1APLIKASI KOGNITIF SAINS (APPLIED COGNITIVE SCIENCE) KOGNITIF SAINS : Suatu bidang baru yang bersifat interdisiplinerCognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence, embracing philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology.Lahir pertengahan th karena adanya pertanyaan yang sama diantara para ahli dibidang psikologi kognitif, komputer, liguistik, filsafat, syaraf (neurolog), dan antropologi. Pertanyaan tersebut adalahBAGAIMANA ALAM BERFIKIR MANUSIA?( how is the nature of the human mind?)“… seeks to understand perceiving, thinking, remembering, understanding language, learning, and other mental phenomena.”“… a basic science it seeks to discover highly general and explanatory fundamental principles of information processing.”
2Usaha untuk memahami kerja dari alam berfikir manusia sudah dimulai sejak zaman Yunani: Plato dan Aritoteles the nature of human knowledgeFILSAFATAbad –19 W.Wundt Laboratorium untuk mempelajari mental operationsPsikologi EksperimenJ.B. Watson: meninjau dari hubungan S -- R BehaviorismTIDAK menerima aspek kesadaran (consciousness) dan representasi mental
3Information Processing Theory Teknologi komputer dikenal short term dan long term memoryTahun 1956 George MillerInformation Processing TheoryJohn Mc.Carthy, Marvin Minsky,Allen Newell, dan Herbert SimonArtificialIntelligentTeknologi komputer dikenalNaom Chomski LinguistBAPAK COGNITIVE SCIENCE
4Kognitif sains melihat alam berfikir manusia itu sebagai sesuatu yang kompleks yang melakukan perilaku menerima (receives), menyimpan (stores), menarik (retrieves), men-transformasi (transforms), dan men-transmisi (transmits) informasi.
5INFORMASIInformasi dan proses pengolahan informasi itu dapat dipelajari pola maupun bentuk manupulasi dari pola tersebut.65 simbolX 32 sejumlah aturan (rules)130 algorithm atau formal procedures1952080Dengan diketahui rules atau algorithmnya maka dapat diketahui bagaimana informasi itu di proses.“Simbol” dan “formal proses” diatas merupakan representasi dari sesuatu yang mempunyai arti di dunia nyata.Beda “informasi” dengan “data”…….”garbage in garbage out” (GIGO)
6KETERPADUAN KULIAH INI Hasil dari masing-masing bidang ilmu akan menjadi semacam input untuk bidang ilmu lain sehingga akan membantu untuk lebih mengerti alam berfikir manusia itu (the nature of the human mind)Misalnya temuan di bidang psikologi kognitif seperti persepsi, memori, proses pengolahan informasi, proses pengmabilan keputusan merupakan input yang berharga bagi ilmu komputer, khususnya dibidang AI (expert system).KULIAH INIAkan membahas isu-isu di bidang Psikologi Kognitif yang sebenarnya merupakan titik temu (overlapping areas) dengan bidang Ilmu Komputer.Artinya isu-isu apa saja atau hasil studi apa saja di bidang Psikologi Kognitif yang harus diketahui oleh para ahli di bidang Ilmu Komputer agar mereka dapat menghasilkan suatu produk teknologi yang cocok dan berguna bagi manusia.
7APLIKASIHuman Information Processing vs. Machine Information ProcessingSistem pengambilan keputusan pada manusia vs. DSS (Decision Support System)Cara berfikir seorang pakar vs. Expert systemCara bekerja para manager vs. MIS (Management Information System)Proses belajar manusia vs. CAI/CAL/CMC
9Biographical SketchJean Piaget, lahir di Neuchatel, Switzerland thn. 1896Minat di masa remaja (10 th): mechanics, seashells, birds, & fossils
10Konflik di masa remaja : agama vs. Scientific teaching …… Konflik di masa remaja : agama vs. Scientific teaching ……. > baca buku2 Bergson, , Kant, Spencer, Durkheim dll……> menulis di bid. filsafat
11Ph.D. di bid moluska (kerang), usia 21 th. Bekerja dgn Theodore Simon dlm Binet’s Laboratory …. Mulai tertarik dgn How children think.Terbit lima buku: The Language and Thought of the Child (27 th),Judgement and Reasoning in the Child (28 th), The Child’s Conception of the World (30 th), the Child’s Conception of the Physical Causality (31 th), Moral Judgement of the Child (32 th).
12Dikenal sebagai child psychologist tanpa pendidikan formal. Mulai mengobservasi anaknya …… sample utama dari teorinya.
13Genetic EpistemologyGE adalah cabang dari filsafat yg mempelajari knowledge“…the problem of the relation between the acting or thinking subjects and objects of his experience” Genetic refers not to what is innate, …, but to the “development” or “emergence”
14Piaget:How do we come to know something?Is objective knowledge unbiased by the nature of the knower, even possible?Are there certain innate ideas, or must all knowledge be acquired?Cara:By studying developmental changes in the process of knowing and in the organization of knowledge.Pendekatan: perkawinan antara filsafat & scientific method of logic and fact.Menolak armchair approach (filsafat) …. Dikenal experimental epistemologist
15TEMUAN… knowledge is a process rather than a state. It is an event or a relationship between the knower and the known.… people construct knowledge. They have an active part in the process of knowing and even contribute to the form that knowledge takes place.Cognitive humans actively select and interpret information in the environment. They do not passively soak up information to build a storehouse of knowledge.Children’s knowledge of the world changes as their cognitive system develops. As the knower changes, so does the known.
