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Religion & Politics.  Similarities  Belief in one God (monotheism)  All 3 trace their roots to Abraham  Palestine is the holy land  Social Justice.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Religion & Politics.  Similarities  Belief in one God (monotheism)  All 3 trace their roots to Abraham  Palestine is the holy land  Social Justice."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Religion & Politics

2  Similarities  Belief in one God (monotheism)  All 3 trace their roots to Abraham  Palestine is the holy land  Social Justice is key part of all 3 religions

3  Pentateuch / Torah  1 st 5 books of the Old Testament  Talmud – collected decisions of the rabbis  Forgiveness of sins depends on one’s willingness to repent and do good deeds  Orthodox vs Reform  Zionism – Jewish homeland  Theodor Herzl: Der Judenstaat  West created after WWII to ensure a safe haven for Jews after the Holocaust (part a long history of anti- Semitism in Europe)

4  Belief that Jesus was the son of God differentiates it from Judaism  Jews do not believe he was the Messiah prophesized in the Old Testament  Tensions between Christians & the other major religions  Crusades –for 300 years, Christians tried to wrest control of the holy land from the Muslims  Brutal treatment of both Muslims & Jews  Holy Warriors: Richard & Saladin  Inquisition– tortured Jews to get them to convert  Holocaust – Hitler’s determination to wipe out Jews

5  622 C.E. (common era) is Muslim year 1  Koran is the Holy book of Islam  Like other two, stresses the importance of social justice  Key tenet: unity of God (rejects the Trinity)  Muhammad received revelations from the Angel Gabriel  Abraham, Jesus & Muhammad were prophets  Jews & Christians are also “people of the book”

6  Unlike Christianity,there has not been a Muslim reformation  Manji argues that Islam has actually regressed  Women used to play a larger role in Muslim society  ijtihad –lost tradition of independent thinking  Unlike Judaism & Christianity, only in Islam is literalism “mainstream”  Islam needs to deal with treatment of women & minorities (such as Jews)

7  European colonial domination began to ebb by the 20 th century  led to a rise of nationalism of Jews & Arabs  Palestine is the “twice promised land”  Promised to both Arabs & Jews  Arabs refused to recognize Israel (which was created by European powers) & attacked  Israel won independence & 1967 war conquered West Bank & Gaza Strip  Egypt, Jordan & Turkey have decent relations now For more on Palestine, go to

8  Dreyfus affair illustrated anti-Semitism in France  Jewish Nationalism was originally not about religion, but ethnicity  Balfour declaration – promised the creation of Jewish state in Palestine Balfour declaration  Arab Nationalism was also originally about self-determination, not religion  Emir Faisal accepted the Balfour declaration, but only paired with Arab independence, which was reneged upon by the British  “the fact that the leader of the Arab nationalist movement and the Zionist movement could reach an understanding is significant because it demonstrated that Jewish and Arab aspirations were not necessarily mutually exclusive.“ from

9  Parliamentary democracy  Israeli Arabs can vote, but discrimination is getting worse  Palestinians in the West Bank & Gaza cannot vote  Likud (hard-line party) currently dominates  Minor parties play an important role  Settlements & the Palestinian issue  Undivided Jerusalem?  Al Aqsa incident  Israel is a modern, mostly democratic country  Settling the Palestinian issue is most important for getting Israel’s economy back on track

10  dictatorship since Sadats 1981 assassination  Stable only b/c of repression  Mubarak has never ended the state-of-emergency  Islamic fundamentalism is a major problem  esp. since Egypt signed 1979 peace treaty with Israel  July 2000, Egypt’s High Constitutional Court ruled that judges must oversee elections  Go here for more info on Islam in the Middle East _the_world/html/middle_east_sa.stm

11  Sharia is foundation of Iranian law  Struggle between reformers & fundamentalists  1997 : Khatami (reformer) won elections, but wasn’t able to get laws through  Council of Guardians—religious leaders that oversee the government  2004 : reformers boycotted elections after hardliners blocked many of their candidates from running  551.stm 551.stm

12  Ataturk – westernized (secularized) Turkey  democratic, but some human rights issues  Kurds  Why was Turkey so opposed to US invasion of Iraq?  Recep Erdogan (Muslim “Justice & Devel Party”) won 2002 election  34% of the vote; got 363 of 550 seats, but has not made any radical changes  in the past, the military has often stepped in when Turkey moved away from secularism

13  Saudi family dynasty  King Faud suffered a stroke in 1995, so Crown Prince Abdullah runs the show  Rigidly traditional political & social system  Wahhabi interpretation of Islam (strict)  Therefore, no need for a constitution  Mistreatment of women & minorities  Dependence on oil revenues keeps its economy overly linked to oil prices  “reverse oil crisis” in the 1980s caused a drop in oil revenues by ½  Made huge profits during Iran-Iraq war  Dependent on US for protection  ironically, US support for Saudi Arabia’s corrupt regime is one reason for Bin Laden’s anger at the US

14  Jerusalem is holy to the three largest monotheistic religions in the world: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Many of the holiest places of Christianity are found in present-day Israel. Christianity spread out towards Western Europe where the majority of Christians lived by the Middle Ages.  Islam flourished in the Middle East in the 800’s and Arabic became the official language of this region.  Except for the Crusades, the Middle East has been dominated by Muslims for almost 1400 years.  WWII: Jewish claims to the region, especially the land of Palestine; the creation of the State of Israel has brought religious tension to the region and the continuous fight over who rightfully owns the land.

