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WRITING II Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence Compound Complex Sentence.

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Presentasi berjudul: "WRITING II Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence Compound Complex Sentence."— Transcript presentasi:

1 WRITING II Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence Compound Complex Sentence

2 Simple Sentence A simple sentence consists of one main clause. Sentences can be divided into four types: 1. Statement E.g I like ice-cream.Michael doesn’t like candy 2. Question E.g Do you like candy? Who likes candy? You like ice cream? 3. Imperative E.g Come here. Don’t sit there, please. 4. Exclamation E.gHow wonderful day it is!How wonderful A simple sentence generally has a subject and verb. We usually omit the subject in imperative and exclamation.

3 Simple Sentence Simple sentence (kalimat sederhana), juga disebut independent clause, adalah kalimat yang memiliki satu subject dan satu verb (predicate), dan sudah dapat mengekspresikan suatu kejadian/aktivitas secara utuh. Kalimat yang menggunakan subject majemuk (seperti pada contoh 2) atau verb majemuk (seperti pada contoh 3) juga dikatagorikan sebagai kalimat sederhana. Contoh: I am going to study Japanese next year. Jenny and Joni went to the shopping mall last night. Ronny goes to the library and reads everyday. Note: Contoh 2 memiliki subject majemuk yaitu Jenny dan Joni, sedangkan Contoh 3 memiliki verb majemuk yaitu goes dan reads.

4 Compound sentences Compound sentence (kalimat majemuk) adalah kalimat yang mengandung sekurang-kurangnya dua independent clause yang dihubungkan oleh coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, atau semicolon (i.e. ; ). Contoh: 1)Some of the campers went into the woods to find dry tree branches for cooking, and the others built the tents. 2)Rini and Rere are chitchatting by the door, John is reading his book, Dodo is flattering Angelina on the class corner, but Didit is sleeping on his desk. (chitchat = ngobrol, flatter = merayu). 3)I had nothing to do last night, so I went out to see a movie by myself. (by myself = alone = sendirian, tanpa teman). 4)Neither my parents nor I heard of my cousin’s accident. (Baik orang tua saya maupun saya tidak mendengar tentang kecelakaan (yang dialami) sepupu saya). 5)My parents went to Puncak for their vacation; my brother and I went to Bali for ours. Note: Kalimat ini mengandung dua independent clause yang dihubungkan oleh semicolon. Penggunaan semicolon merupakan alternatif untuk menggabungkan independent clause tanpa menggunakan conjunction. Kalimat ini juga dapat ditulis menjadi: My parents went to Puncak for their vacation, but my brother and I went to Bali for ours. (i.e. semicolon diganti dengan tanda koma dan coordinating conjunction but).

5 Complex sentences Complex sentence (kalimat kompleks) adalah kalimat yang memiliki satu main clause/independent clause dan sekurang-kurangnya satu anak kalimat/dependent clause (subordinating clause). Anak kalimat biasanya berupa adverbial clause (i.e. clause yang diawali oleh subordinating conjunction (i.e. although, because, ect.) atau berupa adjective clause (i.e. clause yang diawali oleh relative pronoun (i.e. who, that, which, ect.). Pada kalimat kompleks, jika kalimat pokoknya (main clause) dihilangkan, anak kalimat akan memiliki makna yang belum lengkap. Contoh: 1)Because I didn’t go to school last week, I didn’t know (that) there would be an exam today. 2)I was studying English when my friend came. 3)Besides we have to study grammar, we also must know how to speak fluently. 4)I have received the letter that you sent me last week. 5)My dad bought this book, which is a hundred pages long, in Jakarta. 6)The person whom you met yesterday is my sister. ( 7)Because she is a nice person, she has many friends who are willing to help her.

6 Compound-complex sentences Jika sebuah kalimat mengandung sekurang- kurangnya dua independent clause dan sekurang- kurangnya satu dependent clause, kalimat tersebut disebut compound-complex sentence. Please try to make at least 3 compound-complex sentences! Contoh: Those are my principles, and if you don't like them I have the others.