16Asimillasi (assimilation) Akomodasi (accomodation) Perkembangan dari satu tahap ke tahap lain di tentukan oleh kognitif proses yaitu:Asimilasi & AkomodasiAdaptasi (adaptation)Asimillasi (assimilation)“ … the way in which a child transforms new information so that it makes sense within their existing knowledge base. That is, a child tries to understand new knowledge in terms of their existing knowledge.”Akomodasi (accomodation)“ … a child changes his or her cognitive structure in an attempt to understand new information. E.g. the child learns to grasp a new object in a different way, or learns that the new object should not be sucked. In that way, the child has adapted his or her way of thinking to a new experience.”
17SCHEMA Apa yang berubah? ADAPTASI EQUILIBIUM “an organized pattern of behavior, it reflects a particular way of interacting with environment”JADI: Proses kognitif asimilasi & akomodasi menyebabkanterjadinya proses perkembanganADAPTASIEQUILIBIUM
18Tahapan (stages) Sensorimotor Period (birth to 2 years) “… a child's cognitive system is limited to motor reflexes at birth, but the child builds on these reflexes to develop more sophisticated procedures. They learn to generalize their activities to a wider range of situations and coordinate them into increasingly lengthy chains of behavior.”Pre-Operational Thought (2 to 6/7 years)“ … children acquire representational skills in the areas mental imagery, and especially language. They are very self-oriented, and have an egocentric view; that is, preoperational children can use these representational skills only to view the world from their own perspective”
19Concrete Operations (6/7 to 11/12 years) “ … children in the concrete operations stage are able to take another's point of view and take into account more than one perspective simultaneously. They can also represent transformations as well as static situations. Although they can understand concrete problems, Piaget would argue that they cannot yet perform on abstract problems, and that they do not consider all of the logically possible outcomes.”Formal Operations (11/12 to adult)“Children who attain the formal operation stage are capable of thinking logically and abstractly. They can also reason theoretically. Piaget considered this the ultimate stage of development, and stated that although the children would still have to revise their knowledge base, their way of thinking was as powerful as it would get.”
20Karakteristik Tahapan A stage is a structured whole in a state of equilibriumEach stage derives from the previous stage, incorporates and transforms that stage, and prepare for the next one.The stages follow an invariant sequenceStages are universalEach stage includes a coming-into-being and a being
21(HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION) HCI(HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION)Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. It is an interdisciplinary subject, relating computer science with many other fields of study and research. Interaction between users and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply interface), which includes both hardware (i.e. peripherals and other hardware) and software (for example determining which, and how, information is presented to the user on a screen).
22ASPEK DAN TUJUAN A. ASPEK INTERDISIPLINER B. TUJUAN Aesthetic, Antropology, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive science, Design,Ergonomics, Human factors, Library and Information Sciences, Psychology, Social psychology dan SociologyB. TUJUANA basic goal of HCI is to improve interaction between user and computers, by making computers more user-friendly and easier to use. More broadly, HCI is also concerned withmethodologies and processes for designing interfacestechniques for evaluating and comparing interfacesdeveloping new interfaces and interaction techniquesdeveloping descriptive and predictive models and theories of interactionA long term goal of HCI is to design computers that can be exploited to their fullest potential as instruments that enhance human creativity, liberate the human mind, and improve communication and cooperation between humans (see CSCW).
23USER COMPUTER USER FRIENDLY A user in computing context is one who uses a computer system. To use it, they have an account, and a user name, and peruse the user interface.COMPUTERA computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computers are made from components that perform simple well-defined functions. The complex interactions of these components endow computers with the ability to process information. If correctly configured (usually by programming) a computer can be made to represent some aspect of a problem or part of a system.USER FRIENDLYUsability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. Usability can also refer to the methods of measuring usability and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance.
24Usability is the degree to which the design of a particular user interface takes into account the human psychology and physiology of the users, and makes the process of using the system effective, efficient and satisfying.Kaitan dengana. mental model,b. human action cycle,c. usability testingMENTAL MODELA mental model is an explanation in someone's thought process for how something works in the real world. It is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesised to play a major part in cognition.
25The human action cycle is a psychological model which describes the steps humans take when they interact with computer systemsThe three stages of the human action cycle (goal formation, execution and evaluation). The model is divided into three stages of seven steps in total, and is (approximately) as follows:Goal formation stage1. Goal formation.Execution stage2. Translation of goals into a set of (unordered) tasks required to achieve the goal.3. Sequencing the tasks to create the action sequence.4. Executing the action sequence.Evaluation stage5. Perceiving the results after having executed the action sequence.6. Interpreting the actual outcomes based on the expected outcomes.7. Comparing what happened with what the user wished to happen.