15  Dominance over the region has shifted from one religious affiliation to another over the years, bringing battles both political and religious that continue to this day.

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17 Basis sosial masyarakat kawasan timur tengah dapat di identifikasi melalui pola budayanya yang dapat tercermin dari : 1. Tradisi kesukuan, 2. agama, 3. ke-arab-an, dan 4. nasionalisme.

18 Basis sosial masyarakat di Timur Tengah pada umumnya bertumpu pada kenyataan sebagai masyarakat kesukuan ( Tribal Society ) dan budayanya berpola kepada kesukuan.  datang dan dibangun oleh suku- suku pengembara ( Nomadic Tribe ). Karakteristik : mobil dan agresif, sikap alami adalah kegelisahan, ekonomi berpusat kepada peternakan dan bercocok tanam kecil-kecilan, keberagamaan yang shaleh dan puritan, melahirkan corak perfeksionisme regilius dan moral.

19  Penemuan dan penambangan ladang-ladang minyak warga pribumi merangkak sejahtera dan mengalami transformasi modern dari kehidupan tradisional menuju formalitas modern lebih maju  Masih terciptanya hubungan Patron Client antara penguasa dengan beberapa suku

20 Kawasan timur tengah merupakan kawasan yang memeluk agama samawi Hampir 90 % negara-negara di Timur Tengah memeluk agama islam, masih ada kesadaran terhadap nilai-nilai islam yang terefleksi kepada sistem dan konstitusi negara, sedangkan 10% merupakan pemeluk nasrani Pemikiran islam yng terbagi kepada pemikiran Sunni, Syiah, wahabi, dll

21 Perbedaan paham antara sunni, syiah dan wahabianisme tetap mengakar kepada garis sejarah dan perkembangan masyarakat arab, walaupun secara gradual mereka tetap memiliki kesadaran secara kolektif sebagai bangsa dan kesetiaan pada negara. Perbedaan paham ini bisa diamati pada ke-khasan cara hidup yang di anut, pandangan hidup dan tata nilai yang diikuti secara hirarki kekuasaan intern yang ditaati : nampak pada sistem kepercayaan dan ritual masing –masing paham atau mazhab tadi

22 Perbedaan paham akan semakin dipertajam, bila masing-masing kelompok menggalakkan dan mengintensifkan perbedaan-perbedaannya yang dapat melahirkan konflik yang tajam. Lahirnya sekterian-sekterian internal mazhab, perkawinan endogami dalam satu sekte yang semua digunakan untuk melestarikan tradisi dan subkultur aliran keagamaannya masing- masing. Lahirnya rezim-rezim yang berangkat dari kekuasaan mazhab kepada wilayah-wilayah mereka

23 Dalam hal ini nasionalisme arab dapat dikatakan sebagai kategori kesatuan masyarakat –bangsa yang dikatakan oleh Hans Kohn ( the idea of nationalism ) dalam bentuk State of mind and act of conciousness atau adanya kesadaran kepada seluruh organ masyarakat yang pluralistik untuk kemudian bisa bersatu padu saling menjalin persatuan dan kesatuan untuk mencapai tujuan bersama.

24 Intrumen yang digunakan adalah negara dan kemudian melembagakan bangsa. Secara sederhana, nasionalisme arab merupakan reaksi dari sekurang-kurangnya dua hal; 1. Tantangan penjajahan Barat terhadap tanah Arab, 2. tantangan Zionisme Yahudi. Hal diatas memunculkan nasionalisme arab dimulai dari usaha-usaha dari yang moderat, seperti menyatukan visi dan wawasan politik, ekonomi dan kebudayaan mengatasi batas-batas negara dan kebangsaan yang sempit sampai pada ekstrimisits yitu berupa peleburan negara menjadi 1 negara. -  pan arabisme oleh Gamal Abdul Nasser yang ingin membentuk Republik Persatuan Arab ( )

25 Saham orang Arab yang beragama Kristen sangat menonjol dalam mempopulerkan Nasionalisme Arab kepada masyarakat banyak. Ini adalah upaya untuk mengesampingkan Islam sebagai factor dominan dalam perpolitikan Arab dan menggantikannya dengan nasionalisme. Misalnya yang dilakukan oleh Partai Baath di Irak dan Syiria. filsafat ideologinya dibentuk oleh Michel Aflak, seorang yang berpendidikan guru dari kalangan Kristen Ortodok. Yang ditekankan oleh Aflak adalah kearaban yang telah dan selalu ada sepanjang sejarah, bukan keislaman yang datang kemudian.

26 Mengilhami peristiwa – peristiwa : tumbangnya kerajaan irak (1958), Kudeta di sudan (1959), revolusi di Yaman utara (1962), kudeta di syria (1963), kudeta di lybia (1969).


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