7 Conjunctions Ada 7 coordinating conjunctions yaitu: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS). Paired conjunctions/Correlative conjunctions yaitu: both…and, either…or not only…but also neither…nor. Subordinating conjuctions – Waktu: after (setelah) till (hingga/sampai) the first time (pertama kali) before (sebelum) as soon as (segera setelah) the second time (kedua kali) when (ketika) once (segera setelah) the last time (terakhir kali) while (sementara) as long as (sepanjang) the next time (kali berikut) as (sementara) so long as (sepanjang) by the time since (sejak) whenever (setiap kali) until (hingga/sampai) every time (setiap kali) – Sebab-akibat: because (karena) inasmuch as (karena) so…that (sehingga) since (karena) now that (karena sekarang) such …that (sehingga) as (karena) – makna yang berlawanan: although (walaupun) even though (walaupun) while (sedangkan) though (walaupun) whereas (sedangkan) no matter (tidak memandang) – Tujuan: in order to (agar) in order (that) (agar) so that (agar) (Note: a) in order to diikuti oleh verbs, sedangkan in order (that) dan so that diikuti oleh clause (i.e. S +V). b). Arti so that di sini berbeda dengan so that untuk menyatakan sebab akibat. Perhatikan juga perbedaan polanya. -Pengandaian : if (jika) whether or not in case (that) (jika) unless (jika tidak) even if (walaupun jika) providing (that) = if or only if only if (hanya jika) in the event (that) provided (that) = if or only if Jika only if diletakkan di awal kalimat, maka dilakukan inversi auxiliary/be/do,does,did) ke depan subject main clause. Kalimat ini dapat ditulis menjadi: Only if no candidate gets 50% + 1 votes will the general election go to the second round.

8 More Explanation Gunakan koma sebelum conjunction jika conjunction tersebut menggabungkan dua kalimat. Koma juga digunakan jika conjunctions menggabungkan lebih dari 2 kata atau phrase. Contoh: We studied math, physics, and chemistry last semester. For juga berfungsi sebagai preposition. Sebagai preposisiton, for diikuti oleh noun. Contoh: I am waiting for a cab. (i.e. cab = taxi) Yet juga berfungsi sebagai adverb. Contoh: I haven’t finished reading this article yet. Lihat penggunaan adverb yet pada pembahasan tentang present perfect tense.present perfect tense So = as jika diikuti oleh adjective/adverb. Lihat penggunaannya pada pembahasan tentang comparisons.comparisons

9 HOWEVER = NO MATTER HOW. He will never love me however hard I try = He will never love me no matter how hard I try. (Dia tidak akan pernah mencintaiku walau sekeras apapun aku berusaha). Penggunaan “HOWEVER” sebagai conjunction tidak begitu sering digunakan. Bule lebih sering menggunakan No matter how. Dan, mungkin karena alasan ini saya kelupaan menjelaskan penggunaan HOWEVER di posting ini. Sorry. Yang sering digunakan adalah HOWEVER sebagai adverb. Di sini, HOWEVER = namun demikian; walaupun demikian; biarpun begitu; akan tetapi. My name’s Swara Bhaskara; However, you can call me by whatever you feel comfortable. The exam was very difficult. I, however, managed to get an A on that test.

10 PENGGUNAAN WHETHER Whether = if = apakah. Whether biasanya dipasangankan dengan OR NOT. Namun demikian, OR NOT- nya juga dapat dihilangkan dan maknanya tetap sama. Pola penggunaan whether adalah: A. WHETHER OR NOT + S2 + VERB +…, S1 + VERB + … NOTE: 1. Whether dapat ditempatkan di awal kalimat. 2. OR NOT dapat langsung mengikuti whether, dapat diletakkan di akhir clause, dan seperti dibilang tadi, dapat dihilangkan. Contoh: 1. Whether or not Adi has done his homework, I don’t know. 2. Whether Adi has done his homework or not, I don’t know. 3. Whether Adi has done his homework, I don’t know. 4. I don’t know whether or not Adi has done his homework. 5. I don’t know whether Adi has done his homework or not. 6. I don’t know whether Adi has done his homework. Ke-6 kalimat di atas bermakna sama, yaitu: “Apakah Adi telah mengerjakan PR-nya atau belum, aku tidak tahu“. B. Adakah bentuk negatif-nya? WHETHER clause ini sudah mengandung bentuk positif (ke-6 contoh di atas) dan bentuk negatif (karena adanya phrase OR NOT). Kalau dituliskan dalam bentuk negatif, whether clause ini akan memiliki dua NOT. Ini harus dihindari karena bahasa Inggris tidak suka dengan double negatives. Whether or not Adi has NOT done his homework, I don’t know. INCORRECT. C. Bolehkah digunakan dalam embedded question? Ya boleh. BUT REMEMBER: jangan menginversi auxiliary ke depan subject. 1. Do you know whether or not Adi has done his homework? 2. Do you know whether Adi has done his homework or not ? 3. Do you know whether Adi has done his homework?

11 Source Bhaskara, Swara “Compound-Complex Sentences”. compound-complex-sentences/. (Diakses tanggal 5 Maret 2012) Nordquist, Richard. “Simple Sentence”. (Diakses tanggal 5 maret 2012)


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