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© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 16 – JIT and Lean Operations By : Hermawan Susilo (13) Istiyana Ulta K (14) L. Tri Wahyudi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 16 – JIT and Lean Operations By : Hermawan Susilo (13) Istiyana Ulta K (14) L. Tri Wahyudi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 16 – JIT and Lean Operations By : Hermawan Susilo (13) Istiyana Ulta K (14) L. Tri Wahyudi (16) Aditya Narendra M (20)

2 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 2 TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION  Largest vehicle manufacturer in the world with annual sales of over 9 million vehicles  Success due to two techniques, JIT and TPS by Taiichi Ohno  Central to JIT is a continuous problem solving by making only what is needed, when it is needed  Central to TPS is employee learning and continuing effort to create product under ideal conditions, without waste  San Antonio plant, small building but high levels of production

3 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 3 DICTINCTION JUST-IN-TIME, TPS, AND LEAN OPERATIONS  JIT emphasizes continuos forced problem solving by reduced inventory  TPS emphasizes employee learning  Lean production supplies the customer with their exact wants when the customer wants it without waste

4 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 4 ELIMINATE WASTE “ Waste is anything that does not add value from the customer point of view ” Ohno’s Seven Waste Overproduction overproduksi Queues antrian Transportation raw matrial Inventory penyimpanan Motion pergerakan orang Overprocessing proses yang tidka perlu dilakukan Defective products   Sort/segregate – keep what needed   Simplify/straighten – methods analysis tools   Shine/sweep – clean daily   Standardize – remove variations from processes   Sustain/self-discipline – review work and recognize progress - motivasi  Safety – build in good practices  Support/maintenance – reduce variability and unplanned downtime THE 5S - JEPANG

5 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 5 REMOVE VARIABILITY  JIT systems require managers to reduce variability caused by both internal and external factors  Variability is any deviation from the optimum process (variability = problems)  Less variability results in less waste Source of variability : 1.Incomplete or inaccurate drawings or specifications 2.Poor production processes resulting in incorrect quantities, late, or non-conforming units 3.Unknown customer demands

6 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 6 IMPROVE THROUGHPUT  Throughput time is the time it takes to move an order from receipt to delivery  The time between the arrival of raw materials and the shipping of the finished order is called manufacturing cycle time  Driving down manufacturing cycle time can make a major improvement in throughput PULL SYSTEM

7 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 7 PULL SYSTEM  Pulls a unit to where it is needed just as it is needed  By pulling material in small lots, inventory cushions are removed, exposing problems and emphasizing continual improvement  Pulls systems are standart tools of JIT system

8 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 8 JUST-IN-TIME (JIT) Powerful strategy for improving operations Materials arrive where they are needed when they are needed

9 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 9 JIT PARTNERSHIPS  JIT partnerships exist when a supplier and purchaser work together to remove waste and drive down costs  Four goals of JIT partnerships are:  Removal of unnecessary activities  Removal of in-plant inventory  Removal of in-transit inventory  Improved quality and reliability

10 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 10 CONCERNS OF SUPPLIERS  Diversification – ties to only one customer increases risk  Scheduling – don’t believe customers can create a smooth schedule  Changes – short lead times mean engineering or specification changes can create problems  Quality – limited by capital budgets, processes, or technology  Lot sizes – small lot sizes may transfer costs to suppliers

11 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 11 JIT LAYOUT  Reduce waste due to movement  Distance Reduction – major constribution of work cells, work centre, focused factories  Increase Flexibility – easily rearranged, change result of product & process  Impact on employees - flexible & efficiency with reduced space, inventory must be in very small lots  Reduced space and inventory - with reduced space, inventory must be in very small lots

12 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 12 JIT INVENTORY Inventory is at the minimum level necessary to keep operations running JIT Inventory Tactics Use a pull system to move inventory Reduce lot sizes Develop just-in-time delivery systems with suppliers Deliver directly to point of use Perform to schedule Reduce setup time Use group technology Table 16.2

13 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 13 REDUCE INVENTORY AND VARIABILITY Figure 16.3 Inventory level Process downtime Scrap Setup time Late deliveries Quality problems Inventory level Scrap Setup time Late deliveries Quality problems Process downtime Inventory level Scrap Setup time Late deliveries Quality problems Process downtime (a) (b) (c)

14 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 14 JIT SCHEDULING  Schedules must be communicated inside and outside the organization  Level schedules  Process frequent small batches  Freezing the schedule helps stability  Kanban  Signals used in a pull system

15 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 15 LEVEL SCHEDULES  Process frequent small batches rather than a few large batches  Make and move small lots so the level schedule is economical  Freezing the schedule closest to the due dates can improve performance

16 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 16 KANBAN  Kanban is the Japanese word for card  The card is an authorization for the next container of material to be produced  A sequence of kanbans pulls material through the process  Many different sorts of signals are used, but the system is still called a kanban

