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1 Sesi 4 Strategi Diversifikasi JB11; CM4; Artikel#2 & Artikel#3.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Sesi 4 Strategi Diversifikasi JB11; CM4; Artikel#2 & Artikel#3."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Sesi 4 Strategi Diversifikasi JB11; CM4; Artikel#2 & Artikel#3

2 2 BJ11:Diversification Strategies

3 3 Levels and Types of Diversification SOURCE: Adapted from R. P. Rumelt, 1974, Strategy, Structure and Economic Performance, Boston: Harvard Business School.

4 4 Diversifying to Enhance Competitiveness Related Diversification Economies of scope Sharing activities Transferring core competencies Market power Vertical integration Unrelated Diversification Financial economies Efficient internal capital allocation Business restructuring

5 5 Reasons for Diversification Incentives and Resources with Neutral Effects on Strategic Competitiveness: Antitrust regulation Tax laws Low performance Uncertain future cash flows Risk reduction for firm Tangible resources Intangible resources

6 6 Reasons for Diversification (cont’d) Managerial Motives (Value Reduction) Diversifying managerial employment risk Increasing managerial compensation

7 7 Strategic Motives for Diversification To Enhance Strategic Competitiveness: Economies of scope (related diversification) Sharing activities Transferring core competencies Market power (related diversification) Blocking competitors through multipoint competition Vertical integration Financial economies (unrelated diversification) Efficient internal capital allocation Business restructuring

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 | 8 Sharing Resources at Procter & Gamble Figure 10.3

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 | 9 Transfer of Competencies at Philip Morris Figure 10.2

10 10 Incentives and Resources for Diversification Incentives and Resources with Neutral Effects on Strategic Competitiveness Antitrust regulation Tax laws Low performance Uncertain future cash flows Risk reduction for firm Tangible resources Intangible resources

11 11 Managerial Motives for Diversification Managerial Motives (Value Reduction) Diversifying managerial employment risk Increasing managerial compensation

12 12 Value-creating Strategies of Diversification: Operational and Corporate Relatedness

13 13 Related Diversification Firm creates value by building upon or extending its: Resources Capabilities Core competencies Economies of scope Cost savings that occur when a firm transfers capabilities and competencies developed in one of its businesses to another of its businesses

14 14 Related Diversification: Economies of Scope Value is created from economies of scope through: Operational relatedness in sharing activities Corporate relatedness in transferring skills or corporate core competencies among units The difference between sharing activities and transferring competencies is based on how the resources are jointly used to create economies of scope

15 15 Sharing Activities Operational Relatedness Created by sharing either a primary activity such as inventory delivery systems, or a support activity such as purchasing Activity sharing requires sharing strategic control over business units Activity sharing may create risk because business-unit ties create links between outcomes

16 16 Transferring Corporate Competencies Corporate Relatedness Using complex sets of resources and capabilities to link different businesses through managerial and technological knowledge, experience, and expertise

17 17 Corporate Relatedness Creates value in two ways: Eliminates resource duplication in the need to allocate resources for a second unit to develop a competence that already exists in another unit Provides intangible resources (resource intangibility) that are difficult for competitors to understand and imitate A transferred intangible resource gives the unit receiving it an immediate competitive advantage over its rivals

18 18 Related Diversification: Market Power Market power exists when a firm can: Sell its products above the existing competitive level and/or Reduce the costs of its primary and support activities below the competitive level

19 19 Related Diversification: Market Power Multipoint Competition Two or more diversified firms simultaneously compete in the same product areas or geographic markets Vertical Integration Backward integration—a firm produces its own inputs Forward integration—a firm operates its own distribution system for delivering its outputs

20 20 Related Diversification: Complexity Simultaneous Operational Relatedness and Corporate Relatedness Involves managing two sources of knowledge simultaneously: Operational forms of economies of scope Corporate forms of economies of scope Many such efforts often fail because of implementation difficulties

21 21 Unrelated Diversification Financial Economies Are cost savings realized through improved allocations of financial resources Based on investments inside or outside the firm Create value through two types of financial economies: Efficient internal capital allocations Purchasing other corporations and restructuring their assets

22 22 Unrelated Diversification (cont’d) Efficient Internal Capital Market Allocation Corporate office distributes capital to business divisions to create value for overall company Corporate office gains access to information about those businesses’ actual and prospective performance Conglomerates have a fairly short life cycle because financial economies are more easily duplicated by competitors than are gains from operational and corporate relatedness

