © Marketing Insights Ltd 2007 Summary 1. Analysis of business and user requirements for e-business systems is important in delivering usable and relevant systems 2. Process modelling is used to assess existing business processes and suggest revised processes. Techniques such as task analysis and flow process charts from workflow design are useful in understanding tasks that must be supported by the system and weaknesses in the current process 3. Data modelling for e-business systems mainly involves traditional entity relationship approaches


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