26USABILITY TESTINGTime on Task -- How long does it take people to complete basic tasks? (Forexample, find something to buy, create a new account, and order the item.)Accuracy -- How many mistakes did people make? (And were they fatal orrecoverable with the right information?)Recall -- How much does the person remember afterwards?Emotional Response -- How does the person feel about the taskscompleted? (Confident? Stressed? Would the user recommend this system toa friend?)
27KAITAN DGN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN Aesthetic, Antropology, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive science, Design, Ergonomics, Human factors, Library and Information Sciences, Psychology, Social psychology dan SociologyModern AI is concerned with producing useful machines to automate humantasks requiring intelligent behavior.Cognitive Science is the scientific study of the mind and brain and how theygive rise to behavior.Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned withthe understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of asystem, and contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products,environments and systems in order to make them compatible with theneeds, abilities and limitations of people (IEA, 2000).Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that includehuman performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. Itis a profession that focuses on how people interact with products, tools,procedures, & any processes likely to be encountered in the modern world.
28TERMINOLOGYHCI vs CHI. The acronym CHI (pronounced kai), for computer-human interaction, now refer to their field of study as HCI (pronounced as an initialism), which perhaps rose in popularity partly because of the notion that the human, and the human's needs and time, should be considered first, and are more important than the machine's. The field of human-centered computing has emerged as an even more pronounced focus on understanding human beings as actors within socio-technical systems.Usability vs Usefulness. Design methodologies in HCI aim to create user interfaces that are usable, i.e. that can be operated with ease and efficiency. However, an even more basic requirement is that the user interface be useful, i.e. that it allow the user to complete relevant tasks.Intuitive and Natural. Software products are often touted by marketeers as being "intuitive" and "natural" to use, often simply because they have a graphical user interface.Data Density and Information Absorption. The rapid growth in the density of computer screen real estate has created an opportunity to accelerate "information absorption" to much higher levels. Interfaces such as virtual reality will give further growth the potential density of information presented.
29USER INTERFACEThe user interface is the aggregate of means by which people (the users) interact with a particular machine, device, computer program or other complex tool (the system). The user interface provides means of:A. Input, allowing the users to control the systemB Output, allowing the system to inform the users (also referredto as feedback)
30CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperation Work) The term computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) "how collaborative activities and their coordination can be supported by means of computer systems."Groupware are synonyms. Ellis (1993) defines groupware as "computer-based systems that support groups of people engaged in a common task (or goal) and that provide an interface to a shared environment." On the other hand, different authors claim that while groupware refers to real computer-based systems, CSCW focuses on the study of tools and techniques of groupware as well as their psychological, social, and organizational effects.CSCW Support different time and place. == A lot of confusion in the field of CSCW raises from the different interpretations of the terms collaboration and cooperation.The concept of cooperation is often used in relation to the concepts of coordination and communication.Examples : Videoconferencing, Messaging (Instant messaging, )
31Untuk mewujudkan konsepsi komputer sebagai pengolah data untuk menghasilkan suatu informasi, maka diperlukan sistem komputer (computer system) yang elemennya terdiri dari hardware, software dan brainware. Ketiga elemen sistem komputer tersebut harus saling berhubungan dan membentuk kesatuan. Hardware tidak akan berfungsi apabila tanpa software, demikian juga sebaliknya. Dan keduanya tiada bermanfaat apabila tidak ada manusia (brainware) yang mengoperasikan dan mengendalikannya.A. Hardware atau Perangkat Keras: peralatan yang secarafisik terlihat dan bisa djamah.B. Software atau Perangkat Lunak: program yang berisiinstruksi/perintah untuk melakukan pengolahan data.C. Brainware: manusia yang mengoperasikan danmengendalikan sistem komputer
32IKON SEBAGAI ANTARMUKA MANUSIA KOMPUTER Ikon (Yunani)= image/gambar/simbol yang merepresentasikan suatu objek-> baru kemudian berkembang menjadi tulisanDalam HCI, ikon dimaksudkan sebagai IMAGE atau SIMBOL YANGMEREPRESENTASIKAN SUATU OPERASI/PERINTAHa. Ikon Piktorial untuk merepresentasikan informasi operasisemantik dan abstrak dengan gambarb. Ikon Simbol untuk merepresentasikan informasi operasisemantik dengan beberapa karakter
33Pertimbangan dalam menciptakan ikon KETERGANTUNGAN KULTUR/BUDAYA dan APLIKASI, gunakan simbol alami sesuai latarbelakang budayaBENTUK MUDAH DIKENAL (easy recognition), makna yang tepat akan membantu mengingat dan mengidentifikasi ikonBERBEDA DGN IKON LAIN DALAM 1 SISTEM, mudah dibedakan dan memiliki ciri yang khas dalam merefleksi-kan makna dari objek yang direpresentasikanKEUNTUNGAN DIGUNAKAN IKON SEBAGAI ANTARMUKAOperasi akan lebih cepat daripada menuliskan kata-kata perintahUntuk memahami arti semantik suatu ikon akan lebih cepatPerinath-perintah atau operasi dengan ikon dapat dilakukan secara simultan