23 23 Unrelated Diversification: Restructuring Restructuring creates financial economies A firm creates value by buying and selling other firms’ assets in the external market Resource allocation decisions may become complex, so success often requires: Focus on mature, low-technology businesses Focus on businesses not reliant on a client orientation

24 24 External Incentives to Diversify Antitrust laws in 1960s and 1970s discouraged mergers that created increased market power (vertical or horizontal integration Mergers in the 1960s and 1970s thus tended to be unrelated Relaxation of antitrust enforcement results in more and larger horizontal mergers Early 2000 antitrust concerns seem to be emerging and mergers now more closely scrutinized Anti-trust Legislation

25 25 External Incentives to Diversify (cont’d) High tax rates on dividends cause a corporate shift from dividends to buying and building companies in high-performance industries 1986 Tax Reform Act Reduced individual ordinary income tax rate from 50 to 28 percent Treated capital gains as ordinary income Thus created incentive for shareholders to prefer dividends to acquisition investments Anti-trust Legislation Tax Laws

26 26 Internal Incentives to Diversify High performance eliminates the need for greater diversification Low performance acts as incentive for diversification Firms plagued by poor performance often take higher risks (diversification is risky) Low Performance

27 27 The Curvilinear Relationship between Diversification and Performance

28 28 Internal Incentives to Diversify (cont’d) Diversification may be defensive strategy if: Product line matures Product line is threatened. Firm is small and is in mature or maturing industry Low Performance Uncertain Future Cash Flows

29 29 Internal Incentives to Diversify Synergy exists when the value created by businesses working together exceeds the value created by them working independently … but synergy creates joint interdependence between business units A firm may become risk averse and constrain its level of activity sharing A firm may reduce level of technological change by operating in more certain environments Low Performance Uncertain Future Cash Flows Synergy and Risk Reduction

30 30 Resources and Diversification A firm must have both: Incentives to diversify Resources required to create value through diversification Cash Tangible resources (e.g., plant and equipment) Value creation is determined more by appropriate use of resources than by incentives to diversify

31 31 Managerial Motives to Diversify Managerial risk reduction Desire for increased compensation

32 32 Summary Model of the Relationship between Firm Performance and Diversification SOURCE: R. E. Hoskisson & M. A. Hitt, 1990, Antecedents and performance outcomes of diversification: A review and critique of theoretical perspectives, Journal of Management, 16: 498.

33 33 CM4: Diversified Expansion Bisnis inti Bisnis terkait Bisnis semakin tidak terkait Trend: kembali ke bisnis inti (downscoping)

34 34 Produk dan pasar sekarang Ekspansi geografis (domestik, internasional) Penetrasi pasar Produk sekarang ke pasar yang baru Perluasan penggunaan dan aplikasi Produk baru ke pasar sekarang Perluasan lini poduk Ke depan (forward): mendekat ke pelanggan Ke belakang (backward): mendekat ke pemasok Teknologi produk Teknologi proses Pengadaan Bahan mentah dasar Proses bahan pabrikan Komponen pabrikan Produk rakitan Pengujian, distribusi Pemasaran dan penjualan Pengeceran dan layanan Pengembangan produk, pasar, dan cakupan geografis Integrasi vertikal (Perluasan rantai nilai) Tidak terkait (Konglomerasi) Ekspansi ke bisnis sekarang Diversifikasi ke bisnis baru Strategi Pertumbuhan Alternatif Terkait (Strategi Horizontal) Alternative for growth and diversification

35 35 Mengapa Melakukan Diversifikasi? Dorongan berkembang karena: Pertumbuhan External Kesempatan yg aktraktif maupun ancaman yang serius (offensif dan defensif) Pertumbuhan Internal Memanfaatkan dan mengekspoitasi secara penuh sumberdaya utama maupun pengembangan keahlian yg tidak sesuai lagi (offensif dan defensif)

36 36 Mengapa Melakukan Diversifikasi? Excess capacity Sumberdaya Berkembang baik dlm hal nilai dan kapasitas karena dipakai dengan baik Brand names Sumberdaya baru terbangun dengan dijalankannya proses operasi Perusahaan auditor sekaligus ahli sistem informasi Immobile SD yang idiosyncratic atau melekat pada perusahaan Leveraging SD kedalam bisnis baru Obstacle Dengan adanya hambatan eksternal ini justru mendorong perush untuk berekspansi