17 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 17 JIT QUALITY  Strong relationship  JIT cuts the cost of obtaining good quality because JIT exposes poor quality  Because lead times are shorter, quality problems are exposed sooner  Better quality means fewer buffers and allows simpler JIT systems to be used

18 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 18 JIT QUALITY TACTICS Use statistical process control Empower employees Build fail-safe methods (poka- yoke, checklists, etc.) Expose poor quality with small lot JIT Provide immediate feedback Table 16.4

19 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 19 TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM  Continuous improvement  Build an organizational culture and value system that stresses improvement of all processes  Part of everyone’s job  Respect for people  People are treated as knowledge workers  Engage mental and physical capabilities  Empower employees  Standard work practice  Work shall be completely specified as to content, sequence, timing, and outcome  Internal and external customer-supplier connection are direct  Product and service flows must be simple and direct  Any improvement must be made in accordance with the scientific method at the lowest possible level of the organization

20 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 20 LEAN OPERATIONS  Different from JIT in that it is externally focused on the customer  Starts with understanding what the customer wants  Optimize the entire process from the customer’s perspective

21 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 21 BUILDING A LEAN ORGANIZATION  Transitioning to a lean system can be difficult  Lean systems tend to have the following attributes  Use JIT techniques  Build systems that help employees produce perfect parts  Reduce space requirements  Develop partnerships with suppliers  Educate suppliers  Eliminate all but value-added activities  Develop employees  Make jobs challenging  Build worker flexibility

22 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 22 LEAN OPERATIONS IN SERVICES  Suppliers  Layouts  Inventory  Scheduling

23 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 23 VIDEO CASE : JIT at Arnold Palmer Hospital

24 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 24 ABOUT ARNOLD PALMER RS Ibu dan Anak, berdiri tahun 1989 RS Ibu dan Anak, berdiri tahun 1989 Melayani kelahiran per tahun Melayani kelahiran per tahun Ranking 5 kelahiran selamat tertinggi Ranking 5 kelahiran selamat tertinggi Diperlukan $ 30 Juta/ tahun untuk kepuasan pelanggan dan biaya inventory. Diperlukan $ 30 Juta/ tahun untuk kepuasan pelanggan dan biaya inventory.

25 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 25 JIT ARNOLD PALMER Obat didistribusikan melalui dispensing machines (seperti vending machines). Obat didistribusikan melalui dispensing machines (seperti vending machines). Custom Surgical Packs, dengan 10 pack yang berbeda.

26 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 26 SURGICAL

27 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 27 MAYOR SET

28 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 28 SURGERY PACKAGING

29 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 29 JIT FOR SURGICAL PACKAGE Jadwal Operasi Order ke supplier (1:00 – 2:00 PM) Supplier kirim ke RS (4:00 AM) Dipersiapkan untuk operasi

30 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 30 ADVANTAGE JIT ARNOLD PALMER Waste reduction Waste reduction Variability reduction Variability reduction Inventory pull when needed Inventory pull when needed Menghemat biaya inventory harian dari $400,000 menjadi 114,000.

31 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 31 JUST-IN-TIME MODEL IN CONSTRUCTION LOGISTICS Agung Sedayu Group

32 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 32 Proyek konstruksi sangat kompleks Resource intensive Perlu perencanaan matang dalam hal pembelihan, pengiriman, penyimpanan, dan pemindahan material konstruksi

33 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 33 KEY SUCCESS Hubungan kerjasama yang stabil dan jangka panjang antara developer dengan suppliers Hubungan kerjasama yang stabil dan jangka panjang antara developer dengan suppliers Suppliers memiliki akses langsung pada informasi progress project dan kebutuhan material Suppliers memiliki akses langsung pada informasi progress project dan kebutuhan material Mutual understanding & komitmen semua pihak mengenai Biaya-Mutu-Waktu Mutual understanding & komitmen semua pihak mengenai Biaya-Mutu-Waktu

34 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 34 TAHAPAN KONSTRUKSI

35 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 35 ASG JUST IN TIME MODEL

36 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.16 – 36 KESIMPULAN Dengan adanya tranfer informasi selama proses konstruksi, pengetahuan mengenai kebutuhan bahan bangunan dari Planning Department dan suppliers akan semakin baik. Dengan adanya tranfer informasi selama proses konstruksi, pengetahuan mengenai kebutuhan bahan bangunan dari Planning Department dan suppliers akan semakin baik. Planning Department bisa menyiapkan rencana jauh-jauh hari dan mentranfernya kepada Purchasing Department sebelum material bangunan habis. Planning Department bisa menyiapkan rencana jauh-jauh hari dan mentranfernya kepada Purchasing Department sebelum material bangunan habis. Good logistics system relies on good communication among the parties. Good logistics system relies on good communication among the parties.


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