37 37 Vision (as guiding growth) Trade off Terlalu dini mengikatkan diri pada visi bisa mempersempit kesempatan perusahaan untuk berkembang dan belajar Membiarkan diri tidak mengikuti visi bisa menyebabkan keengganan untuk berkomitmen secara penuh pada bisnis

38 38 Memadukan SD dan Bisnis Lihat slide diversified expansion Mencari fit antara SD dan product markets (see BIC) SD yang berkontribusi dalam keunggulan kompetitif product markets Hati-hati dgn 2 systematic calculations Overestimate the transferability of specific resources Overestimate the value of very general resources in creating CA in a new market Untuk lolos sbg dasar diversified expansion, SD harus lolos test: Competitively superior Key success factors Competitive parity on the resource it does not posses Replicated in new business seetings

39 39 A Sequence of Steps Firms tend to diversify into industries that share similar resource characteristics and KSFs. Similarities in R&D intensity, distribution dan marketing channel are significant predictors To grow further, firms can balance the exploitation of existing resources with the development of new ones.

40 40 Resource as a Springboard The resources of a firm are at the heart of diversified expansion Be careful of the degree of specificity of resources Highly specific resources Yield high returns in initial settings, but Often lose value rapidly as they are applied in more distant market Less specific resources Transfer considerably further, but Usually generate lower returns because they are less critical to CA

41 41 Diversification and Firm Performance Firm Performance Extent of diversification

42 42 Faktor-faktor yang perlu di perhatikan Pengukuran ‘diversifikasi’ Pengukuran ‘performance’ across industries Moderating variables yang ada (e.g., the quality and quantity of resources) Firm Profitability Resources & Capabilities Business Opportunity set Corporate Strategy

43 43 Constrained dan Linked Diversification Constrained diversifiers, those that had grown by building on central strength or resource, consistently outperformed all other type of diversifications Stick to knitting not always true!

44 44 Mode of Expansion Mergers and Acquisitions Speed, access to complementary assets, removal of potential competitor, upgrade corporate resources Cost of acquisition, unnecessary adjunct businesses, organizational clashes may impede integration, large commitment Internal Development Incremental, compatible with culture, encourages intrapreneurship, internal investment Slow, need to build new resources, adds to industry capacity; subscale entry, unsuccessful efforts are difficult to recoup Alliances Access to complementary assets, speed Lack of control, assisting potential competitor, questionable long- term viability, difficult to integrate learning

45 45 Artikle #2 Mengapa Mendiversifikasi Bisnis? Perhatikan Evolusi Pemikiran Strategi Korporat dan Diversifikasi pada slide berikut.

46 46

47 47 Alasan dibalik Evolusi Ide dan keyakinan bahwa manajer profesional memilikim skills yang bisa diterapkan untuk mengelola bisnis yang berbeda-beda. Atas dasar asumsi bisnis yang berbeda memerlukan managerial skills yang mirip. Selama tahun 1960-an, tumbuhnya konglomerasi dengan berbagai macam akuisisi bisnis yang unrelated ‘membenarkan’ keyakinan di atas. Lebih dari 20 tahun, keyakinan akan kemampuan managerial skills ditunjukkan dengan pertumbuhan korporasi dan diversifikasi.

48 48 Alasan dibalik Evolusi Namun belakangan beberapa korporasi mengalami penurunan kinerja Lalu, muncul pemikiran yang mendefinisikan strategi lebih dari long-range planning (atau objective setting), tetapi juga penentuan arah perusahaan dan persiapan untuk meraihnya. Portfolio planning membantu manajer menciptakan rerangka yang dapat membandingkan beberapa bisnis yang berbeda-beda yang ada dalam korporasi.

49 49 Alasan dibalik Evolusi Muncul banyak matriks GE industry attractiveness/business position BCG growth/share Kenyataannya tidak mudah mengelola balanced portfolios. Memang beberapa bisnis yg ada memenuhi kriteria ekonomi Tetapi, bisnis2 tersebut tidak dengan mudah fit dengan corporate family.

50 50 Alasan dibalik Evolusi Jadi, kesimpulan yang diambil adalah selama ini diversifikasi sudah ‘kebablasan’, terbukti dengan banyaknya masalah pada korporasi-korporasi tersebut. Solusi? Konsep kesuksesan korporasi berbasis core business (atau stick to knitting). Lihat buku In search of excellence Korporasi yang sukses tidak diversifikasi seluas-luasnya Fokus memperbaiki knowledge and skills pada area yang secara terbaik mereka kuasai

51 51 Alasan dibalik Evolusi Gelombang selanjutnya adalah upaya corporate restructuring. Back to core business Tugas manager adalah mengidentifikasi bisnis yang seharusnya ada dalam core portfolio dan mencari cara bagaimana bisnis2 tersebut menambah nilai.

52 52 Alasan dibalik Evolusi Ringkasnya: Diversifikasi harus dibatasi (bisnis yang menciptakan sinergi saja) Korporat harus berfokus mengeksploitasi core competence pada berbagai bisnis Kesuksesan diversifikasi tergantung pada pembangunan portfolio bisnis yang fit dengan managerial logic manajerial eksekutif puncak dan gaya manajemennya.

53 53 Alasan dibalik Evolusi Sinergi, salah satunya muncul karena exploitasi unique skills dan capabilities (atau dengan kata lain melalui pembangunan core competence). Managerial logic didefinisikan sebagai cara manajer mengkonsepkan bisnis dan membuat keputusan kritikal dalam mengalokasi sumberdaya.

54 54 Artikel#3: To Diversify or Not To Diversify Diversify Rewards dan risks yang luar biasa besar There is little conventional wisdom to guide managers Reduce the gamble by answering these 6 questions

55 55 Question#1 Apa yang membuat perush lebih baik dibanding pesaing di pasar sekarang? Identifikasi kekuatan kompetitif yg unik dan kokoh sebelum diaplikasikan di lain tempat (strategic assets) Identifikasi strategic assets berbasis pendekatan market-driven

56 56 Question#2 Strategic assets apa yg diperlukan untuk sukses di pasar yg baru? Asumsi yg salah (memiliki beberapa SA saja). Yg diperlukan adalah memiliki semua SA. Upaya Coca-Cola mengakuisis bisnis anggur 90% SA dikuasai (knowledge of consumers, distribution, marketing & branding), tetapi 10% SA tak dikuasai (the ability to make quality wine) BP dan Exxon gagal di mineral business yg mensyaratkan low-cost extraction capabilities dan access to deposits.

57 57 Question#3 Dapatkah kita mengejar atau melampau pesaing melalui area permainan mereka? Jika kita tdk memiliki 1 atau beberapa faktor kritis untuk sukses di pasar yg baru, dapatkah kita membelinya, mengembangkannya, atau membuatnya tidak penting dgn merubah aturan kompetitif industri? Dapatkah kita dapatkan dgn biaya yg masuk akal? The Walt Disney ekspansi ke theme parks, live entertainment, cruise lines, resorts, TV broadcasting dan retailing dgn cara membeli dan membangin SA seiring waktu. Canon menggunakan cara yg berbeda dalam bisnis fotocopy (dealer management, small and midsize businesses as target market, focusing on price and quality and not speed)

58 58 Question#4 Apakah diversifikasi akan menceraiberaikan SA yg harus dijaga keutuhannya? Apakah SA yg akan di ekspor ke pasar yg baru memang transportable? Apakah unbundling competencies tidak berisiko? Lingkungan yang kondusif harus diciptakan jika SA harus di pisahkan, di kombinasi kembali dan di relokasi lagi. SMH masuk ke Swatch

59 59 Question#5 Akankah kita sebagai pemain saja atau pemenang dalam pasar yg baru? Untuk mencapai keunggulan yg sustainable, perush harus menciptakan sesuatu yg unik Market leadership tercapai jika: SA yg dimiliki jarang (rare) SA yg dimiliki susah untuk diimitasi SA yg dimiliki susah untuk disubstitusi

60 60 Question#6 Apakah perush belajar dr diversifikasi dan apakah perush cukup terorganisasi mempelajarinya? Forward-thinking managers Memfasilitasi upaya masuk ke pasar baru yang ke-3 dan seterusnya dengan lebih cepat dan lebih murah

61 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 | 61 Sony’s Web of Corporate-Level Strategy Figure 10.6


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